Mir Jafar Ali Khan Bahadur was the first Nawab of Bengal with support from the British East India Company. He was the second son of Sayyid Ahmad Najafi, his rule is considered the start of British imperialism in India and was a key step in the eventual British domination of vast areas of the subcontinent. Mir Jafar served as the commander of Bengali forces under Siraj ud-Daulah, the Nawab of Bengal, but betrayed him during the Battle of Plassey and succeeded him after the British victory in 1757. Mir Jafar received military support from the British East India Company until 1760, but failed to satisfy various British demands. In 1758, Robert Clive discovered that Jafar had made a treaty with the Dutch at Chinsurah through his agent Khoja Wajid. Dutch ships of war were seen in the River Hooghly. Circumstances led to the Battle of Chinsurah. British company official Henry Vansittart proposed that since Jafar was unable to cope with the difficulties, Mir Qasim, Jafar's son-in-law, should act as Deputy Subahdar.
In October 1760, the company forced him to abdicate in favor of Qasim. However, Qasim's independent spirit and plans to force the East India company out of his dominion led to his overthrow, Jafar was restored as the Nawab in 1763 with the support of the company. Mir Qasim however went to war against the company. Jafar ruled until his death on 17 January 1765 and lies buried at the Jafarganj Cemetery in Murshidabad, West Bengal, India. In 1747 the Marathas led by Raghoji I Bhonsle, began to raid and annex the territories of the Alivardi Khan, the Nawab of Bengal. During the Maratha invasion of Odisha, its subedar Mir Jafar and Ataullah the faujdar of Rajmahal withdrew all forces until the arrival of Alivardi Khan and the Mughal Army at the Battle of Burdwan where Raghoji I Bhonsle and his Maratha forces were routed; the enraged Alivardi Khan dismissed the shamed Mir Jafar. Jafar pretended loyalty to Alivardi Khan's successor Siraj Ud Daulah, but betrayed him to the British in the battle of Plassey.
After Siraj Ud Daulah’s defeat and subsequent execution, Jafar achieved his long-pursued dream of gaining the throne, was propped up by the British East India company as puppet Nawab. Jafar paid Rs. 17,700,000 as compensation for the attack on Calcutta to the company and traders of the city. In addition, he gave bribes to the officials of the company. Clive, for example received over two million rupees, Watts over one million Soon, however, he realized that company's expectations were boundless and tried to wriggle out from under them. However, the British defeated the Dutch at the Battle of Chinsurah in November 1759 and retaliated by forcing him to abdicate in favor of his son-in-law Mir Qasim. However, Qasim proved to be both able and independent condemned the interference of East India company in the governing of his domain. Mir Qasim formed an alliance to force the British East India company out of East India; the Company soon went to war with his allies. The Battle of Buxar was fought on 22 October 1764 between the forces under the command of the British East India Company led by Hector Munro and the combined army of Mir Qasim, the Nawab of Bengal:suja ud-dullah the Nawab of Awadh and the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II.
With the defeat in Buxar, Mir Qasim was overthrown. Mir Jafar managed to regain the good graces of the British. In 1760, after gaining control over Bihar and some parts of the Bengal, the Mughal Crown Prince Ali Gauhar and his Mughal Army of 30,000 intended to overthrow Jafar, Imad-ul-Mulk after they tried to capture or kill him by advancing towards Awadh and Patna in 1759, but the conflict soon involved the assertive British East India Company. The Mughals were led by Prince Ali Gauhar, accompanied by Muhammad Quli Khan, Hidayat Ali, Mir Afzal and Ghulam Husain Tabatabai, their forces were reinforced by the forces of Najib-ud-Daula. The Mughals were joined by Jean Law and 200 Frenchmen and waged a campaign against the British during the Seven Years' War. Although the French were defeated, the conflict between the British East India Company and the Mughal Empire would continue to linger and ended in a draw, which culminated during the Battle of Buxar; the breakup of the centralized Mughal empire by 1750, led to creation of a large number of independent kingdoms in Northern and Western India, as North-Western India and parts of Afghanistan.
Each of them were in conflict with their neighbor. These kingdoms bought weapons from the French East India companies to fuel their wars. Bengal was one such kingdom; the British and French supported. Jafar came to power with support of British East India company. After the defeat of Sirajuddoula and Mir Qasim the British strengthened their position in Bengal and in 1793 abolished Nizamat and took complete control of the former Mughal province; the word "mirjafar" in Bengali and the phrase "meer jafar" in Urdu, are used much as quisling is used in English, Jaichand of Kannauj in North Indian history. Mir Jafar Awards Great Britain in the Seven Years War ^ "Riyazu-s-salatin", Ghulam Husain Salim – a reference to the appointment of Mohanlal can be found permanent dead link] here ^ "Seir Muaqherin", Ghulam Husain Tabatabai – a reference to the conspiracy can be found permanent dead link] here A website dedicated to Mir Jafar "Riyazu-s-salatin", A History of Bengal, Ghulam Husain Salim: viewable online at the Packard Humanities
The Carnatic region is the region of peninsular South India lying between the Eastern Ghats and the Western Ghats, in the modern Indian states of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and southern Andhra Pradesh. The name'Carnatic' or'Karnatic' is a Tamil word which means that'Karai' meaning'shore' and'nataka' meaning dance. Since the word'Carnatic' or'Karnataka' region and music or'கரை நாடக சங்கீதம்' is the base of Kaveri-based regions during the chola periods to improve and to integrate Tamil based dance and music. So comes the name'carnatic' or'Karnatic' region / zone, as big landscape covering the whole gamut of Kaveri-based areas in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and some in Andhra Pradesh; this particular dialect has been introduced during the Chola time period as a proof of in'Carnatic' or'Karnatic' zone development. In a stage, this was combined together with Sanskrit words; the music was patronized by Chola, Pandyan and Vijayanagar kings. Further to add, there are several theories as to the derivation of the term.
It may derive from the Sanskrit language karņāţakam from karņa = "ear" + aţati = "he pleases" = "that which pleases the ear", thus "Karnāṭaka saṃgīta" = "Karnataka music", coined by Sarangadeva. According to Bishop Robert Caldwell, in his Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian Languages, the term is derived from kar and nadu, country, i.e. the black country, which refers to the black soil prevalent on the plateau of the Southern Deccan. Hattangadi Narayan Rao suggests a derivation from karu, elevated, + nadu, land, "an elevated land" descriptive of the region's geography; the English "Carnatic" has been classicalised in spelling. The region is located in Southern India, between the Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats and the Coromandel Coast, in the Presidency of Madras. Properly the name is, in fact, applicable only to the country of the Kanarese extending between the Eastern and Western Ghats, over an irregular area narrowing northwards, from Palghat in the south to Gulbarga, Bidar in the north, including Mysore.
The extension of the name to the country south of the Karnataka was due to the Muslim conquerors who in the 16th century overthrew the kingdom of Vijayanagar, who extended the name, which they found used of the country north of the Ghats to that south of them. After this period the plain country of the south came to be as called Karnataka Payanghat, or lowlands, as distinguished from Karnataka Balaghat, or highlands; the misapplication of the name Carnatic was carried by the British a step further than by the Mahommedans, it being confined by them to the country below the Ghats, Mysore not being included. However, this name is no longer applied, the Carnatic having become a mere geographical term. Administratively, the name Carnatic is now applied only to the Bombay portion of the original Karnataka, the districts of Belgaum and Bijapur, part of Gulbarga district, North Karnataka, the native states of the Southern Maharashtra agency and Kolhapur; the region known to Europeans as the Carnatic, though no longer a political or administrative division, is of great historical importance.
It extended along the eastern coast about 600 kilometers in length, from 50 to 100 kilometers in breadth. It was bounded on the north by the Guntur circar, thence it stretched southward to Cape Comorin, it was divided into the Southern and Northern Carnatic. The region south of the river Coleroon, which passes the town of Trichinopoly, was called the Southern Carnatic; the principal towns of this division were Tanjore, Madurai, Tranquebar and Tinnevelly. The Central Carnatic extended from the Coleroon river to the river Pennar; the Northern Carnatic extended from the river Pennar to the northern limit of the country. The Carnatic, as above defined, comprehended within its limits the maritime provinces of Nellore, South Arcot, Tanjore and Tinnevelly, besides the inland districts of North Arcot and Trichinopoly; the population of this region consists chiefly of Brahmanical Hindus. Mahommedans are thinly scattered over the country. At the earliest period of which any records exist, the area now known as the Carnatic was divided between the Pandya and Chola kingdoms, which with that of Chera dynasty or Kerala formed the three Tamil kingdoms of southern India.
The Pandya kingdom coincided in extent with the districts of Madura and Tinnevelly. The government of the area was shared for centuries with these dynasties by numerous independent or semi-independent chiefs, evidence of whose perennial internecine conflicts is preserved in the multitudes of forts and fortresses, the deserted ruins of which crown all the elevated points. In spite, however, of this passion of the military classes for war, the Tamil civilization developed in the country was of a high type; this was due to the wealth of the country, famous in the earliest times as now for its pearl fisheries. Of this fishery Korkai, now a village on the Tambraparni River in Tinnevelly, but once the Pandya capital, was the centre long before the Christian era. In Pliny's day, owing to the silting up of the harbour, its glory had decayed and the Pandya capital had been removed to Madura, fam
East India Company
The East India Company known as the Honourable East India Company or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, Company Bahadur, or The Company, was an English and British joint-stock company. It was formed to trade in the Indian Ocean region with Mughal India and the East Indies, with Qing China; the company ended up seizing control over large parts of the Indian subcontinent, colonised parts of Southeast Asia, colonised Hong Kong after a war with Qing China. Chartered as the "Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies", the company rose to account for half of the world's trade in basic commodities including cotton, indigo dye, spices, saltpetre and opium; the company ruled the beginnings of the British Empire in India. In his speech to the House of Commons in July 1833, Lord Macaulay explained that since the beginning, the East India company had always been involved in both trade and politics, just as its French and Dutch counterparts had been.
The company received a Royal Charter from Queen Elizabeth I on 31 December 1600, coming late to trade in the Indies. Before them the Portuguese Estado da Índia had traded there for much of the 16th century and the first of half a dozen Dutch Companies sailed to trade there from 1595; these Dutch companies amalgamated in March 1602 into the United East Indies Company, which introduced the first permanent joint stock from 1612. By contrast, wealthy merchants and aristocrats owned the EIC's shares; the government owned no shares and had only indirect control until 1657 when permanent joint stock was established. During its first century of operation, the focus of the company was trade, not the building of an empire in India. Company interests turned from trade to territory during the 18th century as the Mughal Empire declined in power and the East India Company struggled with its French counterpart, the French East India Company during the Carnatic Wars of the 1740s and 1750s; the battles of Plassey and Buxar, in which the British defeated the Bengali powers, left the company in control of Bengal and a major military and political power in India.
In the following decades it increased the extent of the territories under its control, controlling the majority of the Indian subcontinent either directly or indirectly via local puppet rulers under the threat of force by its Presidency armies, much of which were composed of native Indian sepoys. By 1803, at the height of its rule in India, the British East India company had a private army of about 260,000—twice the size of the British Army, with Indian revenues of £13,464,561, expenses of £14,017,473; the company came to rule large areas of India with its private armies, exercising military power and assuming administrative functions. Company rule in India began in 1757 and lasted until 1858, following the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Government of India Act 1858 led to the British Crown's assuming direct control of the Indian subcontinent in the form of the new British Raj. Despite frequent government intervention, the company had recurring problems with its finances, it was dissolved in 1874 as a result of the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act passed one year earlier, as the Government of India Act had by rendered it vestigial and obsolete.
The official government machinery of British India assumed the East India Company's governmental functions and absorbed its navy and its armies in 1858. Soon after the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588, the captured Spanish and Portuguese ships with their cargoes enabled English voyagers to travel the globe in search of riches. London merchants presented a petition to Queen Elizabeth I for permission to sail to the Indian Ocean; the aim was to deliver a decisive blow to the Portuguese monopoly of Far Eastern Trade. Elizabeth granted her permission and on 10 April 1591 James Lancaster in the Bonaventure with two other ships sailed from Torbay around the Cape of Good Hope to the Arabian Sea on one of the earliest English overseas Indian expeditions. Having sailed around Cape Comorin to the Malay Peninsula, they preyed on Spanish and Portuguese ships there before returning to England in 1594; the biggest capture that galvanised English trade was the seizure of the large Portuguese Carrack, the Madre de Deus by Sir Walter Raleigh and the Earl of Cumberland at the Battle of Flores on 13 August 1592.
When she was brought in to Dartmouth she was the largest vessel, seen in England and her cargo consisted of chests filled with jewels, gold, silver coins, cloth, pepper, cinnamon, benjamin, red dye and ebony. Valuable was the ship's rutter containing vital information on the China and Japan trades; these riches aroused the English to engage in this opulent commerce. In 1596, three more English ships were all lost at sea. A year however saw the arrival of Ralph Fitch, an adventurer merchant who, along with his companions, had made a remarkable fifteen-year overland journey to Mesopotamia, the Persian Gulf, the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia. Fitch was consulted on the Indian affairs and gave more valuable information to Lancaster. On 22 September 1599, a group of merchants met and stated their intention "to venture in the pretended voyage to the East Indies, the sums that they will adventure", committing £30
Salabat Jung was born Mir Sa'id Muhammad Khan Siddiqi Bayafandi in 24 November 1718. He was the 3rd son of Nizam-ul-Mulk, he was appointed as Naib Subahdar to his elder brother, Ghazi ud-Din Khan Feroze Jung II, the Prime Minister of Mughal Empire, with the title Salabat Jung. He was invested by Imperial firman, at Aurangabad, Maharashtra, 12 September 1749, he was granted the titles of Salabat Jung during his father's lifetime. During the Second Carnatic War he was a prisoner, first in Nasir Jung's camp and in Muzaffar Jung's camp. After Muzaffar Jung was killed by the Afghans on 13 February 1751, Mir Sa'id Muhammad Khan was proclaimed as the new Nizam near Lakkireddipalli Pass, by the French under De Bussy with the title Asaf-ad-Daulah, Nawab Said Muhammad Khan Bahadur, Salabat Jung, Zafar Jung, Nawab Subahdar of the Deccan, he was promoted to the title of Amir-ul-Mamalik by the Emperor Alamgir II. He was the ruler of the Hyderabad State in India from 1751 until 1762. Khilwath palace of Hyderabad was built by him.
Salabat Jung agreed to retain the French in the Deccan restoring previous prvileges. He gave the title of Saif-ud-daula Umdat-ul-Mulk to De Bussy and wrote to the Mughal Emperor Alamgir II for ratification, the Mughal Emperor agreed to their decision and granted De Bussy a title "Mansabdar of 7000" and appointed Hyder Jung as the "Vakil" representing the French within the Mughal Empire; this new alliance with the French had contributed to the advancement of Salabat Jung's forces, in the year 1756 Salabat Jung utilised heavy muskets known as Catyocks, which were attached to the ground, it was known to have fired more than a cannon. These new weapons would reverse fortunes of the Maratha rebels. In March 1751, Salabat Jung gave the French the villages of Nizampatnam and Alamanava in the Krishna district, Narsapur in the Godavary district, together with Yanun and Mahfuzbandar; the extirpation of the conspirators against Muzaffar Jung was only the prelude to a more serious contest that threatened his successor to the Nizamat of Hyderabad Deccan, Salabat Jung.
He had scarcely crossed the River Krishna when he was met by 25,000 Marathas under the personal command of their Peshwa, Balaji Baji Rao. This prince had entered into a league with Ghazi ud-Din Khan Feroze Jung II the elder brother of Salabat Jung; the Maratha army however disappeared as as it had presented itself. The invasion of the Deccan by Damaji Gaikwar from Gujarat had forced the Peshwa to retreat. Salabat Jung took formal possession of Hyderabad, his first attention was directed to rewarding his allies. Gratuities were bestowed on the officers according to their rank from 100,000 to the commander in chief to 5,000 to each ensign; the future pay of the troops was settled with equal liberality. A communication was opened with Machilipatnam and from that port only 220 miles distant the French were supplied with recruits of men and ammunition. De Bussy was thus enabled afterwards to increase his Europeans to 500 and to arm new Sipahis whom he recruited in the country making a total of 5,000 Sipahis.
Salabat Jung did not remain long at his capital. The threatened appearance of Ghazi ud-Din Khan Feroze Jung II, the disaffection of Aurangabad and the prospect of renewed invasion by the Marathas required his presence on his northern frontier and he set off for Aurangabad within a month after his arrival. Salabat Jung reached Aurangabad on 18 June and in the month of August, Balaji Baji Rao having settled his internal disorders again invaded and ravaged the Mughal territory at the head of 40,000 men; the character of the French auxiliaries acquired fresh lustre on this occasion. While at Aurangabad their discipline and orderly conduct had commanded the respect of the Indians and they now established the superiority of the Salabat Jung over the Marathas; the Peshwa, had ordered Holkar and Scindia to join Ghazi ud-Din Khan Feroze Jung II and to affect a junction with himself near Aurangabad, occupied by Salabat Jung and his French allies. The news of this fresh campaign filled his advisers with consternation and dismay.
But it was in the hour of danger that the courage of Charles Joseph Patissier better known as Marquis de Bussy-Castelnau rose to its greatest height. De Bussy said. Leaving Aurangabad to its fate, the Mughal prince moved on to Golkonda, after some days spent there in preparation, he marched through Pabal and Ahmednagar to Bedar on the road to Poona; as he marched, he contrived to send messages to Tara Bai at Satara and received from the old queen favourable and encouraging replies. Near Parner, De Bussy learnt of the approach of a Maratha army. Balaji, angered at the boldness of the Nizam's plan, had been sufficiently affected by it to detach 40,000 horsemen from the main army and lead them in pursuit; the Mughal forces consisted of large irregular levies, quite unfit to meet Balaji's cavalry. But with them were 500 French infantry and 5000 disciplined Sipahis led by French officers. On the news of the enemy's vicinity the Muslims formed up to await the Maratha attack. De Bussy seized some heights on one of the flanks and put his field-pieces on
Kingdom of Great Britain
The Kingdom of Great Britain called Great Britain, was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. The state came into being following the Treaty of Union in 1706, ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united the kingdoms of England and Scotland to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain and its outlying islands, with the exception of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands; the unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government, based in Westminster. The former kingdoms had been in personal union since James VI of Scotland became King of England and King of Ireland in 1603 following the death of Elizabeth I, bringing about the "Union of the Crowns". After the accession of George I to the throne of Great Britain in 1714, the kingdom was in a personal union with the Electorate of Hanover; the early years of the unified kingdom were marked by Jacobite risings which ended in defeat for the Stuart cause at Culloden in 1746.
In 1763, victory in the Seven Years' War led to the dominance of the British Empire, to become the foremost global power for over a century and grew to become the largest empire in history. The Kingdom of Great Britain was replaced by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801 with the Acts of Union 1800; the name Britain descends from the Latin name for the island of Great Britain, Britannia or Brittānia, the land of the Britons via the Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne. The term Great Britain was first used in 1474; the use of the word "Great" before "Britain" originates in the French language, which uses Bretagne for both Britain and Brittany. French therefore distinguishes between the two by calling Britain la Grande Bretagne, a distinction, transferred into English; the Treaty of Union and the subsequent Acts of Union state that England and Scotland were to be "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain", as such "Great Britain" was the official name of the state, as well as being used in titles such as "Parliament of Great Britain".
Both the Acts and the Treaty describe the country as "One Kingdom" and a "United Kingdom", which has led some much publications into the error of treating the "United Kingdom" as a name before it came into being in 1801. The websites of the Scottish Parliament, the BBC, others, including the Historical Association, refer to the state created on 1 May 1707 as the United Kingdom of Great Britain; the term United Kingdom was sometimes used during the 18th century to describe the state, but was not its name. The kingdoms of England and Scotland, both in existence from the 9th century, were separate states until 1707. However, they had come into a personal union in 1603, when James VI of Scotland became king of England under the name of James I; this Union of the Crowns under the House of Stuart meant that the whole of the island of Great Britain was now ruled by a single monarch, who by virtue of holding the English crown ruled over the Kingdom of Ireland. Each of the three kingdoms maintained laws.
Various smaller islands were in the king's domain, including the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. This disposition changed when the Acts of Union 1707 came into force, with a single unified Crown of Great Britain and a single unified parliament. Ireland remained formally separate, with its own parliament, until the Acts of Union 1800; the Union of 1707 provided for a Protestant-only succession to the throne in accordance with the English Act of Settlement of 1701. The Act of Settlement required that the heir to the English throne be a descendant of the Electress Sophia of Hanover and not be a Catholic. Legislative power was vested in the Parliament of Great Britain, which replaced both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. In practice it was a continuation of the English parliament, sitting at the same location in Westminster, expanded to include representation from Scotland; as with the former Parliament of England and the modern Parliament of the United Kingdom, the Parliament of Great Britain was formally constituted of three elements: the House of Commons, the House of Lords, the Crown.
The right of the English peerage to sit in the House of Lords remained unchanged, while the disproportionately large Scottish peerage was permitted to send only 16 representative peers, elected from amongst their number for the life of each parliament. The members of the former English House of Commons continued as members of the British House of Commons, but as a reflection of the relative tax bases of the two countries the number of Scottish representatives was reduced to 45. Newly created peers in the Peerage of Great Britain were given the automatic right to sit in the Lords. Despite the end of a separate parliament for Scotland, it retained its own laws and system of courts, As its own established Presbyterian Church, control over its own schools; the social structure was hierarchical, the same elite remain in control after 1707. Scotland continued to have its own excellent universities, with the strong intellectual community in Edinburgh, The Scottish Enlightenment had a major impact on British and European thinking.
As a result of Poynings' Law of 1495, the Parliament of Ireland was subordinate to the Parliament of England, after 1707 to the Parliament of Great Britain. The Westminster parliament's Declaratory Act 1719 (also called the Dependency of Ireland
Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah
Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah, or Muhammad Ali Khan Walla Jah, was the Nawab of Arcot in India and an ally of the British East India Company. Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah was born to Anwaruddin Muhammed Khan, by his second wife, Fakhr un-nisa Begum Sahiba, a niece of Sayyid Ali Khan Safavi ul-Mosawi of Persia, sometime Naib suba of Trichonopoly, on 7 July 1717 at Delhi. Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah the Nawab of Arcot referred to himself as the Subedar of the Carnatic in his letters and correspondence with the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II, his official name was Amir ul Hind, Walla Jah,'Umdat ul-Mulk, Asaf ud-Daula, Nawab Muhammad'Ali Anwar ud-din Khan Bahadur, Zafar Jang, Sipah-Salar, Sahib us-Saif wal-qalam Mudabbir-i-Umur-i-'Alam Farzand-i-'Aziz-az Jan, Biradarbi Jan-barabar, Subadar of the Carnatic. Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah was granted the titles of Siraj ud-Daula, Anwar ud-din Khan Bahadur, Dilawar Jang, together with the Subadarship of the Carnatic Payeen Ghaut and a mensab of 5,000 zat and 5,000 sowar, the Mahi Maratib, etc. by Imperial firman on 5 April 1750.
He joined forces with Nasir Jung and the British in opposing Chanda Sahib, the French nominee for the Subadarship. He was defeated by the French at Gingee in December 1750, fled to Trichnopoly for a second time, he received an Imperial firman confirming his possession of the Carnatic and appointing him as Naib to Viceroy of the Deccan, 21 January 1751. Raised to the titles of Walla Jah and Sahib us-Saif wal-qalam Mudabbir-i-Umur-i-'Alam Farzand-i-'Aziz-az Jan by Emperor Shah Alam II in 1760, he was recognised by the Treaty of Paris as an independent ruler in 1763 and by the Emperor of Delhi 26 August 1765. Sir John Macpherson, writing to Lord Macartney in November 1781 declared, "I love the old man...mind me to my old Nabob. I have been sending him sheep and bags of rice by every ship, it is more than he did for me when I was fighting his battles." The Nawab was an ally of the British East India Company, but harboured great ambitions of power in the South Indian arena, where Hyder Ali of the Mysore, the Marathas, the Nizam of Hyderabad were constant rivals.
The Nawab could be unpredictable and devious, his breach of promise in failing to surrender Tiruchirappalli to Hyder Ali in 1751 was at the root of many confrontations between Hyder Ali and the British. When Hyder Ali swept into the Carnatic towards Arcot on 23 July 1780, with an army estimated at 86–100,000 men, it was not the Nawab, but the British who had provoked Hyder Ali's wrath, by seizing the French port of Mahé, under his protection. Much of the ensuing war was fought on the Nawab's territory. For the defence of his territory, the Nawab paid the British 400,000 pagodas per annum and 10 out of the 21 battalions of the Madras army were posted to garrison his forts; the British derived income from his jagirs. For a period the situation of the Nawab was a significant factor in Westminster politics; the Nawab had borrowed heavily. Elections in the UK could be, were, influenced by nabob money, with the result that a group of about a dozen Members of Parliament formed a discernible "Arcot interest", as it was called.
By the 1780s issues affecting Arcot were therefore having a direct impact on British politics: the debts of the Nawab mattered in domestic terms. He died from gangrene poisoning, at Madras on 13 October 1795, he was buried outside the gate of the Gunbad of Trichinopoly. He was succeeded by his son Umdat ul-Umara, accused of supporting Tipu Sultan the heir of Hyder Ali during the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War. Nawabs of Arcot
Nizam of Hyderabad
The Nizam of Hyderabad was a monarch of the Hyderabad State, now divided into Telangana state, Hyderabad-Karnataka region of Karnataka and Marathwada region of Maharashtra. Nizam, shortened from Nizam-ul-Mulk, meaning Administrator of the Realm, the title of the rulers of Hyderabad State, was the premier Prince of India, since 1724, belonging to the Asaf Jahi dynasty; the Asaf Jahi dynasty was founded by Mir Qamar-ud-Din Siddiqi, a viceroy of the Deccan under the Mughal Empire from 1713 to 1721. He intermittently governed the region after Aurangzeb's death in 1707. In 1724, Mughal control weakened, Asaf Jah became independent of them; when the British achieved paramountcy over India, the Nizams were allowed to continue to rule their princely states as client kings. The Nizams retained internal power over Hyderabad State until the 17 September 1948 when Hyderabad was integrated into the new Indian Union; the Asaf Jah dynasty had only seven rulers. They were never recognised as rulers; the seventh and last Nizam was Mir Osman Ali Khan, who fell from power when Hyderabad was annexed by India in 1948.
By the time of its annexation, Hyderabad was the largest and most prosperous one among all the princely states. It covered 82,698 square miles of homogeneous territory and had a population of 16.34 million people, of which a majority was Hindu. Hyderabad State had its own army, telecommunication system, railway network, postal system and radio broadcasting service. Hindus were under-represented in government and the military. Of 1765 officers in the State Army, 1268 were Muslims, 421 were Hindus, 121 others were Christians and Sikhs. Of the upper level government officials, 59 were Muslims, 5 were Hindus and 38 were of other religions; the Nizam and his nobles, who were Muslims, owned 40% of the total land in the state. All kotwals, police commissioners, were Muslims; the name Nizam spelled as Nezam, comes from Urdu /nɪˈzɑːm/, which itself is derived from the ancient Arabic language niẓām which means "order" or "arrangement". Nizām-ul-mulk was a title first used in Urdu around 1600 to mean Governor of the realm or Deputy for the whole Empire.
The word is derived from the Arabic language, as in Abu Ali Hasan ibn Ali Tusi, better known by his honorific title of Nizam al-Mulk. According to Sir Roper Lethbridge in "The Golden Book of India"—, the Nizams are lineally descended from the First Caliph Abu Bakr, the successor of the Prophet Muhammed; the family of Nizams in India is descended from Abid Khan, a Turkoman from Samarkand, whose lineage is traced to Sufi Shihab-ud-Din Suhrawardi of Central Asia. In the early 1650s, on his way to hajj, Abid Khan stopped in Deccan, where the young prince Aurangzeb Governor of Deccan, cultivated him. Abid Khan returned to the service of Aurangzeb to fight in the succession wars of 1657–58. After Aurangzeb's enthronement, Abid Khan was richly rewarded and became Aurangzeb's favourite nobleman, his son Ghazi Uddin Khan received in marriage, Safiya Khanum, the daughter of the former imperial prime minister Sa‘dullah Khan. Mir Qamaruddin Khan, the founder of the line of Nizams, was born of the couple, thus descending from two prominent families of the Mughal court.
Ghazi Uddin Khan rose to become a General of the Emperor Aurangzeb and played a vital role in conquering Bijapur and Golconda Sultanates of Southern India in 1686. He played a key role in thwarting the rebellion by Prince Akbar and alleged rebellion by Prince Mu`azzam.. After Aurangzeb's death and during the war of succession and his father remained neutral thus escaping the risk of being on the losing side, their successor Farrukhsiyar appointed Qamaruddin the governor of Deccan in 1713, awarding him the title Nizam-ul-Mulk. However, the governorship was taken away two years and Qamaruddin withdrew to his estate in Moradabad. Under the next emperor, Muhammad Shah, Qamaruddin accepted the governorship of Deccan for the second time in 1721; the next year, following the death of his uncle Muhammad Amin Khan, a power-broker in the Mughal Court, Qamaruddin returned to the Delhi and was made the wazir. According to historian Faruqui, his tenure as prime minister was undermined by his opponents and a rebellion in Deccan was engineered against him.
In 1724, the Nizam returned to Deccan to reclaim his base, in the process making a transition to a semi-independent ruler. In 1724, Asif Jah I defeated Mubariz Khan to establish autonomy over the Deccan Suba, named the region Hyderabad Deccan, started what came to be known as the Asaf Jahi dynasty. Subsequent rulers retained the title Nizam ul-Mulk and were referred to as Asif Jahi Nizams, or Nizams of Hyderabad. Nizam I never formally declared independence from the Mughals. In Friday prayers, the sermon would be conducted in the name of Aurangzeb, this tradition would continue until the end of Hyderabad State in 1948; the death of Asif Jah I in 1748 resulted in a period of political unrest as his sons, backed by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces, contended for the throne. The accession of Asif Jah II, who reigned