Marie Corinne Morrison Claiborne Boggs known as Lindy Boggs, was a United States politician who served as a member of the U. S. House of Representatives and as United States Ambassador to the Holy See, she was the first woman elected to Congress from Louisiana. She was a permanent chairwoman of the 1976 Democratic National Convention, which met in New York City to nominate the Carter-Mondale ticket, she was the first woman to preside over a major party convention. Boggs was the widow of former Majority Leader of the United States House of Representatives Hale Boggs, the mother of four children: Cokie Roberts. Catherine Small Long is the only other woman besides Boggs who has served in the U. S. House of Representatives from Louisiana. Boggs was born as Marie Corinne Morrison Claiborne on March 13, 1916, on the Brunswick Plantation near New Roads in Pointe Coupee Parish in South Louisiana, she attended Newcomb College at Tulane University in New Orleans. She was a second cousin of deLesseps Story "Chep" Morrison, Sr. the former mayor of New Orleans, Ambassador to the Organization of American States, three-time candidate for governor of Louisiana who for a time was her husband's law partner.
On October 16, 1972, Representative Hale Boggs' twin-engine Cessna plane disappeared over Alaska. Boggs was helping a colleague, Nicholas Begich, father of former U. S. Senator Mark Begich of Alaska, to campaign for reelection; the first bill that the House passed in 1973, House Resolution 1 recognized Hale Boggs' death and created the need for a special election. Lindy Boggs ran as a Democrat for her husband's vacated seat in Louisiana's 2nd congressional district, in New Orleans. Boggs was elected to a full term in 1974 with 82 percent of the vote and was reelected seven times thereafter until she vacated her office in January 1991. In 1980, she faced her closest challenge from the Republican Rob Couhig, an attorney-businessman who raised some $200,000 for the race, a large amount at that time for a challenger in a difficult district. Lindy Boggs still prevailed, 45,091 votes to Couhig's 25,512. Another 4.8 percent of the ballots were cast for Democratic former State Representative Clyde F. Bel, Jr. of New Orleans.
Otherwise, Boggs polled more than 80 percent in her contested races. After her district was redrawn in 1984 in response to a federal court order mandating Louisiana's first majority-African-American district, she became the only white member of Congress representing a majority-African-American constituency, she was influential in composing the Equal Credit Opportunity Act of 1974. When the Banking committee marked up the ECOA, she added the provision banning discrimination due to sex or marital status without informing the other members of the committee beforehand inserting the language on her own and photocopying new versions of the bill, she told the other committee members, "Knowing the members composing this committee as well as I do, I'm sure it was just an oversight that we didn't have'sex' or'marital status' included. I've taken care of that, I trust it meets with the committee's approval." The committee unanimously approved the bill. Boggs was the first woman to preside over a national political convention the 1976 Democratic National Convention.
In 1994, Boggs was inducted into the Louisiana Political Museum and Hall of Fame in Winnfield, one year after her husband had been among the original thirteen inductees. In 1997, President Bill Clinton appointed her official U. S. ambassador to the Holy See, a position she held until 2001. In 2005, Boggs's home on Bourbon Street in New Orleans' French Quarter sustained moderate wind damage from Hurricane Katrina. In 2006, she was awarded the Congressional Distinguished Service Award for her time in the House of Representatives. Boggs was a member of Sigma Gamma Rho, one of the four traditionally African-American sororities in the United States; the Boggs Center for Energy and Biotechnology Building at Tulane is named in her honor. Boggs and her daughter, Cokie Roberts, received the Foremother Award from the National Center for Health Research in 2013. Boggs died of natural causes at her home in Chevy Chase, Maryland on July 27, 2013. A funeral Mass was held on August 1, 2013 at St. Louis Cathedral at 615 Pere Antoine Alley in New Orleans.
Interment followed in the day at St. Mary's Cemetery in New Roads, Louisiana. Governor Bobby Jindal ordered all U. S. and state flags in Louisiana to fly at half staff until August 2 in Mrs. Boggs' memory. Women in the United States House of Representatives Boggs, with Katherine Hatch. Washington Through a Purple Veil: Memoirs of a Southern Woman. New York: Harcourt Brace and Co. 1994 Ferrell, Thomas H. and Judith Haydel. "Hale and Lindy Boggs: Louisiana's National Democrats." Louisiana History 35: 389–402. Tyler, Pamela. "Silk Stockings & Ballot Boxes: Women & Politics in New Orleans, 1920 - 1965". University of Georgia Press, 1996. Carrick, Bess. "Lindy Boggs: Steel and Velvet". Documentary film chronicles Mrs. Boggs' career in politics and features Cokie & Steve Roberts, Rep. Nancy Pelosi, Rep. John Lewis, former House Speaker Tom Foley, scholars, Dr. Patrick Maney, & Dr. Pamela Tyler. Produced by Bess Carrick with Louisiana Public Broadcasting, 2006. Airdate 2006–present, nationwide via PBS-Plus.
Maney, Patrick J. "Hale Boggs: The Southerner as National Democrat" in Raymond W Smock and Susan W Hammond, eds. Mast
The International Maritime Organization number is a unique reference for ships, registered ship owners and management companies. IMO numbers were introduced to reduce maritime fraud, they consist of the three letters "IMO" followed by unique seven-digit numbers, assigned under the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea. In 1987 the IMO adopted resolution A.600, aimed at the "enhancement of maritime safety and pollution prevention and the prevention of maritime fraud" by assigning to each ship a permanent identification number. The IMO number remains linked to the hull for its lifetime, regardless of changes of names, flags, or owners; the IMO adopted the existing unique 7-digit numbers applied to ships by Lloyd's Register since 1969, which were modified from 6-digit numbers introduced in 1963. SOLAS regulation XI/3, adopted in 1994 and came into force on 1 January 1996, made IMO numbers mandatory, it was applied to cargo vessels that are at least 300 gross tons and passenger vessels of at least 100 gt.
In the SOLAS Convention, "cargo ships" means "ships which are not passenger ships". The IMO scheme does not however apply to: Vessels engaged in fishing Ships without mechanical means of propulsion Pleasure yachts Ships engaged on special service Hopper barges Hydrofoils, air cushion vehicles Floating docks and structures classified in a similar manner Ships of war and troopships Wooden ships In December 2002, the Diplomatic Conference on Maritime Security adopted a number of measures aimed at enhancing security of ships and port facilities; this included a modification to SOLAS Regulation XI-1/3 to require ships' identification numbers to be permanently marked in a visible place either on the ship's hull or superstructure as well as internally and on the ship's certificates. Passenger ships should carry the marking on a horizontal surface visible from the air. In May 2005, IMO adopted a new SOLAS regulation XI-1/3-1 on the mandatory company and registered owner identification number scheme, with entry into force on 1 January 2009.
The regulation provides that every ship owner and management company shall have a unique identification number. Other amendments require these numbers to be added to the relevant certificates and documents in the International Safety Management Code and the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code. Like the IMO ship identification number, the company identification number is a seven-digit number with the prefix IMO. For example, for the ship Atlantic Star, IMO 5304986 referred to the former ship manager Pullmantur Cruises Ship Management Ltd and IMO 5364264 to her former owner, Pullmantur Cruises Empress Ltd. IMO identification numbers for ships and registered owners are assigned by IHS Markit. For new vessels, the IMO number is assigned to a hull during construction upon keel laying. Many vessels which fall outside the mandatory requirements of SOLAS have numbers allocated by Lloyd's Register or IHS Markit in the same numerical series, including fishing vessels and commercial yachts.
An IMO number is made of the three letters "IMO" followed by a seven-digit number. This consists of a six-digit sequential unique number followed by a check digit; the integrity of an IMO number can be verified using its check digit. This is done by multiplying each of the first six digits by a factor of 2 to 7 corresponding to their position from right to left; the rightmost digit of this sum is the check digit. For example, for IMO 9074729: + + + + + = 139. Maritime Mobile Service Identity, used globally as a national alternate to the IMO number ENI number, a comparable system for European barges and other inland waterway vessels IMO Number Requests by IHS Maritime
BAP Villavicencio (FM-52)
BAP Villavicencio is the second out of four Carvajal-class frigates ordered by the Peruvian Navy in 1973. It was built by the Italian shipbuilder Cantieri Navali Riuniti at its shipyard in Riva Trigoso, Genoa. Delays in the building of the first ship of the class, BAP Carvajal, meant Villavicencio was commissioned first on 25 June 1979 with the pennant number FM-52. Villavicencio is named after Vice Admiral Manuel Villavicencio. Rodríguez, John. "Las fragatas Lupo: una breve mirada retrospectiva y perspectivas". Revista de Marina. Year 95: 8–32
L'Austral is a cruise ship operated by the French cruise line company Compagnie du Ponant. It is the sister vessel of Le Boréal and Le Soléal, being the same weight and breadth, along with having 132 cabins and suites for 264 passengers and 140 crew members like the other two ships. L'Austral was built in 2010 at Italy. L'Austral was put into service on April 20, 2011. On board, L'Austral has two restaurants, the Gastronomic restaurant, the grill restaurant, it has one pool, an internet station, a library. Alongside this, L'Austral has a theatre, it has a beauty center, with fitness equipment and a spa, a Wii games area. L'Austral has 6 passenger decks:Deck Zanzibar - Open air deck, features the open air bar. Deck Mahé - This deck features the owner’s suite, three Deluxe Suites, twenty Prestige Staterooms, the Grill Restaurant, the pool, internet lounge, the panoramic lounge & panoramic terrace and the library. Deck Bengale - This deck includes thirty-seven Prestige Staterooms, the fitness & beauty center, ship's hairdresser, the leisure area, the photoshop.
This deck is the deck the bridge is situated on. Deck Chandernagor - This deck features thirty-five Prestige Staterooms and the ship's theatre. Deck Calicut - This deck includes twenty eight Deluxe Staterooms, eight Superior Staterooms, the shop and reception desk, the main lounge, the excursion desk and the ship's medical center. Deck Pondichery - This deck has the Gastronomic Restaurant and the ship's marina. Itineraries and Deckplans L'Austral – Compagnie du Ponant website "Ponant's L'Austral cruise review, Japan: Petite and glamorous cruise with a French flair" – review on traveller.com.au of a cruise on L'Austral in southern Japan
Italian destroyer Caio Duilio
Caio Duilio is a destroyer of the Italian Navy. She and her sister Italian destroyer Andrea Doria form the Andrea Doria class. Caio Duilio is marked by hull number D 554 according to NATO classification; the ship takes her name from admiral Gaius Duilius. Duilius ordered the construction of 120 ships that were armed with hooked bridges called corvus, Latin for “crow”; this innovation allowed the Romans to defeat the powerful enemy fleet of Carthage transforming the naval battle into a melee combat. After the victory over the Carthaginians at the Battle of Mylae in 260 BC, Duilius was honored with a triumphal parade and the erection in the Roman Forum of a column adorned with the beaks of captured Carthaginian warships; the destroyer Caio Duilio is the fourth Italian warship with this historical name. The first, the ironclad Caio Duilio, was commissioned in 1886 and served until 1909. Fitted with the largest guns available, 100-ton 450 mm calibre muzzle-loading guns, she was regarded as the most powerful warship afloat in her day.
The second unit, the Andrea Doria-class battleship Caio Duilio, was commissioned on 24 April 1913 and was subsequently refitted in 1937, serving in the Regia Marina during World War I and World War II. Caio Duilio was launched on October 23, 2007 and transported to Muggiano shipyard on October 29 for the mounting of the combat system. Caio Duilio's motto refers to the ancient Roman tradition, in which the name acquires religious connotations; some ancient fragments point up this intimate meaning. "Nomen Numen" can be translated as "the name means power". On February 12, 2008 she made the first sea trial and, after the admission into military fleet which took place on April 3, 2009, in Gulf of La Spezia she took part, together with Andrea Doria and French ships Forbin and Chevalier Paul, in a joint exercise which brought together the whole Horizon class on May 5, 2009. Caio Duilio was, along with the aircraft carrier Cavour and the training ship Amerigo Vespucci, one of the Navy Units visitable in Civitavecchia harbour on the Day of the Unification of Italy and the Armed Forces on November 4, 2009.
She participated in the naval parades for the celebrations of the Italian Navy Day in Naples on June 10, 2010 and in La Spezia on June 10, 2011, in the presence of President Giorgio Napolitano. During the development of many complex systems on board, during the trials that led her many times in the Naval Station of Taranto, she made her debut in the international arena during NATO exercise Proud Manta 2011 from February 4 to February 17, 2011, in the waters of the Ionian Sea before the delivery of the Battle Ensign, working together with ships and aircraft of nine allied nations. Nowadays Caio Duilio is the only destroyer based in La Spezia harbour, flagship of the Commander of First Naval Group and under the command of Captain Gaetano Virgilio. Caio Duilio is a multirole ship, with a bias towards anti-aircraft warfare and short and medium-range defence capabilities, she is highly capable in anti-submarine and anti-surface warfare. The ship has been designed to take and operate with Rotary wing aircraft of much higher performance and more autonomy than previous generation helicopters.
The handling of wheeled helicopters on the flight deck is guaranteed up to sea state 6 by the semi-automatic Canadian system TC-ASIST of Indal Technologies committing to these operations a single operator. By type of ship and technology aboard Caio Duilio is able to cover a broad spectrum of maritime activities, ranging from high-intensity military operations to Maritime Security operations; the missions that the unit can perform are: Escort role in an aircraft carrier battle group or naval convoy. The ship was designed to be as little detectable by radar as possible, by using stealth technology for the hull and superstructure. Sea-keeping in unfavorable weather conditions is granted by two pairs of stabilizers; the acoustic signature was reduced with an appropriate choice of machinery and engineering solutions and verifying the intensity of the radiated noise, since the design phase. Equal attention has been directed in the infrared signature branch, by lowering the temperature of engine gases through coaxial exhausts.
After the abandonment of the old system of command and control SADOC, used in the latest modernized version in the Durand de la Penne and Maestrale classes, an integrated type CMS based on Linux OS was installed by EuroSysNav. This is provided with 10 redundant servers and 24 consoles named MFC, of which 19 are located in the Primary CIC, 3 in the secondary CIC in a remote area from the primary CIC, 1 in the Admiral CIC and 1 in the bridge for the officer of the watch. With a MFC each operator, once logged in with own user name and password, can access to all relevant tactical data to his role and has the possibility to us
Italian aircraft carrier Giuseppe Garibaldi
Giuseppe Garibaldi is an Italian aircraft carrier, the first through deck aviation ship built for the Italian Navy, the first Italian ship built to operate fixed-wing aircraft. She is equipped with short vertical landing aircraft aircraft and helicopters. Giuseppe Garibaldi was involved in combat air operations off Somalia, Kosovo and Libya; the Giuseppe Garibaldi is the fourth ship of the Italian Navy to be named after the 19th century Italian General Giuseppe Garibaldi. All four ships, including the missile cruiser, together with an image of Garibaldi, are depicted in the crest. Built by Fincantieri at the Monfalcone shipyards on the Gulf of Trieste, she was laid down on 26 March 1981, launched on 11 June 1983, commissioned on 30 September 1985. Garibaldi is classed as an anti-submarine warfare carrier, is based in Taranto; the ship is powered by four Fiat COGAG gas turbines built under license from GE, offering a sustained power of 81,000 hp. Driving two shafts the ship has a maximum speed of 30 knots and can travel for 7,000 nautical miles at around 20 knots.
The ship was equipped with four Otomat Mk2 short range surface-to-surface missile system installed at the stern of the ship and two ILAS three triple tube torpedo launchers. Defences are provided by two eight-cell SAM launchers firing the SARH Aspide missile, three Oto Melara Twin 40L70 DARDO CIWS; the ship has many countermeasures including two SCLAR twenty-barrel launchers for chaff, flares, or jammers, the SLQ-25 Nixie and SLAT anti-torpedo systems and ECM systems. The air arm consists of a maximum of sixteen AV-8B Harrier IIs and two search and rescue helicopters, or eighteen Agusta helicopters or a mix of helicopters and fighters; the flight deck is the characteristic off-axis design with a 6.5 degree ski-jump for STOL aircraft. A 1937 law gave control of all national fixed-wing air assets to the Italian Air Force and the navy was only permitted to operate helicopters. At the time of the ship's commissioning the Garibaldi the Italian Navy Aviation did not receive her Harriers so she was reclassified as an Incrociatore portaeromobili.
Until 1988 only Italian helicopters landed on her deck, as well as Royal Navy Sea Harriers during NATO joint maneuvers. The ban on fixed-wing aircraft was lifted in 1989, the Italian Navy acquired Harrier II fighters to fly from the Giuseppe Garibaldi. In 2009 Giuseppe Garibaldi was replaced as the flagship of the Italian navy by the new and larger carrier Cavour; the ship underwent a modernization in 2003 and a major restructuring in 2013. In 1999 with the Kosovo War in the Balkans, Italy committed Harrier AV-8B II+ fighters embarked aboard Giuseppe Garibaldi, from 13 May to early June 1999; the planes carried out 30 sorties in 63 hours of flight. The planes used Mk 82 GBU-16 AGM-65 Maverick missiles; the Italian naval force in addition to the aircraft carrier Giuseppe Garibaldi, with its air group, included the Maestrale-class frigate Zeffiro. Following the attacks of 11 September 2001 and the war on terror declared by U. S. President Bush, Italy participated in Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan.
Giuseppe Garibaldi was engaged as the command ship of GRUPNAVIT I, 1 Italian Shipping Group, which included Zeffiro, the patrol team and the airman supplier in Etna. The group set sail from Taranto on 18 November 2001, they trained in the Indian Ocean from 3 December 2001 to 1 March 2002 and returned to Taranto 18 March 2002. During the mission, the AV-8B Harrier unit carried out 288 missions for a total of 860 hours of flight. Tasks carried out included interception/interdiction and air support, aircraft interdiction in Afghanistan. Participating in the 2011 military intervention in Libya after the transfer of authority to NATO and the decision to participate in strike air-ground operations, the Italian government assigned under NATO command four Italian Navy AV-8B plus in addition to Italian air force aircraft; as of 24 March, the Italian Navy was engaged in Operation Unified Protector with the light aircraft carrier Garibaldi, the Maestrale-class frigate Libeccio and the auxiliary ship Etna.
Additionally the Orizzonte-class frigate Andrea Doria and Maestrale-class frigate Euro were patrolling off the Sicilian coast in an air-defence role. In total, until the end of the mission in Libya, the eight Italian Navy AV-8Bs flying from the carrier Giuseppe Garibaldi dropped 160 guided bombs during 1221 flight hours. Italian Navy Aviation Italian aircraft carrier Cavour Italian aircraft carrier Trieste List of naval ship classes in service Media related to Italian aircraft carrier Giuseppe Garibaldi at Wikimedia Commons
Carnival Cruise Line
Carnival Cruise Line is an international cruise line with headquarters in Doral, Florida. Its logo is the funnel like the funnels found on their ships, with red and blue colors; the funnels are shaped like a whale's tail. Carnival is the largest cruise line in the world, based on passengers carried annually, annual revenue, total number of ships in fleet. Carnival is one of ten cruise line brands owned by the world's largest cruise ship operator, the American-British Carnival Corporation & plc. In 2018 Carnival Cruise Line was estimated to hold an 8.9% share of cruise industry revenue and 22.0% of passengers. It is the largest fleet in the Carnival group; the ships fly flags of convenience. Its headquarters are in Miami, the United States; the North American division of Carnival Corporation has executive control over the corporation and is headquartered in Doral, Florida. Carnival Cruise Line was founded in 1972 by Ted Arison. To finance the venture, Arison turned to his friend Meshulam Riklis, who owned Boston-based American International Travel Service.
Arison and Riklis set up the new company as a subsidiary of AITS. AITS was to promote the new venture. In 1974, due to regulatory issues, Riklis sold AITS's interest in the company to Arison for $1, but subject to Arison taking over the substantial company debts; the split enabled Arison to enter into new relationships with independent travel agents. He promoted his cruises to fun-loving younger people; the format was successful financially. Until 1975, the line consisted of the Mardi Gras. In 1975 another ship was acquired, the Carnivale. In 1996, Carnival Destiny of 101,000 GT became the largest passenger ship in the world at the time and first to exceed 100,000 tons. In 2001, Robert H. Dickinson President and CTC, participated in a BBC documentary, Back To The Floor. Dickinson went to work at the lowest crew levels on the MS Imagination in the Caribbean, where he shadowed a Romanian cleaner, Alina. In 2004, Carnival Corporation ordered for a development program for Carnival's new ships, the Pinnacle Project, calling for a 200,000 GT prototype, which would have been the world's largest cruise ship at the time.
The ship was cancelled and after that they came up with a project called Next Generation. In 2009, Carnival released their biggest ship at the time, the Carnival Dream, a new 128,000 GT ship. Carnival Dream entered service on 21 September 2009. After several voyages in the Mediterranean, she was set to offer weekly Caribbean cruises from Port Canaveral from 5 December 2009. A sister ship, Carnival Magic, debuted on 1 May 2011. On 1 December 2009 it was announced, it entered service in June 2012 and its homeport is now Galveston. On May 10, 2010, Carnival selected a name for their new Dream-class vessel in 2012 - Carnival Breeze. On 26 October 2012, it was announced that Carnival had ordered a brand new 133,500 GT ship for their Carnival Cruise Line brand; this ship, built by Fincantieri, was the largest ship they have built. It sailed its maiden voyage on May 1, 2016; the new ship was named Carnival Vista. In January 2017, Michael Thamm was appointed CEO of Carnival Asia to oversee operations in China and the surrounding region.
A sister to Carnival Vista, Carnival Horizon, joined the fleet with their inaugural voyages from Trieste and Barcelona, Spain on May 1, 2016 and April 2, 2018, respectively. Queen Latifah is the Godmother of Horizon for its christening in New York on May 23, 2018. Carnival Panorama is set to join the fleet in December 2019. In February 2018, the company's officials unveiled a major port development project in Ensenada, Mexico. In 2016, Carnival extended their contract with Port Everglades cruise port to 2030; the port began a $54 million renovation in anticipation of the deal. The agreement brings over $200 million in personal income. In 2018, Carnival brought the Carnival Fantasy to Alabama. Economists anticipate an increase in tourism to revenue at an estimated $35 million; the company has been paying wages under $1.50 per hour to employees with low-to-nonexistent benefits, such as holidays or minimal vacations. Monthly salaries of the high-paid workers are around $1,300. Employees report strenuous working conditions such as 14-hour shifts with no days off.
Retirement benefits were revoked in October 2013. In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, three of the Carnival cruise ships were chartered by the United States government for six months to serve as temporary housing until the houses can be rebuilt. After being chartered for six months, their planned voyages were cancelled, passengers were refunded. Holiday was docked in Mobile and Pascagoula, Ecstasy and Sensation were docked at New Orleans, Louisiana; the six-month contract cost $236 million. The contract was criticized, because the vessels were never utilized, Carnival received more money than it would have earned by using the ships in their normal rotation. Since 2017, Carnival Cruise Line has been on probation, after having been found to "illegally dumping oil into the ocean from its Princess Cruises ships and lying about the scheme." Carnival Cruise Line had to pay a $40 million fine. By 2019, the US prosecutors found that "ships have dumped gray water into Alaska’s Glacier Bay National Park, prepared ships in advance of court-ordered audits to avoid unfavorable findings, falsified records and dumped plastic garbage into the ocean."
Carnival Cruise has acknowledged these incidents. As a result, a US federal Judge "threatens to stop Carnival ships from docking in US." See al