Carnage is a fictional supervillain appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character first appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man No. 359. Carnage was created by writer David Michelinie and artist Mark Bagley, however the first published artwork of Carnage was penciled by Chris Marrinan; the character belongs to a race of amorphous extraterrestrial parasites known as the Symbiotes. The Carnage symbiote is depicted as an offspring of Venom; the symbiote has taken many hosts. The original and most notable host is serial killer Cletus Kasady. Other hosts include Karl Malus and Norman Osborn; the Carnage symbiote was derived by writer David Michelinie while Mark Bagley designed the Carnage symbiote. The symbiote was designed to be a darker version of Venom and was created due to the writers not wanting a replacement for Eddie Brock as Venom. Carnage was in part created due to Venom's immense popularity with fans; the character was meant to be named "Chaos" and "Ravage" before being settled on "Carnage".
When Eddie Brock's Venom symbiote soon returned to be bonded again, allowing Venom to escape prison, the symbiote left its offspring in the cell. The new symbiote bonded with Brock's cellmate Cletus Kasady through a cut on his hand, transforming him into Carnage; the bond between the Carnage symbiote and Kasady was stronger than the bond between Brock and the Venom symbiote. Cletus Kasady was a serial killer and thought of as insane; as a result, Carnage is far more violent and deadly than Venom. Kasady and the symbiote would be a main antagonist in "Maximum Carnage" and Kasady would continually be the most recurring character to use the Carnage symbiote in many publications, it transferred itself to Spider-Man—Ben Reilly at the time—when Ben bonded with it in order to prevent it from hurting any innocent people, creating Spider-Carnage. Ben's willpower held out against the symbiote's murderous desires long enough for him to return it to Ravencroft. Reilly subsequently attempted to destroy the symbiote by subjecting himself to a lethal blast of microwaves, but it escaped back to Kasady after the microwaves forced it to separate from him.
After Kasady was lobotomized, he was broken out of prison by the Wizard and Klaw, who intend to recruit him into the Frightful Four and turn him into their own version of Venom. After a failed attempt to control Kasady, Wizard transfers the Symbiote to Dr. Karl Malus. Dr. Malus was enraged and under the influences of the Symbiote tried to kill his teammates, but he was subdued by Klaw and controlled by Wizard, who renames him "Superior Carnage" and equips him with weapons; the trio are confronted by the Superior Spider-Man and during their battle the Wizard loses his control over Carnage and he is fatally injured once Spider-Man accidentally drops him due to the shock of finding out Wizard read his mind and knows about Otto Octvaius. Carnage, now free, starts to kill anyone in front of him. Klaw tries to stop him, but due to his weapon being damaged he fails and realizes that the only way is for the Wizard to take back control. Both Carnage and Klaw make their way outside. Carnage fights the Superior Spider-Man and admits that although he liked using weapons, for him ripping and slashing the bodies is better.
Klaw tries to get the Wizard to control Carnage again, but is killed by Carnage and the explosion separates the Symbiote from its host, only to bond with the injured Wizard. Following the events of Secret Empire, the Carnage symbiote was stolen from an old S. H. I. E. L. D. Storehouse by the then-powerless Norman Osborn, he found himself overwhelmed by the symbiote's desire for mindless slaughter when he allowed it to merge with him, but he has been able to'persuade' the symbiote to let him take control of Carnage's powers to show it something other than'boring' mindless slaughter. Using this combination of powers during the "Go Down Swinging" storyline, Norman is able to tear through Human Torch, Silk, Miles Morales, Agent Anti-Venom, with the combination of the symbiote and the Goblin serum rendering Carnage immune to its traditional weaknesses transferring part of the symbiote to his grandson Normie enough to turn him into a miniature version of Red Goblin; the Carnage symbiote is destroyed by Spider-Man when he hits it with an exploding gas tank, because the symbiote was attached to Norman when Peter destroyed it, he wonders what sort of effect that might have had on his old foe's mind.
As Spider-Man visits Norman in Ravencroft, it's revealed that Norman's mind appears to have been fried and now believes that Spider-Man is Norman Osborn and he is Cletus Kasady. It's not clear whether or not he's faking it or if he had lost his mind. Meanwhile, Harry manages to remove the Carnage symbiote from Normie. Not all of it has gone. Following the defeat of Cletus Kassady and the gestalt symbiotes were absorbed by Eddie Brock, given an offer to join the Avengers, but in the middle of his big day Carnage is able to overcome Venom and takes over. Eddie leaves. Eddie gets back home and tries to quiet the Carnage in a way he has done before with Venom, heavy medication. Eddie has a vision of Knull; this causes Eddie to take off and head towards the island where he long ago had thought he had kill Spider-Man and where he remained until the emergence of Carnage. But Carnage causes the plane to crash land. Separated from the Ca
Coated paper is paper, coated by a mixture of materials or a polymer to impart certain qualities to the paper, including weight, surface gloss, smoothness or reduced ink absorbency. Various materials, including Kaolinite, calcium carbonate and talc can be used to coat paper for high quality printing used in packaging industry and in magazines; the chalk or china clay is bound to the paper with synthetic viscosifiers, such as styrene-butadiene latexes and natural organic binders such as starch. The coating formulation may contain chemical additives as dispersants, resins, or polyethylene to give water resistance and wet strength to the paper, or to protect against ultraviolet radiation. Machine-finished coated paper has a basis weight of 48–80 g/m2, they have high print gloss and adequate sheet stiffness. MFC papers are made of 60–85% groundwood or TMP and 15–40% chemical pulp with a total pigment content of 20–30%; the paper can be soft nip supercalendered. These are used in paperbacks. Coated fine paper or woodfree coated paper are produced for offset printing: Standard coated fine papers This paper quality is used for advertising materials, annual reports and high quality catalogs.
Grammage ranges from 90–170 g/m2 and ISO brightness between 80–96%. The fibre furnish consists of more than 90% chemical pulp. Total pigment content are in the range 30 -- 45 %, where clay are the most common. Low coat weight papers These paper grades have lower coat weights than the standard WFC and the grammage and pigment content are generally lower, 55–135 g/m2 and 20–35% respectively. Art papers Art papers are one of the highest quality printing papers and are used for illustrated books and brochures; the grammage varies from 100 to 230 g/m2. These papergrades have matte or glossy finish. Higher qualities contain cotton. Other types of paper coatings include polyethylene or polyolefin extrusion coating and wax coating to make paper cups and photographic paper. Biopolymer coatings are available as more sustainable alternatives to common petrochemical coatings like LDPE or mylar. Printed papers have a top coat of a protective polymer to seal the print, provide scuff resistance, sometimes gloss.
Some coatings are processed by UV curing for stability. A release liner is a paper sheet used to prevent a sticky surface from adhering, it is coated on both sides with a release agent. Heat printed papers such as receipts are coated with a chemical mixture, which contains estrogenic and carcinogenic poisons, such as BPA, it is possible to check whether a piece of paper is thermographically coated, as it will turn black from friction or heat. Carbon paper Folding box board Inkjet paper Paperboard Paper machine Paper making Plastic-coated paper Solid bleached board Solid unbleached board Thermal paper Tracing paper White Lined Chipboard Types of Coated paper Soroka, W, "Fundamentals of Packaging Technology", IoPP, 2002, ISBN 1-930268-25-4 Yam, K. L. "Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology", John Wiley & Sons, 2009, ISBN 978-0-470-08704-6
HMS Hecate was a Royal Navy deep ocean survey vessel of the Hecla class. She was present at the "presentation of fleet colours" review in Torbay on 29 July 1969; the ship was decommissioned in 1990. On 21 April 1971, two launches attached to HMS Hecate were towed out to sea and bombed by the Provisional Irish Republican Army while the vessels were moored at Baltimore, Republic of Ireland. One of the launches, was wrecked, while the other boat, survived with minor damage. HMS Hecate was carrying out a hydrographic survey in collaboration with the government of the Republic. In the mid-1970s HMS Hecate was in the Persian Gulf surveying the entrance areas in the event of conflicts while based in Bandar Abbas, Iran. During the Falklands War, unlike her sister ships, was painted grey and sent south to assume HMS Endurance's role as the Ice Patrol Ship. Arriving on station after the ceasefire, Hecate conducted surveys in the South Atlantic. Hecate visited British Antarctic Survey bases and spent Christmas in Grytviken, South Georgia, where the crew attended a candlelit Christmas mass in the settlement's old whaling church.
The New Year was spent at the Falkland Islands before Hecate became the first Royal Navy ship to visit South America following the hostilities. Hecate embarked a Chilean pilot at Punta Arenas before sailing to Talcahuano, Chile via the Patagonian Channel. Following a brief visit, Hecate took passage through the Panama Canal for a four-day visit to Antigua. Hecate returned to the UK in February, 1983. Hydrographic Survey Work in the Royal Navy up to the 1980s