Walter Elmer Schofield
Walter Elmer Schofield was an American Impressionist landscape and marine painter. His body of work includes autumnal landscapes and snow scenes of Pennsylvania and New England, summery landscapes and marine paintings of England and France. Late in his career, he painted vividly-colored landscapes of the American Southwest. Although Schofield never lived in New Hope or Bucks County, he is regarded as one of the Pennsylvania Impressionists. Schofield's works are in the collections of the National Gallery of Art, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Smithsonian American Art Museum, the Art Institute of Chicago, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the Woodmere Art Museum, other American museums. In Europe, his works are in the collections of the Godolphin Estate in England, the Musée d'Orsay in France. Two paintings are in the Juan Manuel Blanes Museum in Uruguay; the world auction record for a Schofield work was set on December 1, 2004, when Rapids in Winter sold for US$456,000 at Sotheby's NY. W. Elmer Schofield was the youngest of the eight children of Philadelphia businessman Benjamin Schofield and Mary Wollstonecraft Schofield.
His parents emigrated from England to Philadelphia in 1845, his father and uncles built textile mills in Manayunk, along the Schuylkill River. He grew up in the Germantown section of Philadelphia, graduated from Central High School in 1886, he attended Swarthmore College for a year, before dropping out and working as a cowboy in San Antonio, Texas. He studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, 1889–92, under Thomas Anshutz and Robert Vonnoh, he moved to Paris in 1892, studied at the Académie Julian under William Bouguereau, Gabriel Ferrier, Henri Lucien Doucet. Schofield returned to Philadelphia at the end of 1894. Robert Henri, a friend and fellow PAFA alumnus, was teaching at the Philadelphia School of Design for Women. Schofield was among a group of Philadelphia artists – William Glackens, Edward Willis Redfield, John French Sloan, Everett Shinn, George Luks, James Moore Preston, Edward Davis, Charles Grafly, Stirling Calder, Hugh Breckenridge – who would meet at Henri's studio on Tuesday nights to discuss art and aesthetics.
Schofield, Glackens and artist Augustus Koopman sailed for France together in June 1895. Schofield and Glackens were fascinated by the subtle atmospheric effects of Dutch Old Master painters, the trio made a bicycle tour through Belgium and the Netherlands, visiting churches and museums along the way. Schofield was influenced by Les Nabis, "a group of French painters whose work emphasized bright colors, flattened forms and decorative patterning." Schofield returned to Philadelphia in Fall 1895, worked in his father's textile business for a short time. He met an English visitor to the city, they married on October 1896 in Ormskirk, Lancashire. The newlyweds returned to Philadelphia, lived with his parents in Cheltenham Township, just north of the city, they bought a house in the Oak Lane section of Philadelphia. Schofield had early professional success with restrained Pennsylvania winter landscapes, painted in a Tonalist style "characterized by muted colors and soft, flowing brushwork." In 1899, he and his pregnant wife moved to Southport, North West England, lived with her parents.
The couple had two sons and Sydney. The family lived for a time in Brittany, from 1903 to 1907 in the coastal town of St. Ives, Cornwall. Schofield would spend half of the year in Philadelphia, painting his signature autumn and winter scenes, while his wife and sons remained in England, he maintained this routine from 1902 to 1937, except during World War I. After his parents' deaths, Schofield would stay with his brother Albert and family in the Chestnut Hill neighborhood of the city; this was a short walk from the Valley Green section of Fairmount Park, the picturesque Wissahickon Creek became the subject of a number of his paintings. Schofield had roomed with Edward Redfield in France, the two enjoyed a friendly rivalry. Both worked en plein air in the coldest weather, both favored large canvases and preferred to finish a work in a single day, the pair sometimes painted together. Observing Redfield, Schofield abandoned his Tonalist technique in favor of a more dynamic style "of expressionistic brushwork and a greater sense of form and patterning that itself border on Post-Impressionism."
Redfield and Schofield had a major falling out in 1904. Art historian Thomas Folk suspects. Painter Emile Gruppe witnessed the results of Schofield's transformation in the first decade of the 20th century: "I can still remember the great National Academy shows. Three painters dominated the walls: Edward Redfield, Daniel Garber and Elmer Schofield, they all worked boldly and with wonderful color – and you never critically compared them, for you loved each one when you stood in front of his canvas."Schofield painted in a brighter palette after World War I, applying this new approach to snow scenes, to coastal scenes of Cornwall, to landscapes of California, New Mexico and Arizona. Schofield liked to paint on sunny days. In canvases where sunlight isn't a tangible presence, it might as well be, because the brightness of the colors and the clean delineations between objects give the illusion of light when it's not there; as one of Schofield's contemporaries put it, "He is an open-air man, wholesome and his art and straightforward, reflects his tempermen
Documenta is an exhibition of contemporary art which takes place every five years in Kassel, Germany. It was founded by artist and curator Arnold Bode in 1955 as part of the Bundesgartenschau which took place in Kassel at that time, was an attempt to bring Germany up to speed with modern art, both banishing and repressing the cultural darkness of Nazism; this first documenta featured many artists who are considered to have had a significant influence on modern art. The more recent documentas feature art from all continents; every documenta is limited to 100 days of exhibition, why it is referred to as the "museum of 100 days". Documenta is not a selling exhibition, it coincides with the three other major art world events: the Venice Biennale, Art Basel and Skulptur Projekte Münster, but in 2017, all four were open simultaneously. The name of the exhibition is an invented word; the term is supposed to demonstrate the intention of every exhibition to be a documentation of modern art, not available for the German public during the Nazi era.
Rumour spread from those close to Arnold Bode that it was relevant for the coinage of the term that the Latin word documentum could be separated into docere and mens and therefore thought it to be a good word to describe the intention and the demand of the documenta. Each edition of documenta has commissioned its own visual identity, most of which have conformed to the typographic style of using lowercase letters, which originated at the Bauhaus. Art professor and designer Arnold Bode from Kassel was the initiator of the first documenta. Planned as a secondary event to accompany the Bundesgartenschau, this attracted more than 130,000 visitors in 1955; the exhibition centred less on "contemporary art“, art made after 1945: instead, Bode wanted to show the public works, known as "Entartete Kunst" in Germany during the Nazi era: Fauvism, Cubism, Blauer Reiter and Pittura Metafisica. Therefore, abstract art, in particular the abstract paintings of the 1920s and 1930s, was the focus of interest in this exhibition.
Over time, the focus shifted to contemporary art. At first, the show was limited to works from Europe, but soon covered works by artists from the Americas and Asia. 4. Documenta, the first to turn a profit, featured a selection of Pop Art, Minimal Art, Kinetic Art. Adopting the theme of Questioning Reality – Pictorial Worlds Today, the 1972 documenta radically redefined what could be considered art by featuring minimal and conceptual art, marking a turning point in the public acceptance of those styles, it devoted a large section to the work of Adolf Wolfli, the great Swiss outsider unknown. Joseph Beuys performed under the auspices of his utopian Organization for Direct Democracy. Additionally, the 1987 documenta show signaled another important shift with the elevation of design to the realm of art – showing an openness to postmodern design. Certain key political dates for wide-reaching social and cultural upheavals, such as 1945, 1968 or 1976/77, became chronological markers of documenta X, along which art's political, social and aesthetic exploratory functions were traced.
Documenta11 was organized around themes like migration and the post-colonial experience, with documentary photography and video as well as works from far-flung locales holding the spotlight. In 2012, documenta was described as "rdently feminist and multimedia in approach and including works by dead artists and selected bits of ancient art". Documenta gives its artists at least two years to conceive and produce their projects, so the works are elaborate and intellectually complex. However, the participants are not publicised before the opening of the exhibition. At documenta, the official list of artists was not released until the day. Though curators have claimed to have gone outside the art market in their selection, participants have always included established artists. In the documenta, for example, art critic Jerry Saltz identified more than a third of the artists represented by the renowned Marian Goodman Gallery in the show; the first four documentas, organized by Arnold Bode, established the exhibition's international credentials.
Since the fifth documenta, a new artistic director has been named for each documenta exhibition by a committee of experts. Documenta 8 was put together in two years instead of the usual five; the original directors, Edy de Wilde and Harald Szeemann, stepped down. They were replaced by Manfred Schneckenburger, Edward F. Fry, Wulf Herzogenrath, Armin Zweite, Vittorio Fagone. Coosje van Bruggen helped select artists for the 1982 edition. Documenta IX's team of curators consisted of Jan Hoet, Piero Luigi Tazzi, Denys Zacharopoulos, Bart de Baere. For documenta X Catherine David was chosen as the first woman and the first non-German speaker to hold the post, it is the first and unique time that its website Documenta x was conceived by a curator as a part of the exhibition. The first non-European director was Okwui Enwezor for Documenta11; the salary for the artistic director of documenta is around €100,000 a year. 2012's edition was organized around a central node, the trans-Atlantic melding of two distinct individuals who first encountered each other in the "money-soaked deserts of the United Arab Emirates".
As an organizing principle it is a commentary on the romantic potentials of glob
Whitney Museum of American Art
The Whitney Museum of American Art, known informally as the "Whitney", is an art museum in Manhattan. It was founded in 1930 by Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, a wealthy and prominent American socialite and art patron after whom it is named; the Whitney focuses on 20th- and 21st-century American art. Its permanent collection comprises more than 23,000 paintings, drawings, photographs, films and artifacts of new media by more than 3,400 artists, it places particular emphasis on exhibiting the work of living artists as well as maintaining an extensive permanent collection of important pieces from the first half of the last century. The museum's Annual and Biennial exhibitions have long been a venue for younger and lesser-known artists whose work is showcased there. From 1966 to 2014, the Whitney was at 945 Madison Avenue on Manhattan's Upper East Side; the museum closed in October 2014 to relocate to a new building designed by Renzo Piano at 99 Gansevoort Street in the West Village/Meatpacking District neighborhoods of Lower Manhattan.
Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, the museum's namesake and founder, was a well-regarded sculptor as well as a serious art collector. As a patron of the arts, she had achieved some success with the Whitney Studio Club, a New York–based exhibition space she created in 1918 to promote the works of avant-garde and unrecognized American artists. Whitney favored the radical art of the American artists of the Ashcan School such as John French Sloan, George Luks and Everett Shinn, as well as others such as Edward Hopper, Stuart Davis, Charles Demuth, Charles Sheeler, Max Weber. With the aid of her assistant, Juliana R. Force, Whitney collected nearly 700 works of American art. In 1929, she offered to donate over 500 to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, but the museum declined the gift. This, along with the apparent preference for European modernism at the opened Museum of Modern Art, led Whitney to start her own museum for American art, in 1929. Whitney Library archives from 1928 reveal that during this time the Studio Club used the gallery space of Wilhelmina Weber Furlong of the Art Students League to exhibit traveling shows featuring modernist work.
In 1931, architect Noel L. Miller converted three row houses on West 8th Street in Greenwich Village—one of which, 8 West 8th Street had been the location of the Studio Club—to be the museum's home as well as a residence for Whitney. Force became the museum's first director, under her guidance it concentrated on displaying the works of new and contemporary American artists. In 1954, the museum left its original location and moved to a small structure on 54th Street connected to and behind the Museum of Modern Art on 53rd Street. On April 15, 1958, a fire on MOMA's second floor that killed one person forced the evacuation of paintings and staff on MOMA's upper floors to the Whitney. Among the paintings evacuated was A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte, on loan from the Art Institute of Chicago. In 1961, the Whitney began seeking a site for a larger building. In 1966 it settled at the southeast corner of Madison Avenue and 75th Street on Manhattan's Upper East Side; the building and built 1963–1966 by Marcel Breuer and Hamilton P. Smith in a distinctively modern style, is distinguished from the neighboring townhouses by its staircase façade made of granite stones and its external upside-down windows.
In 1967, Mauricio Lasansky showed The Nazi Drawings. The exhibition traveled to the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York, where it appeared with shows by Louise Nevelson and Andrew Wyeth as the first exhibits in the new museum; the institution grappled with space problems for decades. From 1973 to 1983 the Whitney operated its first branch at 55 Water Street, a building owned by Harold Uris, who gave the museum a lease for $1 a year. In 1983 Philip Morris International installed a Whitney branch in the lobby of its Park Avenue headquarters. In 1981 the museum opened an exhibition space in Stamford, housed at Champion International. In the late 1980s, the Whitney entered into arrangements with Park Tower Realty, I. B. M. and The Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States, setting up satellite museums with rotating exhibitions in their buildings' lobbies. Each museum had its own director, with all plans approved by a Whitney committee; the institution attempted to expand its landmark building in 1978, commissioning UK architects Derek Walker and Norman Foster to design a tall tower alongside it, the first of several proposals from leading architects.
But each time the effort was abandoned, because of either both. To secure additional space for the museum's collections, then-director Thomas N. Armstrong III developed plans for a 10-story, $37.5 million addition to the main building. The proposed addition, designed by Michael Graves and announced in 1985, drew immediate opposition. Graves had proposed demolishing the flanking brownstones down to the East 74th Street corner for a complementary addition; the project lost the support of the museum's trustees, the plans were dropped in 1989. Between 1995 and 1998, the building underwent a expansion by Richard Gluckman. In 2001, Rem Koolhaas was commissioned to submit two designs for a $200 million expansion; those plans were dropped in 2003. New York restaurateur Danny Meyer opened Untitled, a restaurant in the museum, in March 2011; the space was designed by the Rockwell Group. The Whitney developed a new main building, designed by Renzo Piano, in the West Village and Meatpacking District in lower Manhattan.
The new museum, at the intersection of Gansevoort and Washington Streets, was bu
Carnegie Museum of Art
The Carnegie Museum of Art, abbreviated CMOA, is an art museum founded in 1895 by the Pittsburgh-based industrialist Andrew Carnegie. It is located in the Oakland neighborhood of Pennsylvania; the museum holds a distinguished collection including film and video works. The museum was the first museum in the United States with a strong focus on contemporary art; as instructed by its founder Andrew Carnegie at the inception of the Carnegie International in 1896, the museum has been organizing many contemporary exhibitions that showcase the "Old Masters of tomorrow". Today, it's one of the most dynamic major art institutions in the country; the museum's origins can be traced to 1886 with Andrew Carnegie's initial concept: "I am thinking of incorporating with the plan for a library that of an art-gallery in which shall be preserved a record of the progress and development of pictorial art in America." Dedicated on November 5, 1895, the art gallery was housed in the Carnegie Libraries of Pittsburgh Main Branch in Oakland.
Carnegie envisioned a museum collection consisting of the "Old Masters of tomorrow" and the Carnegie Museum of Art became, the first museum of modern art in the United States. The museum received a major expansion in 1907 with the addition of the Hall of Architecture, Hall of Sculpture, Bruce Galleries, with funds again provided by Carnegie. Under the directorship of Leon Arkus, the Sarah Mellon Scaife Gallery was built as an addition to the existing Carnegie Institute. Designed by architect Edward Larrabee Barnes, it first opened in 1974 and more than doubled the museum's exhibition space, plus added a children's studio, offices, café, bookstore; the New York Times art critic John Russell described the gallery as an "unflawed paradise." The gallery has been renovated several times since its original creation, most in 2004. Today the museum continues Carnegie's love of contemporary art by staging the Carnegie International every few years. Numerous significant works from the Internationals have been acquired for museum's permanent collection including Winslow Homer's The Wreck and James A. McNeill Whistler's Arrangement in Black: Portrait of Señor Pablo de Sarasate.
The museum's curatorial departments include: Fine Arts, Decorative Arts and Photography. The museum presents as many as 15 changing exhibitions annually, its permanent collection comprises 35,000 works and includes European and American decorative arts from the late seventeenth century to the present, works on paper, prints and installations. The museum has notably strong collections of both aluminum chairs. 1,800 works are on view at any given time. In 2001, the museum acquired the archive of African-American photographer Charles "Teenie" Harris, consisting of 80,000 photographic negatives spanning from the 1930s to the 1970s; the museum is working with a Teenie Harris Advisory Committee to identify the photographs. Many of these images have been catalogued and digitized and are available online via the Carnegie Museum of Art Collections Search. Heinz Architectural Center: Established in 1990 with a gift from Mrs. Henry J. Heinz II, the Heinz Architectural Center enhances appreciation and understanding of architecture and the built environment through exhibitions, charettes and other forms of public engagement.
Its collection of nearly 6,000 objects includes drawings, photographs, games and the world's third-largest collection of plaster architectural casts. Ranging from the late 18th century to the present, the collection represents work in architecture, landscape design and furniture and interior design by architects of international and regional significance. Areas of strength are residential architecture and leading contemporary British architects. In addition to 4,000 square feet of exhibition space, the Heinz Architectural Center's facility, designed by Cicognani Kalla Architects, includes a library housing several thousand books and other types of printed material; the Hillman Photography Initiative is an incubator for innovative thinking on the photographic image. The inaugural year of the initiative centered on four projects that, taken together, investigated the boundaries and possibilities of photography through the way that an image travels. Conceived through an open, discursive process, unique in a museum setting, these projects included live public events at the museum, a pop-up reading room in the galleries, two collaborative web-based projects, a series of commissions, including documentary videos, art projects, writing.
Collection Themes Contemporary Glass Teenie Harris Photographs: Erroll Garner and Jazz from the Hill Carnegie International Japanese Prints Pittsburgh Artists The Art of the Chair Pictorialist Photography Painting and Sculpture 1860–1920 W. Eugene Smith Ailsa Mellon Bruce Galleries – constructed display reproduction bronze casts from Pompeii and Herculaneum. Renovated in 2009, the galleries exhibit more than 500 objects representing American and European decorative arts from the Rococo and Neoclassical periods of the 18th century to contemporary design and craft. Hall of Architecture – In the late Victorian era, plaster casts of outstanding classical and medieval works were mass-produced by various vendors. Just a few museums, like Carnegie Museum of Art, went to extraordinary lengths to develop their own large, unique casts; the West Portal of Saint-Gilles-du-Gard, paid for by Andrew Carnegie on the reco
Dwight William Tryon
Dwight William Tryon was an American landscape painter in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. His work was influenced by James McNeill Whistler, he is best known for his landscapes and seascapes painted in a tonalist style. Tryon was born in Connecticut, to Anson Tryon and Delia O. Roberts, his father was killed in a gun accident before Tryon reached four years of age, Tryon was raised by his mother on his grandparents' farm in East Hartford. His interest in art evolved naturally; as a young man Tryon took a job at a prominent Hartford bookstore and studied art instruction manuals from the store shelves. He took to sketching the surrounding countryside during his off hours. Tryon sold his first painting in 1870. After exhibiting and selling work locally, he exhibited at the National Academy of Design in 1873, his artistic convictions affirmed, Tryon married Alice Belden, quit his job at the bookstore and became a full-time artist. Some of his first works from this period are seascapes and harbor views executed in a luminist manner.
Soon after, Tryon's style shifted towards the Barbizon school, becoming popular among American artists. He may have been influenced by the works of Alexander Helwig Wyant. In 1876 Tryon decided to advance his skills through a formal study of art, he sold all of his paintings at auction and, with the help of a benefactor, traveled to France with his wife. He enrolled in the atelier of Jacquesson de la Chevreuse, took classes at the École des Beaux-Arts, he received instruction from Charles-François Daubigny, Henri Harpignies, Jean Baptiste-Antoine Guillemet. Impressionism was blossoming in France all around Tryon, but he was not swayed by the new style and remained comfortably within the realm of the Barbizon school. Tryon traveled and sketched Europe with his wife, met Abbott Handerson Thayer and his wife with whom he became friends, he returned to the United States in 1881 and settled in New York City where he taught and painted landscapes. In New York, Tryon became friends with artists Robert Swain Thomas Dewing.
He became an early member of the Society of American Artists and continued to exhibit paintings to the National Academy of Design. He became a member of the American Water Color Society and the National Institute of Arts and Letters. On the advice of Gifford and his wife built a summer house in South Dartmouth, Massachusetts in 1887. Though he would continue to spend each winter in New York City, South Dartmouth became Tryon's home for the rest of his life; the coastal area appealed to Tryon's aesthetic sensibilities and allowed him to indulge in fishing, his favorite pastime. By the late 1880s Tryon, working most in oils, began painting landscapes in what would become his mature and iconic style. Tryon's paintings feature a group or broken row of trees in the middle distance colored in an autumnal hue, separating a glowing sky above and a foreground marsh or pasture below, he continued to paint the sea in his mature career employing pastel to show a bare expanse of water and beach in various weather and light.
He exhibited his works nationally but tended to favor The Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia and the Montross Gallery in New York. A Detroit industrialist, Charles Lang Freer, first bought a painting by Tryon in 1889 and became his most important patron. Freer bought dozens of Tryon's paintings, including many of his best works, worked with Tryon in the interior design of his Detroit home. Freer, a major collector of Asian art and works by James McNeill Whistler, went on to establish the Freer Gallery of Art, part of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC, where many works by Tryon can be seen today, he took the first prize for his painting Salt-Marsh, December at the Tennessee Centennial Exposition, held in Nashville, Tennessee in 1897. He is described in the "Fine Art Catalogue", copyrighted by Theodore Cooley as follows: "William Tryon is an American landscape painter whose pictures are sought for their delicacy of coloring and refinement of feeling. A pupil of Daubdigny, he is, like that artist, a painter of country life - the idyllic rusticity of apple trees in bloom, of waving cornfields, of shining valleys and streams rippling to the sea.
He is fine in the silvery-gray atmosphere." He went on to win the Carnegie Prize at the Carnegie Exhibition of 1908 at the Carnegie Museum of Art. In addition to his painting, Tryon taught at Smith College from 1886 to 1923, visiting part-time to critique students' work and, late in his career, establishing the Tryon Gallery of Art, he died of cancer in South Dartmouth on July 1, 1925. Dwight William Tryon's papers can be found at the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives in Washington, D. C. Charles Lang Freer, founder of the Freer Gallery of Art, was a primary patron of Tryon; the collection includes correspondence, photographs, a sketchbook, newspaper clippings. Glastonbury Meadows, 1881 Cerney La Ville, 1881 Early Morning, September, 1904 Merrill, Linda. An Ideal Country: Paintings by Dwight William Tryon in the Freer Gallery of Art. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-87451-538-6. Sherman, Frederic Fairchild, American Painters of Yesterday and Today, 1919, Priv.
Print in New York. Chapter: The Landscape of Dwight W. Tyron Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Tryon, Dwight William". Encyclopædia Britannica. 27. Cambridge University Press
Cecilia Beaux was an American society portraitist, in the manner of John Singer Sargent. She was a near-contemporary of American artist Mary Cassatt and received her training in Philadelphia and France, her sympathetic renderings of the American ruling class made her one of the most successful portrait painters of her era. Eliza Cecilia Beaux was born on May 1855 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, she was the youngest daughter of French silk manufacturer Jean Adolphe Beaux and teacher Cecilia Kent Leavitt. Her mother was the daughter of prominent businessman John Wheeler Leavitt of New York City and his wife Cecilia Kent of Suffield, Connecticut. Cecilia Kent Leavitt died from puerperal fever 12 days after giving birth at age 33. Cecilia "Leilie" Beaux and her sister Etta were subsequently raised by their maternal grandmother and aunts in Philadelphia, her father, unable to bear the grief of his loss, feeling adrift in a foreign country, returned to his native France for 16 years, with only one visit back to Philadelphia.
He returned when Cecilia was two, but left four years after his business failed. As she confessed "We didn't love Papa much, he was so foreign. We thought him peculiar." Her father did have a natural aptitude for drawing and the sisters were charmed by his whimsical sketches of animals. Beaux would discover that her French heritage would serve her well during her pilgrimage and training in France. In Philadelphia, Beaux's aunt Emily married mining engineer William Foster Biddle, whom Beaux would describe as "after my grandmother, the strongest and most beneficent influence in my life." For fifty years, he cared for his nieces-in-law with consistent attention and occasional financial support. Her grandmother, on the other hand, provided day-to-day supervision and kindly discipline. Whether with housework, handiwork, or academics, Grandma Leavitt offered a pragmatic framework, stressing that "everything undertaken must be completed, conquered." The Civil War years were challenging, but the extended family survived despite little emotional or financial support from Beaux's father.
After the war, Beaux began to spend some time in the household of "Willie" and Emily, both proficient musicians. Beaux learned to play the piano but preferred singing; the musical atmosphere proved an advantage for her artistic ambitions. Beaux recalled, "They understood the spirit and necessities of an artist's life." In her early teens, she had her first major exposure to art during visits with Willie to the nearby Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, one of America's foremost art schools and museums. Though fascinated by the narrative elements of some of the pictures the Biblical themes of the massive paintings of Benjamin West, at this point Beaux had no aspirations of becoming an artist, her childhood was a sheltered though happy one. As a teen she manifested the traits, as she described, of "both a realist and a perfectionist, pursued by an uncompromising passion for carrying through." She attended the Misses Lyman School and was just an average student, though she did well in French and Natural History.
However, she was unable to afford the extra fee for art lessons. At age 16, Beaux began art lessons with a relative, Catherine Ann Drinker, an accomplished artist who had her own studio and a growing clientele. Drinker became Beaux's role model, she continued lessons with Drinker for a year, she studied for two years with the painter Francis Adolf Van der Wielen, who offered lessons in perspective and drawing from casts during the time that the new Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts was under construction. Given the bias of the Victorian age, female students were denied direct study in anatomy and could not attend drawing classes with live models until a decade later. At 18, Beaux was appointed as a drawing teacher at Miss Sanford's School, taking over Drinker's post, she gave private art lessons and produced decorative art and small portraits. Her own studies were self-directed. Beaux received her first introduction to lithography doing copy work for Philadelphia printer Thomas Sinclair and she published her first work in St. Nicholas magazine in December 1873.
Beaux demonstrated accuracy and patience as a scientific illustrator, creating drawings of fossils for Edward Drinker Cope, for a multi-volume report sponsored by the U. S. Geological Survey. However, she did not find technical illustration suitable for a career. At this stage, she did not yet consider herself an artist. Beaux began attending the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in 1876 under the dynamic influence of Thomas Eakins, whose great work The Gross Clinic had "horrified Philadelphia Exhibition-goers as a gory spectacle" at the Centennial Exhibition of 1876, she steered clear of the controversial Eakins. His progressive teaching philosophy, focused on anatomy and live study led to his firing as director of the Academy, she did not ally herself with Eakins' ardent student supporters, wrote, "A curious instinct of self-preservation kept me outside the magic circle." Instead, she attended costume and portrait painting classes for three years taught by the ailing director Christian Schussele.
Beaux won the Mary Smith Prize at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts exhibitions in 1885, 1887, 1891, 1892. After leaving the Academy, the 24-year-old Beaux decided to try her hand at porcelain painting and she enrolled in a course at the National Art Training School, she was well suited to the precise work but wrote, "this was
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts
The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts is a museum and art school in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is the first and oldest art museum and art school in the United States; the academy's museum is internationally known for its collections of 19th- and 20th-century American paintings and works on paper. Its archives house important materials for the study of American art history and art training; the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts was founded in 1805 by painter and scientist Charles Willson Peale, sculptor William Rush, other artists and business leaders. The growth of the Academy of Fine Arts was slow. For many years it held its exhibitions in an 1806 building, designed by John Dorsey with pillars of the Ionic order, it stood on the site of the American Theater at Chestnut and 10th streets. The academy opened as a museum in 1807 and held its first exhibition in 1811, where more than 500 paintings and statues were displayed; the first school classes held in the building were with the Society of Artists in 1810.
The Academy had to be reconstructed after the fire of 1845. Some 23 years leaders of the academy raised funds to construct a building more worthy of its treasures, they commissioned the current Furness-Hewitt building, constructed from 1871. It opened as part of the 1876 Philadelphia Exposition. In 1876, former Academy student and artist Thomas Eakins returned to teach as a volunteer. Fairman Rogers, chairman of the Committee on Instruction from 1878 to 1883, made him a faculty member in 1878, promoted him to director in 1882. Eakins revamped the certificate curriculum to. Students in the certificate program learned fundamentals of drawing, painting and printmaking for two years. For the next two years, they had conducted independent study, guided by frequent critiques from faculty and visiting artists. From 1811 to 1969, the Academy organized important annual art exhibitions, from which the museum made significant acquisitions. Harrison S. Morris, Managing Director from 1892 to 1905, collected contemporary American art for the institution.
Among the many masterpieces acquired during his tenure were works by Cecilia Beaux, William Merritt Chase, Frank Duveneck, Thomas Eakins, Winslow Homer, Childe Hassam, Edmund Tarbell. Work by The Eight, which included former Academy students Robert Henri and John Sloan, is well represented in the collection, it provides a transition between 19th- and 20th- century art movements. From 1890 to 1906, Edward Hornor Coates served as the tenth president of the Academy. In 1915, Coates was awarded the Academy's gold medal. Painter John McLure Hamilton, who began his art education at the Academy under Thomas Eakins, in 1921 described the contributions Coates made during his tenure: The reign of Mr. Coates at the Academy marked the period of its greatest prosperity. Rich endowments were made to the schools, a gallery of national portraiture was formed, some of the best examples of Gilbert Stuart's work acquired; the annual exhibitions attained a brilliancy and éclat hitherto unknown... Mr. Coates wisely established the schools upon a conservative basis, building unconsciously the dykes high against the oncoming flow of insane novelties in art patterns...
In this last struggle against modernism the President was ably supported by Eakins, Grafly, Thouron and Chase... His unfailing courtesy, his disinterested thoughtfulness, his tactfulness, his modesty endeared him to scholars and masters alike. No sacrifice of time or of means was too great, if he thought he could accomplish the end he always had in view—the honour and the glory of the Academy, it was under Mr. Coates' enlightened direction, fulfilled the expressed wish of Benjamin West, the first honorary Academician, that "Philadelphia may be as much celebrated for her galleries of paintings by the native genius of the country, as she is distinguished by the virtues of her people. During World War I, Academy students were involved in war work. "About sixty percent of the young men enlisted or entered Government service, all of the young women and all the rest of the young men were directly or indirectly engaged in war work." A war service club was formed by students and a monthly publication, The Academy Fling, was sent to service members.
George Harding, a former PAFA student, was commissioned captain during the war and created official combat sketches for the American Expeditionary Forces. The 1844 Board of Directors' declaration that women artists "would have exclusive use of the statue gallery for professional purposes" and study time in the museum on Monday and Friday mornings signified a significant advance towards formal training in art for women. Prior to the founding of the Academy, there were limited opportunities for women to receive professional art training in the United States; this period between the mid-19th and early 20th centuries shows a remarkable growth of formally trained women artists. Sarah Miriam Peale was an American portrait painter, considered the first American woman to succeed as a professional artist. Sarah Miriam Peale was accepted to the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in 1824 along with her sister Anna Claypoole Peale, the first women to achieve this distinction. Peale exhibited her first full-size portrait at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in 1818.
Six years she and her sister Anna Claypoole Peale, a miniaturist, became the first two female members of the Academy, an enormously inf