Antonin Gregory Scalia was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1986 until his death in 2016. Appointed to the Court by President Ronald Reagan in 1986, Scalia was described as the intellectual anchor for the originalist and textualist position in the Court's conservative wing. Scalia was born in New Jersey, he attended Xavier High School in Manhattan and college at Georgetown University in Washington, D. C, he obtained his law degree from Harvard Law School and spent six years in a Cleveland law firm before becoming a law school professor at the University of Virginia. In the early 1970s, he served in the Nixon and Ford administrations as an Assistant Attorney General, he spent most of the Carter years teaching at the University of Chicago, where he became one of the first faculty advisers of the fledgling Federalist Society. In 1982, Ronald Reagan appointed him as judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. In 1986, Reagan appointed him to the Supreme Court.
Scalia was unanimously confirmed by the Senate. He served on the Court for nearly thirty years until his death on February 13, 2016. Scalia espoused a conservative jurisprudence and ideology, advocating textualism in statutory interpretation and originalism in constitutional interpretation, he was a strong defender of the powers of the executive branch, believing presidential power should be paramount in many areas. He believed that the Constitution permitted the death penalty and did not guarantee the right to abortion or same-sex marriage, that affirmative action and most other policies that afforded special protected status to minority groups were unconstitutional; these positions earned him a reputation as one of the most conservative justices on the Court. He filed separate opinions in many cases castigating the Court's majority using scathing language. Scalia's most significant opinions include his lone dissent in Morrison v. Olson, his majority opinion in Crawford v. Washington, his majority opinion in District of Columbia v. Heller.
Scalia was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2018. Antonin Scalia was an only child, his father, Salvatore Eugene Scalia, an Italian immigrant from Sommatino, graduated from Rutgers University and was a graduate student at Columbia University and clerk at the time of his son's birth. The elder Scalia would become a professor of Romance languages at Brooklyn College, where he was an adherent to the formalist New Criticism school of literary theory, his mother, Catherine Louise Scalia, was born in Trenton to Italian immigrant parents and worked as an elementary school teacher. In 1939, Scalia and his family moved to the Elmhurst section of Queens, New York, where he attended P. S. 13. After completing eighth grade in public school, he obtained an academic scholarship to Xavier High School, a Jesuit military school in Manhattan, where he graduated first in the class of 1953 and served as valedictorian, he stated that he spent much of his time on schoolwork and admitted, "I was never cool".
While a youth, he was active as a Boy Scout and was part of the Scouts' national honor society, the Order of the Arrow. Classmate and future New York State official William Stern remembered Scalia in his high school days: "This kid was a conservative when he was 17 years old. An archconservative Catholic, he could have been a member of the Curia. He was the top student in the class, he was brilliant, way above everybody else."In 1953, Scalia enrolled at Georgetown University, where he graduated valedictorian and summa cum laude in 1957 with a Bachelor of Arts in history. While in college, he was a champion collegiate debater in Georgetown's Philodemic Society and a critically praised thespian, he took his junior year abroad at the University of Switzerland. Scalia studied law at Harvard Law School, he graduated magna cum laude in 1960. The fellowship enabled him to travel in Europe during 1960 and 1961. Scalia began his legal career at the international law firm Jones, Day and Reavis in Cleveland, where he worked from 1961 to 1967.
He was regarded at the law firm and would most have been made a partner but said he had long intended to teach. He became a professor of law at the University of Virginia in 1967, moving his family to Charlottesville. After four years in Charlottesville, Scalia entered public service in 1971. President Richard Nixon appointed him general counsel for the Office of Telecommunications Policy, where one of his principal assignments was to formulate federal policy for the growth of cable television. From 1972 to 1974, he was chairman of the Administrative Conference of the United States, a small independent agency that sought to improve the functioning of the federal bureaucracy. In mid-1974, Nixon nominated him as Assistant Attorney General for the Office of Legal Counsel. After Nixon's resignation, the nomination was continued by President Gerald Ford, Scalia was confirmed by the Senate on August 22, 1974. In the aftermath of Watergate, the Ford administration was engaged in a number of conflicts with Congress.
Scalia testified before congressional committees, defending Ford administration assertions of executive privilege regarding its refusal to turn over documents. W
A cruise ship is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages when the voyage itself, the ship's amenities, sometimes the different destinations along the way, form part of the passengers' experience. Transportation is not the only purpose of cruising on cruises that return passengers to their originating port. On "cruises to nowhere" or "nowhere voyages", cruise ships make 2-to-3 night round trips without any ports of call. In contrast, dedicated transport-oriented ocean liners do "line voyages" and transport passengers from one point to another, rather than on round trips. Traditionally, shipping lines build liners for the transoceanic trade to a higher standard than that of a typical cruise ship, including higher freeboard and stronger plating to withstand rough seas and adverse conditions encountered in the open ocean, such as the North Atlantic. Ocean liners usually have larger capacities for fuel and other stores for consumption on long voyages, compared to dedicated cruise-ships, but few ocean liners remain in existence—note the preserved liners and Queen Mary 2, which make scheduled North Atlantic voyages.
Although luxurious, ocean liners had characteristics that made them unsuitable for cruising, such as high fuel-consumption, deep draughts that prevented their entering shallow ports, enclosed weatherproof decks inappropriate for tropical weather, cabins designed to maximize passenger numbers rather than comfort. The gradual evolution of passenger-ship design from ocean liners to cruise ships has seen passenger cabins shifted from inside the hull to the superstructure and provided with private verandas. Modern cruise ships, while sacrificing some qualities of seaworthiness, have added amenities to cater to water tourists, recent vessels have been described as "balcony-laden floating condominiums"; the distinction between ocean liners and cruise ships has blurred with respect to deployment, although differences in construction remain. Larger cruise ships have engaged in longer trips, such as transoceanic voyages which may not return to the same port for months; some former ocean liners operate as cruise ships, such as Marco Polo, although this number is diminishing.
The only dedicated transatlantic ocean liner in operation as a liner as of December 2013 is Queen Mary 2 of the Cunard Line. She has the amenities of contemporary cruise ships and sees significant service on cruisesCruising has become a major part of the tourism industry, accounting for U. S.$29.4 billion, with over 19 million passengers carried worldwide as of 2011.. The industry's rapid growth has seen nine or more newly built ships catering to a North American clientele added every year since 2001, as well as others servicing European clientele. Smaller markets, such as the Asia-Pacific region, are serviced by older ships; these are displaced by new ships in the high-growth areas. As of 2019 the world's largest cruise-ship was Royal Caribbean International's Symphony of the Seas along with its three sister ships Harmony of the Seas, Allure of the Seas, Oasis of the Seas which round out the top 4 largest cruise liners in the world; the birth of leisure cruising began with the formation of the Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Company in 1822.
The company started out as a shipping line with routes between England and the Iberian Peninsula, adopting the name Peninsular Steam Navigation Company. It won its first contract to deliver mail in 1837. In 1840, it began mail delivery to Alexandria, via Gibraltar and Malta; the company was incorporated by Royal Charter the same year, becoming the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company. P&O first introduced passenger cruising services in 1844, advertising sea tours to destinations such as Gibraltar and Athens, sailing from Southampton; the forerunner of modern cruise holidays, these voyages were the first of their kind, P&O Cruises has been recognised as the world's oldest cruise line. The company introduced round trips to destinations such as Alexandria and Constantinople, it underwent a period of rapid expansion in the latter half of the 19th century, commissioning larger and more luxurious ships to serve the expanding market. Notable ships of the era include the SS Ravenna built in 1880, which became the first ship to be built with a total steel superstructure, the SS Valetta built in 1889, the first ship to use electric lights.
Some sources mention Francesco I, flying the flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, as the first cruise ship. She was built in 1831 and sailed from Naples in early June 1833, preceded by an advertising campaign; the cruise ship was boarded by nobles and royal princes from all over Europe. In just over three months, the ship sailed to Taormina, Syracuse, Corfu, Delphi, Athens, Constantinople, delighting passengers with excursions and guided tours, card tables on the deck and parties on board. However, it was not a commercial endeavour; the cruise of the German ship Augusta Victoria in the Mediterranean and the Near East from 22 January to 22 March 1891, with 241 passengers including Albert Ballin and wife, popularized the cruise to a wider market. Christian Wilhelm Allers published an illustrated account of it as Backschisch; the first vessel built for luxury cruising, was Prinzessin Victoria Luise of Germany, designed by Albert Ballin, general manager of Hamburg-America Line. The ship was completed in 1900.
The practice of luxury cruising made steady inroads on the more established market for transatlantic crossings. In the competition fo
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
The terms international waters or trans-boundary waters apply where any of the following types of bodies of water transcend international boundaries: oceans, large marine ecosystems, enclosed or semi-enclosed regional seas and estuaries, lakes, groundwater systems, wetlands. International waters have no sovereignty, ergo is "Terra nullius". All states have the freedom of: fishing, overflight, laying cables and pipelines, as well as research. Oceans and waters outside national jurisdiction are referred to as the high seas or, in Latin, mare liberum; the Convention on the High Seas, signed in 1958, which has 63 signatories, defined "high seas" to mean "all parts of the sea that are not included in the territorial sea or in the internal waters of a State" and where "no State may validly purport to subject any part of them to its sovereignty." The Convention on the High Seas was used as a foundation for the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, signed in 1982, which recognized Exclusive Economic Zones extending 200 nautical miles from the baseline, where coastal States have sovereign rights to the water column and sea floor as well as the natural resources found there.
The high seas cover over two thirds of the ocean. Ships sailing the high seas are under the jurisdiction of the flag state. International waters can be contrasted with internal waters, territorial waters and exclusive economic zones. Several international treaties have established freedom of navigation on semi-enclosed seas; the Copenhagen Convention of 1857 opened access to the Baltic by abolishing the Sound Dues and making the Danish Straits an international waterway free to all commercial and military shipping. Several conventions have opened the Dardanelles to shipping; the latest, the Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Turkish Straits, maintains the straits' status as an international waterway. Other international treaties have opened up rivers, which are not traditionally international waterways; the Danube River is an international waterway so that landlocked Austria, Moldova and Slovakia can have secure access to the Black Sea. Current unresolved disputes over whether particular waters are "International waters" include: The Arctic Ocean: While Canada, Denmark and Norway all regard parts of the Arctic seas as national waters or internal waters, most European Union countries and the United States regard the whole region as international waters.
The Northwest Passage through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago is one of the more prominent examples, with Canada claiming it as internal waters, while the United States and the European Union considers it an international strait. The Southern Ocean: Australia claims an exclusive economic zone around its Antarctic territorial claim. Since this claim is only recognised by four other countries, the EEZ claim is disputed. Area around Okinotorishima: Japan claims Okinotorishima is an islet and thus they should have an EEZ around it, but some neighboring countries claim it is an atoll and thus should not have an EEZ. South China Sea: See Territorial disputes in the South China Sea; some countries consider the South China Sea as international waters, but this viewpoint is not universal. Notably, which opposes any suggestion that coastal States could be obliged to share the resources of the exclusive economic zone with other powers that had fished there, claims historical rights to the resources of the exclusive economic zones of all other coastal States in the South China Sea.
In addition to formal disputes, the government of Somalia exercises little control de facto over Somali territorial waters. Much piracy, illegal dumping of waste and fishing without permit has occurred. Although water is seen as a source of conflict, recent research suggests that water management can be a source for cooperation between countries; such cooperation will benefit participating countries by being the catalyst for larger socio-economic development. For instance, the countries of the Senegal River Basin that cooperate through the Organisation pour la Mise en Valeur du Fleuve Sénégal have achieved greater socio-economic development and overcome challenges relating to agriculture and other issues. International Freshwater Treaties Database; the Yearbook of International Cooperation on Environment and Development profiles agreements regarding the Marine Environment, Marine Living Resources and Freshwater Resources. 1972 London Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter.
1973 London International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973 MARPOL 1982 United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea. 1997 United Nations Convention on the Law of Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses – not ratified. Transboundary Groundwater Treaty, Bellagio Draft – proposed, but not signed. Other global conventions and treaties with implications for International Waters: 1971 Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity. At least ten conventions are included within the Regional Seas Program of UNEP, including: the Atlantic Coast of West and Central Africa.
Carnival Cruise Line
Carnival Cruise Line is an international cruise line with headquarters in Doral, Florida. Its logo is the funnel like the funnels found on their ships, with red and blue colors; the funnels are shaped like a whale's tail. Carnival is the largest cruise line in the world, based on passengers carried annually, annual revenue, total number of ships in fleet. Carnival is one of ten cruise line brands owned by the world's largest cruise ship operator, the American-British Carnival Corporation & plc. In 2018 Carnival Cruise Line was estimated to hold an 8.9% share of cruise industry revenue and 22.0% of passengers. It is the largest fleet in the Carnival group; the ships fly flags of convenience. Its headquarters are in Miami, the United States; the North American division of Carnival Corporation has executive control over the corporation and is headquartered in Doral, Florida. Carnival Cruise Line was founded in 1972 by Ted Arison. To finance the venture, Arison turned to his friend Meshulam Riklis, who owned Boston-based American International Travel Service.
Arison and Riklis set up the new company as a subsidiary of AITS. AITS was to promote the new venture. In 1974, due to regulatory issues, Riklis sold AITS's interest in the company to Arison for $1, but subject to Arison taking over the substantial company debts; the split enabled Arison to enter into new relationships with independent travel agents. He promoted his cruises to fun-loving younger people; the format was successful financially. Until 1975, the line consisted of the Mardi Gras. In 1975 another ship was acquired, the Carnivale. In 1996, Carnival Destiny of 101,000 GT became the largest passenger ship in the world at the time and first to exceed 100,000 tons. In 2001, Robert H. Dickinson President and CTC, participated in a BBC documentary, Back To The Floor. Dickinson went to work at the lowest crew levels on the MS Imagination in the Caribbean, where he shadowed a Romanian cleaner, Alina. In 2004, Carnival Corporation ordered for a development program for Carnival's new ships, the Pinnacle Project, calling for a 200,000 GT prototype, which would have been the world's largest cruise ship at the time.
The ship was cancelled and after that they came up with a project called Next Generation. In 2009, Carnival released their biggest ship at the time, the Carnival Dream, a new 128,000 GT ship. Carnival Dream entered service on 21 September 2009. After several voyages in the Mediterranean, she was set to offer weekly Caribbean cruises from Port Canaveral from 5 December 2009. A sister ship, Carnival Magic, debuted on 1 May 2011. On 1 December 2009 it was announced, it entered service in June 2012 and its homeport is now Galveston. On May 10, 2010, Carnival selected a name for their new Dream-class vessel in 2012 - Carnival Breeze. On 26 October 2012, it was announced that Carnival had ordered a brand new 133,500 GT ship for their Carnival Cruise Line brand; this ship, built by Fincantieri, was the largest ship they have built. It sailed its maiden voyage on May 1, 2016; the new ship was named Carnival Vista. In January 2017, Michael Thamm was appointed CEO of Carnival Asia to oversee operations in China and the surrounding region.
A sister to Carnival Vista, Carnival Horizon, joined the fleet with their inaugural voyages from Trieste and Barcelona, Spain on May 1, 2016 and April 2, 2018, respectively. Queen Latifah is the Godmother of Horizon for its christening in New York on May 23, 2018. Carnival Panorama is set to join the fleet in December 2019. In February 2018, the company's officials unveiled a major port development project in Ensenada, Mexico. In 2016, Carnival extended their contract with Port Everglades cruise port to 2030; the port began a $54 million renovation in anticipation of the deal. The agreement brings over $200 million in personal income. In 2018, Carnival brought the Carnival Fantasy to Alabama. Economists anticipate an increase in tourism to revenue at an estimated $35 million; the company has been paying wages under $1.50 per hour to employees with low-to-nonexistent benefits, such as holidays or minimal vacations. Monthly salaries of the high-paid workers are around $1,300. Employees report strenuous working conditions such as 14-hour shifts with no days off.
Retirement benefits were revoked in October 2013. In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, three of the Carnival cruise ships were chartered by the United States government for six months to serve as temporary housing until the houses can be rebuilt. After being chartered for six months, their planned voyages were cancelled, passengers were refunded. Holiday was docked in Mobile and Pascagoula, Ecstasy and Sensation were docked at New Orleans, Louisiana; the six-month contract cost $236 million. The contract was criticized, because the vessels were never utilized, Carnival received more money than it would have earned by using the ships in their normal rotation. Since 2017, Carnival Cruise Line has been on probation, after having been found to "illegally dumping oil into the ocean from its Princess Cruises ships and lying about the scheme." Carnival Cruise Line had to pay a $40 million fine. By 2019, the US prosecutors found that "ships have dumped gray water into Alaska’s Glacier Bay National Park, prepared ships in advance of court-ordered audits to avoid unfavorable findings, falsified records and dumped plastic garbage into the ocean."
Carnival Cruise has acknowledged these incidents. As a result, a US federal Judge "threatens to stop Carnival ships from docking in US." See al
Thurgood Marshall was an American lawyer, serving as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from October 1967 until October 1991. Marshall was its first African-American justice. Prior to his judicial service, he argued several cases before the Supreme Court, including Brown v. Board of Education. Born in Baltimore, Marshall graduated from the Howard University School of Law in 1933, he established a private legal practice in Baltimore before founding the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, where he served as executive director. In that position, he argued several cases before the Supreme Court, including Smith v. Allwright, Shelley v. Kraemer, Brown v. Board of Education, which held that racial segregation in public education is a violation of the Equal Protection Clause. In 1961, President John F. Kennedy appointed Marshall to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. Four years President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed Marshall as the United States Solicitor General.
In 1967, Johnson nominated Marshall to succeed retiring Associate Justice Tom C. Clark. Marshall retired during the administration of President George H. W. Bush, was succeeded by Clarence Thomas. Marshall was born in Baltimore, Maryland, on July 2, 1908, he was descended from enslaved peoples on both sides of his family. His original name was Thoroughgood, his father, William Canfield Marshall, worked as a railroad porter, his mother Norma Arica, as a teacher. Marshall first learned how to debate from his father, who took Marshall and his brother to watch court cases; the family debated current events after dinner. Marshall said, he did it by teaching me to argue, by challenging my logic on every point, by making me prove every statement I made."Marshall attended Frederick Douglass High School in Baltimore and was placed in the class with the best students. He graduated a year early in 1925 with a B-grade average, placed in the top third of the class, he went to Lincoln University, a black university in Pennsylvania.
It is reported that he intended to study medicine and become a dentist. But according to his application to Lincoln University, Marshall said his goal was to become a lawyer. Among his classmates were poet Langston Hughes and musician Cab Calloway, he did not take his studies and was suspended twice for hazing and pranks against fellow students. He was not politically active at first. In his first year Marshall opposed the integration of African-American professors at the university. Hughes described Marshall as "rough and ready and wrong". In his second year Marshall participated in a sit-in protest against segregation at a local movie theater; that year he was initiated as a member of Alpha Phi Alpha, the first fraternity founded by and for blacks. In September 1929 he married Vivien Buster Burey and began to take his studies graduating from Lincoln with honors Bachelor of Arts in Humanities, with a major in American literature and philosophy. Marshall wanted to study in his hometown law school, the University of Maryland School of Law, but did not apply because of the school's segregation policy.
Marshall attended Howard University School of Law. His views on discrimination were influenced by the dean, Charles Hamilton Houston. In 1933, Marshall graduated first in his law class at Howard. After graduating from law school, Marshall started a private law practice in Baltimore, he began his 25-year affiliation with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in 1934 by representing the organization in the law school discrimination suit Murray v. Pearson. In 1936, Marshall became part of the national staff of the NAACP. In Murray v. Pearson, Marshall represented Donald Gaines Murray, a black Amherst College graduate with excellent credentials, denied admission to the University of Maryland Law School because of its segregation policy. Black students in Maryland wanting to study law had to attend segregated establishments, Morgan College, the Princess Anne Academy, or out-of-state black institutions. Using the strategy developed by Nathan Margold, Marshall argued that Maryland's segregation policy violated the "separate but equal" doctrine of Plessy v. Ferguson because the state did not provide a comparable educational opportunity at a state-run black institution.
The Maryland Court of Appeals ruled against the state of Maryland and its Attorney General, who represented the University of Maryland, stating, "Compliance with the Constitution cannot be deferred at the will of the state. Whatever system is adopted for legal education must furnish equality of treatment now." At the age of 32, Marshall won U. S. Supreme Court case Chambers v. Florida, 309 U. S. 227. That same year, he founded and became the executive director of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund; as the head of the Legal Defense Fund, he argued many other civil rights cases before the Supreme Court, most of them including Smith v. Allwright, 321 U. S. 649. S. 1. S. 629. S. 637. His most famous case as a lawyer was Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U. S. 483, the case in which the Supreme Court ruled that "separate but equal" public education, as established b