Misiones is one of the 23 provinces of Argentina, located in the northeastern corner of the country in the Mesopotamia region. It is surrounded by Paraguay to the northwest, Brazil to the north and south, Corrientes Province of Argentina to the southwest; this was an early area of Roman Catholic missionary activity by the Society of Jesus in what was called the Province of Paraguay, beginning in the early 17th century. In 1984 the ruins of four mission sites in Argentina were designated World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. Indigenous peoples of various cultures lived in the area of the future province for thousands of years. At the time of European encounter, it was occupied by the Kaingang and Xokleng followed by the Guarani; the first European to visit the region, Sebastian Cabot, discovered Apipé Falls while navigating the Paraná River in December 1527. In 1541 Álvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca reached the Iguazú Falls. In the 17th century, members of the Society of Jesus came to the region as missionaries.
They began to establish a string of Jesuit Reductions, most notably that of San Ignacio. In a few years they set up 30 mission villages, they crafts. Their crafts were sold and traded along the river and they shared in the Reductions' prosperity. In 1759 the Portuguese government, at the insistence of its anti-Jesuit Secretary of State, the Marquis de Pombal, ordered all Reductions closed in its territory; the Marquis prevailed in 1773 on Pope Clement XIV to have the Jesuit Order suppressed. With the abandoning of the missions, the prosperous trade surrounding these Reductions vanished. Colonists imposed a brutal plantation economy in the region, forcing the Guarani to act as slave labor. In 1814, Gervasio Posadas, the Director of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata, declared Misiones annexed to Argentina's Corrientes. Argentina did not exert de facto control over Misiones, claimed by several countries and governed itself. In 1830 Argentine military forces from Corrientes Province took control of Misiones.
In 1838 Paraguay occupied Misiones, claiming the area on the basis that the Misiones population consisted of indigenous Guarani, the major ethnic group of Paraguay. In 1865 Paraguayan forces invaded Misiones again in. Following the defeat of Paraguay and its peace agreement with Argentina, Paraguay gave up its claim to the Misiones territory. Although Argentina had claimed Misiones since 1814, academics tend to interpret Argentine possession of Misiones as beginning with the defeat of Paraguay in the War of the Triple Alliance. Bethell writes that "the treaty of alliance contained secret clauses providing for the annexation of disputed territory in northern Paraguay by Brazil and regions in the east and west of Paraguay by Argentina... After a long and harrowing war, Argentina got it from a prostrate Paraguay territory in Misiones." Scobie states that "the political status of Misiones remained vague" and that Argentina gained the region "as a by-product of the Paraguayan war in the 1860s". The War of the Triple Alliance left Paraguay much impoverished, Misiones benefited economically from belonging to Argentina.
In 1876 the Argentine President Nicolás Avellaneda, assisted by his close friend, General Pietro Canestro, proclaimed the Immigration and Colonization Law. This law fostered the immigration of European colonists in order to populate the vast unspoiled Argentinian territories. Several colonizing companies formed under this law. One of them, Adolf Schwelm's Eldorado Colonización y Explotación de Bosques Ltda. S. A. founded the city of Eldorado in 1919 with a port on the Upper Paraná. Its agricultural colonies and experimental farms, the orange- and grapefruit-tree plantations, the cultivation of yerba mate, the mills and the dryers for such product are characteristic of this area. Swedish-Argentines became well known for growing yerba mate. Misiones received many immigrants from Europe, coming via Southern Brazil; some came from Buenos Aires, from Eastern Europe, in particular large numbers of Poles and Ukrainians. Since Misiones has continued to benefit economically and has developed politically within Argentina.
It has been integrated into the Argentine state. As of 2016 control of the province is not contested. On December 10, 1953 the "National Territory of Misiones" gained provincial status in accordance with Law 14.294, its constitution was approved on April 21, 1958. Misiones received more attention from national policy-makers following an international agreement to construct the Yacyretá hydroelectric dam on a point in the Paraná River shared by Paraguay and Corrientes Province; when the dam became operative in the 1990s, the Paraná's waters all along the Misiones shores rose. They flooded lands that the dam's authorities had failed to clear and condition adequately, resulting in the onset of mosquito-transmitted illnesses, such as leishmaniasis, yellow fever and malaria; the entire Misiones shores along the Paraná River is now confined by two dams, one of them Yaciretá, downstream of the river, the other Itaipú, located in Brazil and Paraguay, upstream of the river and north of Puerto Iguazú.
As of 2016 Argentina is pursuing an agreement with Paraguay to
Posadas is the capital city of the Argentine province of Misiones, in its south, at the far north-east of the country on the left bank of the Paraná River, opposite Encarnación, Paraguay. The city has an area of 965 square kilometres and a population of 324,756, the Greater Posadas area has a population of over 351,000. Posadas is the provincial centre of the government and the economy. Furniture, food and construction are its most important industries. Other important economical activities are commerce and services. Posadas is connected to the Paraguayan city of Encarnación by the San Roque González de Santa Cruz Bridge; the port, once of great economical importance, is used for sport vessels, carrier of passengers and some boats for sand transport. The city is located on some 1,300 kilometres from Buenos Aires; the General José de San Martín Airport, at coordinates 27°22′S 55°58′W, is seven kilometres from the city, features regular flights to Buenos Aires. Father Roque González y de Santa Cruz established a town called Anunciación de Itapúa on March 25, 1615, but ten years the settlement was moved to the other side of the Paraná River to the present location of Encarnación, Paraguay.
The first settlement was not abandoned, a new San José reduction was settled there in 1628. In 1867, during the Paraguayan War, the Brazilians set up the Trinchera de San José military base there. Following the end of the war, Paraguay renounced all claims to the area, in 1879, the town was renamed after Gervasio Antonio de Posadas, the Supreme Director of the Argentine Confederation. On December 22, 1881, the limits of the Misiones Federation were drawn, leaving Posadas within the territory of current Corrientes Province. On July 30, 1884 the National Congress decided to give Posadas to Misiones Province, name it its capital; the National University of Misiones was established at Posadas in 1973, in 1990, the city's cultural and economic links to Encarnación were strengthened with the completion of the San Roque González de Santa Cruz Bridge. The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Posadas, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 57 min. 10% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day.
The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 16 min, while 26% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people ride in a single trip with public transit is 4.3 km, while 2% travel for over 12 km in a single direction. Posadas has a humid subtropical climate. Summers are hot and humid with lows around 21 °C, highs around 31.5 °C, daily mean 26.0 °C, frequent thunderstorms. Winters are warm with lows around 12 °C and highs around 22.5 °C, daily mean 17 °C. The highest temperature recorded was 42.1 °C and the coldest was −2.8 °C. José Acasuso, tennis player Alberto Mancini, tennis player Mariano Messera, soccer player Daniel Vancsik, golf player Danny Veron, dj producer musician Bergamo, Italy Municipality of Posadas - Official website. Municipal information: Municipal Affairs Federal Institute, Municipal Affairs Secretariat, Ministry of Interior, Argentina. Universidad Nacional de Misiones Posadas Information
Viedma, Río Negro
Viedma is the capital and fourth largest city of the Río Negro Province, in South-Central Argentina. The city has 47,246 inhabitants, is located on the southern margin of the Negro River, about 30 kilometres off the Atlantic Coast, 960 km from the city of Buenos Aires on the National Route 3. Together with Carmen de Patagones city across the river in the Buenos Aires Province, it is the oldest settlement in Patagonia, founded by Francisco de Viedma y Narváez under the name of Nuestra Señora del Carmen on 22 April 1779; the two cities were one, both called Carmen de Patagones. The original fort was built on the south side of the river in modern Viedma, but it was destroyed within a few years. A new fort was built in the current day Carmen de Patagones; this fort lasted much longer, the tower still stands today. The town grew here, expanded back across the river into modern day Viedma. At some point, the town decided to split with the Río Negro as their border. With the Conquest of the Desert, the city became the capital of all the Argentine Patagonia, when it was divided in further smaller territories, the capital of the Río Negro Territory.
Alvaro Barros, the first governor of Río Negro, changed the name of the city to Viedma, in 1879. During severe flooding in 1900, the capital of Río Negro was temporary moved to Choele Choel, but it was restored to Viedma. During the presidency of Raúl Alfonsín, a proposal was made to move the federal capital from Buenos Aires to Viedma in 1986; this was to reduce congestion in Buenos Aires, to help develop Patagonia, to promote the development of the interior. A bill to that effect was passed by Congress the following year, but owing to economic problems, the project had stagnated by the end of the Alfonsín administration in 1989; the main economical activities in the area of the Valle Inferior are cattle, as well as some agriculture with onion and alfalfa being the most important. However, Viedma is an administrative city, being the capital city of the province; the Gobernador Castello Airport serves flights to Buenos Aires, Neuquén, Puerto Madryn, Comodoro Rivadavia, Mar del Plata, other cities in Argentina.
It is located 6 km from the city, has an average annual traffic of 30,000 passengers. 30 km downstream from Viedma, on the Atlantic shore, the El Cóndor beach resort town is the most visited tourist beach in the area. The Servicios Ferroviarios Patagónico connect with San Carlos de Bariloche. Viedma has a cool semi-arid climate; the nearby South Atlantic Ocean and the Viedma river moderate the climate. The city is windy throughout the entire year. Average windspeeds ranging from a low of 22.1 kilometres per hour to 30.5 kilometres per hour in December. The windiest period is from October to February while March to June are the least windiest; the cause of this is attributed to the effects produced by the convergence of distinct wind currents originating from the general atmospheric circulation from both the South Atlantic High and the South Pacific High. Being located in a transitional area between the South Atlantic High and the South Pacific High, this geographic location is responsible for the variability in wind speeds throughout the year.
Strong gusts exceeding 110 kilometres per hour can occur. Winters are cool with a July mean of 6.6 °C and frosts are common, averaging 9–10 days from June to August. During this time of the year, overcast days are more common, averaging 9–10 days per month although sunny days are common as well. Spring and fall are transition seasons featuring warm daytime temperatures and cool nighttime temperatures and are variable with some days reaching above 39 °C and below −5 °C. Summers are hot and dry with a January high of 30.4 °C and a low of 14.8 °C. The diurnal range is large along with the temperature profile of Viedma makes it appropriate for the development of wide variety of subtropical crops. Humid days are rare owing to the low humidity and a dewpoint temperature of 12 to 13 °C. During the hottest days in summer when the wind is from the northwest or west, sea breezes can occur that can move inland in the opposite of the mentioned wind directions which moderate summer temperatures; this occurs because when the surrounding land heats faster than the sea, causing the land to have lower atmospheric pressure than the sea which has a higher atmospheric pressure.
As a result, the pressure difference causes the sea breeze to move inland to the lower pressure area. In contrast, during night, the reverse occurs. Frosts that occur in winter are of short duration and are not intense; the average date of the first frost occurs on April 8 and the last frost occurs on November 21 and there are 210 frost free days in an average year. Relative humidity is low, with the summer months being drier than the winter months. Nonetheless, it is common to have high humidity conditions during early morning and late evening when temperatures are lower. On average, Viedma receives 394.2 millimetres of precipitation per year, evenly distributed throughout the year. During spring and summer, precipitation occurs irregularly and there is a water deficit, owing to higher temperatures and windier conditions that promote evapotranspiration and drier conditions. In winter and autumn, precipitation occurs resulting in less water deficit owing to lower temperatures, more moderate w
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the South American continent's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre". The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of around 15.6 million. The city of Buenos Aires is the Province's capital. In 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province; the city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Flores. The 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name: Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, its citizens first elected a chief of government in 1996.
Buenos Aires is considered an'alpha city' by the study GaWC5. Buenos Aires' quality of life was ranked 91st in the world, being one of the best in Latin America in 2018, it is the most visited city in South America, the second-most visited city of Latin America. Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination, is known for its preserved Eclectic European architecture and rich cultural life. Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Buenos Aires hosted the 2018 the 2018 G20 summit. Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture and the dialect spoken in the city and in some other parts of the country; this is because in the last 150 years the city, the country in general, has been a major recipient of millions of immigrants from all over the world, making it a melting pot where several ethnic groups live together and being considered one of the most diverse cities of the Americas.
It is recorded under the archives of Aragonese that Catalan missionaries and Jesuits arriving in Cagliari under the Crown of Aragon, after its capture from the Pisans in 1324 established their headquarters on top of a hill that overlooked the city. The hill was known to them as Bonaira, as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city, adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Catalans built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill. In 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea; the statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors Andalusians, venerated this image and invoked the "Fair Winds" to aid them in their navigation and prevent shipwrecks. A sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be erected in Seville.
In the first foundation of Buenos Aires, Spanish sailors arrived thankfully in the Río de la Plata by the blessings of the "Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires", the "Holy Virgin Mary of the Good Winds", said to have given them the good winds to reach the coast of what is today the modern city of Buenos Aires. Pedro de Mendoza called the city "Holy Mary of the Fair Winds", a name suggested by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition – a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre – after the Sardinian Madonna de Bonaria. Mendoza's settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, said to have exclaimed: How fair are the winds of this land!, as he arrived. But Eduardo Madero, in 1882 after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives concluded that the name was indeed linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre. A second settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción.
Garay preserved the name chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire. The short form "Buenos Aires" became the common usage during the 17th century; the usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs. As, it is common as well to refer to it as "B. A." or "BA". While "BA" is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more use the abbreviation "Baires", in one word. Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516, his expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay. The city of Buenos Aires was first established as Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre after Our Lady of Bonaria on 2 February 1536 by a Spanish expedition led by Pedro de Mendoza; the settlement founded by Mendoza was located in what is today the San Telmo district of Buenos Aires, south of the city centre. More attacks by the indigenous
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Civil disobedience is the active, professed refusal of a citizen to obey certain laws, orders or commands of a government or occupying international power. Civil disobedience is sometimes defined as having to be nonviolent to be called civil disobedience. Civil disobedience is sometimes, equated with nonviolent resistance. Although civil disobedience is considered to be an expression of contempt for law, Martin Luther King Jr. regarded civil disobedience to be a display and practice of reverence for law. Its earliest successful implementation was brought about during the lead up to the Glorious Revolution in Britain, when the 1689 Bill of Rights was documented, the last Catholic monarch was deposed, male and female joint-co-monarchs were elevated; the English Midland Enlightenment had developed a manner of voicing objection to a law viewed as illegitimate and taking the consequences of the law. This was focused on the illegitimacy of laws claimed to be "divine" in origin, including the "divine rights of Kings" and the "divine rights of man", the legitimacy of laws acknowledged to be made by human beings.
It became an effective tool by various peoples who objected to British occupation, such as in the 1919 Revolution, this was never used with native laws that were more oppressive than the British occupation, leading to problems for these countries today. Zaghloul Pasha, considered the mastermind behind this massive civil disobedience, was a native middle-class, Azhar graduate, political activist, parliamentary and ex-cabinet minister whose leadership brought Christian and Muslim communities together as well as women into the massive protests. Along with his companions of Wafd Party, who started campaigning in 1914, they have achieved independence of Egypt and a first constitution in 1923. Civil disobedience is one of the many ways people have rebelled against what they deem to be unfair laws, it has been used in many nonviolent resistance movements in India, in Czechoslovakia's Velvet Revolution, in early stages of Bangladesh independence movement against Pakistani repression and in East Germany to oust their communist governments.
In South Africa in the fight against apartheid, in the American civil rights movement, in the Singing Revolution to bring independence to the Baltic countries from the Soviet Union with the 2003 Rose Revolution in Georgia and the 2004 Orange Revolution in Ukraine, among other various movements worldwide. One of the oldest depictions of civil disobedience is in Sophocles' play Antigone, in which Antigone, one of the daughters of former King of Thebes, defies Creon, the current King of Thebes, trying to stop her from giving her brother Polynices a proper burial, she gives a stirring speech in which she tells him that she must obey her conscience rather than human law. She is not at all afraid of the death he threatens her with, but she is afraid of how her conscience will smite her if she does not do this. Following the Peterloo massacre of 1819, the poet Percy Shelley wrote the political poem The Mask of Anarchy that year, that begins with the images of what he thought to be the unjust forms of authority of his time—and imagines the stirrings of a new form of social action.
According to Ashton Nichols, it is the first modern statement of the principle of nonviolent protest. A version was taken up by the author Henry David Thoreau in his essay Civil Disobedience, by Gandhi in his doctrine of Satyagraha. Gandhi's Satyagraha was influenced and inspired by Shelley's nonviolence in protest and political action. In particular, it is known that Gandhi would quote Shelley's Masque of Anarchy to vast audiences during the campaign for a free India. Thoreau's 1849 essay Civil Disobedience titled "Resistance to Civil Government", has had a wide influence on many practitioners of civil disobedience; the driving idea behind the essay is that citizens are morally responsible for their support of aggressors when such support is required by law. In the essay, Thoreau explained his reasons for having refused to pay taxes as an act of protest against slavery and against the Mexican–American War, he writes, If I devote myself to other pursuits and contemplations, I must first see, at least, that I do not pursue them sitting upon another man's shoulders.
I must get off him first. See what gross inconsistency is tolerated. I have heard some of my townsmen say, "I should like to have them order me out to help put down an insurrection of the slaves, or to march to Mexico. By the 1850s, a range of minority groups in the United States: Blacks, Seventh Day Baptists, anti-prohibitionists, racial egalitarians, others—employed civil disobedience to combat a range of legal measures and public practices that to them promoted ethnic and racial discrimination. Pro Public and peaceful resistance to political power would remain an integral tactic in modern American minority rights politics. Henry David Thoreau's 1849 essay "Resistance to Civil Government" was renamed "Essay on Civil Disobedience". After his landmark lectures were published in 1866, the term began to appear in numerous sermons and lectures relating to slavery and the war in Mexico
Río Negro Province
Río Negro is a province of Argentina, located at the northern edge of Patagonia. Neighboring provinces are from the south clockwise Chubut, Neuquén, Mendoza, La Pampa and Buenos Aires. To the east lies the Atlantic Ocean, its capital is Viedma. Other important cities include the ski resort town of General Roca and Cipolletti. Ferdinand Magellan was the first European explorer to visit the coasts of the provinces in 1520. Italian priest Nicolás Mascardi founded the Jesuit mission Nuestra Senora de Nahuel Huapi in 1670 at the shore of the Nahuel Huapi Lake, at the feet of the Andes range. Part of the Argentine territory called Patagonia, in 1884 it was organised into the Territorio Nacional del Río Negro and General Lorenzo Vintter was appointed as the territory's first governor, it was only in 1957. Río Negro is one of the six provinces, it is bounded to the north by the Colorado River which separates it from La Pampa Province, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean and to the west by the Andes and the Limay River.
The 42nd parallel south marks the southern limit of the province. With an area of 203,013 square kilometres, it is the 4th largest province by area; the climate of the province is temperate at low elevations, cold in the higher Andean peaks. The mean annual temperatures in the province are cold for its latitude owing to the marine currents to the east and higher altitude to the west. Mean annual temperatures in the province can vary, depending on distance from the sea; the northern parts of the province are the warmest, with a mean annual temperature of more than 15 °C while the coldest areas are found in the Cordillera where the mean annual temperatures are less than 10 °C. At the highest peaks, the mean annual temperature is less than freezing. Summer temperatures can exceed 40 °C although the mean January temperatures range from 20 to 24 °C. In contrast, the Andean region has milder summers with mean January temperatures of 15 °C or less, depending on the altitude. In July, mean temperatures range from 7 to 8 °C on the coast in the north to around 2 to 3 °C in the central plateau.
Relative humidity is lower in the central plateau where they average 50%. Along the coastal regions, humidity is higher with a mean annual humidity of 60% while the Andean region has the highest humidity with an average annual humidity exceeding 65% due to the lower temperatures there. In all locations, humidity is lower in the summer and higher in the winter owing to the higher temperatures in the summer; the Andes block most of the moisture from the Pacific Ocean from coming in, causing it to release most of the precipitation on its western slopes and as such, most of the province is dry, with a mean annual precipitation around 200 millimetres. Coastal areas and northern parts of the province receive a higher precipitation, where it can average above 300 millimetres a year; the Andean region receives the most precipitation with areas receiving a mean annual precipitation of 200 to 1,000 millimetres in which the precipitation gradient is strong and increases westwards. In some places, precipitation can exceed 3,000 millimetres a year.
Most of the Andean region has a rainfall pattern, Mediterranean like, similar to Central Chile in which most of the precipitation falls during the winter months and summers are dry. One dominant characteristic of the climate is the strong winds that are observed throughout the province. Summers tend to be windier than winters. Winds coming from the west and northwest are common, occurring 50% of the time. There is some tendency for the winds to come from the east on the coastal regions when sea breezes from the east can occur when westerly winds are weak, which can be felt up to 10 kilometres from the coast; the mean wind speed throughout the province varies with the northern parts having the lowest wind speeds while the highest altitude areas being the windiest. Except for the northern parts of the province, mean annual wind speeds exceed 4 metres per second. Cloud cover varies throughout the province, ranging from more than 60% in the Andean region to about 40% in the coastal areas; the central plateaus have intermediate amounts of cloud cover between these 2 regions.
As such, the Andean region is cloudier than the rest of the province. Sunshine ranges from 10–11 hours of sunshine/day in January to about 5 hours of sunshine/day to less than 3 hours of sunshine/day in July. According to the results from the 2010 census, the province has a population of 638,645 with 316,774 males and 321,871 females, it constitutes 1.6% of the total population in Argentina. This represented a 15.5% increase in the population compared to 2001 census which had 552,822 inhabitants. Amongst of all the provinces in Patagonia, it is the most populous, containing 30.4% of the total population in Patagonia. The province is home to four indigenous groups: The Tehuelches, the Puelches, the Pehuenches, the Mapuches. All of the indigenous population in the province are the Mapuches with the rest being small in number where their few descendants live in the neighbouring provinces; the Mapuches along with some of the Pehuenches lived in the western parts of the province although today, they live in the southern