A cruise ship is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages when the voyage itself, the ship's amenities, sometimes the different destinations along the way, form part of the passengers' experience. Transportation is not the only purpose of cruising on cruises that return passengers to their originating port. On "cruises to nowhere" or "nowhere voyages", cruise ships make 2-to-3 night round trips without any ports of call. In contrast, dedicated transport-oriented ocean liners do "line voyages" and transport passengers from one point to another, rather than on round trips. Traditionally, shipping lines build liners for the transoceanic trade to a higher standard than that of a typical cruise ship, including higher freeboard and stronger plating to withstand rough seas and adverse conditions encountered in the open ocean, such as the North Atlantic. Ocean liners usually have larger capacities for fuel and other stores for consumption on long voyages, compared to dedicated cruise-ships, but few ocean liners remain in existence—note the preserved liners and Queen Mary 2, which make scheduled North Atlantic voyages.
Although luxurious, ocean liners had characteristics that made them unsuitable for cruising, such as high fuel-consumption, deep draughts that prevented their entering shallow ports, enclosed weatherproof decks inappropriate for tropical weather, cabins designed to maximize passenger numbers rather than comfort. The gradual evolution of passenger-ship design from ocean liners to cruise ships has seen passenger cabins shifted from inside the hull to the superstructure and provided with private verandas. Modern cruise ships, while sacrificing some qualities of seaworthiness, have added amenities to cater to water tourists, recent vessels have been described as "balcony-laden floating condominiums"; the distinction between ocean liners and cruise ships has blurred with respect to deployment, although differences in construction remain. Larger cruise ships have engaged in longer trips, such as transoceanic voyages which may not return to the same port for months; some former ocean liners operate as cruise ships, such as Marco Polo, although this number is diminishing.
The only dedicated transatlantic ocean liner in operation as a liner as of December 2013 is Queen Mary 2 of the Cunard Line. She has the amenities of contemporary cruise ships and sees significant service on cruisesCruising has become a major part of the tourism industry, accounting for U. S.$29.4 billion, with over 19 million passengers carried worldwide as of 2011.. The industry's rapid growth has seen nine or more newly built ships catering to a North American clientele added every year since 2001, as well as others servicing European clientele. Smaller markets, such as the Asia-Pacific region, are serviced by older ships; these are displaced by new ships in the high-growth areas. As of 2019 the world's largest cruise-ship was Royal Caribbean International's Symphony of the Seas along with its three sister ships Harmony of the Seas, Allure of the Seas, Oasis of the Seas which round out the top 4 largest cruise liners in the world; the birth of leisure cruising began with the formation of the Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Company in 1822.
The company started out as a shipping line with routes between England and the Iberian Peninsula, adopting the name Peninsular Steam Navigation Company. It won its first contract to deliver mail in 1837. In 1840, it began mail delivery to Alexandria, via Gibraltar and Malta; the company was incorporated by Royal Charter the same year, becoming the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company. P&O first introduced passenger cruising services in 1844, advertising sea tours to destinations such as Gibraltar and Athens, sailing from Southampton; the forerunner of modern cruise holidays, these voyages were the first of their kind, P&O Cruises has been recognised as the world's oldest cruise line. The company introduced round trips to destinations such as Alexandria and Constantinople, it underwent a period of rapid expansion in the latter half of the 19th century, commissioning larger and more luxurious ships to serve the expanding market. Notable ships of the era include the SS Ravenna built in 1880, which became the first ship to be built with a total steel superstructure, the SS Valetta built in 1889, the first ship to use electric lights.
Some sources mention Francesco I, flying the flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, as the first cruise ship. She was built in 1831 and sailed from Naples in early June 1833, preceded by an advertising campaign; the cruise ship was boarded by nobles and royal princes from all over Europe. In just over three months, the ship sailed to Taormina, Syracuse, Corfu, Delphi, Athens, Constantinople, delighting passengers with excursions and guided tours, card tables on the deck and parties on board. However, it was not a commercial endeavour; the cruise of the German ship Augusta Victoria in the Mediterranean and the Near East from 22 January to 22 March 1891, with 241 passengers including Albert Ballin and wife, popularized the cruise to a wider market. Christian Wilhelm Allers published an illustrated account of it as Backschisch; the first vessel built for luxury cruising, was Prinzessin Victoria Luise of Germany, designed by Albert Ballin, general manager of Hamburg-America Line. The ship was completed in 1900.
The practice of luxury cruising made steady inroads on the more established market for transatlantic crossings. In the competition fo
The International Maritime Organization number is a unique reference for ships, registered ship owners and management companies. IMO numbers were introduced to reduce maritime fraud, they consist of the three letters "IMO" followed by unique seven-digit numbers, assigned under the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea. In 1987 the IMO adopted resolution A.600, aimed at the "enhancement of maritime safety and pollution prevention and the prevention of maritime fraud" by assigning to each ship a permanent identification number. The IMO number remains linked to the hull for its lifetime, regardless of changes of names, flags, or owners; the IMO adopted the existing unique 7-digit numbers applied to ships by Lloyd's Register since 1969, which were modified from 6-digit numbers introduced in 1963. SOLAS regulation XI/3, adopted in 1994 and came into force on 1 January 1996, made IMO numbers mandatory, it was applied to cargo vessels that are at least 300 gross tons and passenger vessels of at least 100 gt.
In the SOLAS Convention, "cargo ships" means "ships which are not passenger ships". The IMO scheme does not however apply to: Vessels engaged in fishing Ships without mechanical means of propulsion Pleasure yachts Ships engaged on special service Hopper barges Hydrofoils, air cushion vehicles Floating docks and structures classified in a similar manner Ships of war and troopships Wooden ships In December 2002, the Diplomatic Conference on Maritime Security adopted a number of measures aimed at enhancing security of ships and port facilities; this included a modification to SOLAS Regulation XI-1/3 to require ships' identification numbers to be permanently marked in a visible place either on the ship's hull or superstructure as well as internally and on the ship's certificates. Passenger ships should carry the marking on a horizontal surface visible from the air. In May 2005, IMO adopted a new SOLAS regulation XI-1/3-1 on the mandatory company and registered owner identification number scheme, with entry into force on 1 January 2009.
The regulation provides that every ship owner and management company shall have a unique identification number. Other amendments require these numbers to be added to the relevant certificates and documents in the International Safety Management Code and the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code. Like the IMO ship identification number, the company identification number is a seven-digit number with the prefix IMO. For example, for the ship Atlantic Star, IMO 5304986 referred to the former ship manager Pullmantur Cruises Ship Management Ltd and IMO 5364264 to her former owner, Pullmantur Cruises Empress Ltd. IMO identification numbers for ships and registered owners are assigned by IHS Markit. For new vessels, the IMO number is assigned to a hull during construction upon keel laying. Many vessels which fall outside the mandatory requirements of SOLAS have numbers allocated by Lloyd's Register or IHS Markit in the same numerical series, including fishing vessels and commercial yachts.
An IMO number is made of the three letters "IMO" followed by a seven-digit number. This consists of a six-digit sequential unique number followed by a check digit; the integrity of an IMO number can be verified using its check digit. This is done by multiplying each of the first six digits by a factor of 2 to 7 corresponding to their position from right to left; the rightmost digit of this sum is the check digit. For example, for IMO 9074729: + + + + + = 139. Maritime Mobile Service Identity, used globally as a national alternate to the IMO number ENI number, a comparable system for European barges and other inland waterway vessels IMO Number Requests by IHS Maritime
Monfalcone is a town and comune of the province of Gorizia in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, northern Italy, located on the Gulf of Trieste. Monfalcone means "Mount of Falcon" in Italian, it is a major industrial centre for manufacturing ships, textiles and refined oil. It is the home of Fincantieri cruise ship building company. Monfalcone is the fifth most populous town in Friuli-Venezia Giulia and the main centre of Bisiacaria territory. Joined to its neighbourhoods, it reaches about 50,000 inhabitants; the town lies between the Carso hills and the Adriatic coast, being the northernmost port of the Mediterranean Sea. In prehistoric times the area of Monfalcone housed several fortified villages called castellieri. After the foundation of the Roman city of Aquileia, some thermal buildings were created on the hills, known as Insulae Clarae. After the Ostrogoth, Byzantine and Frank domination, Monfalcone was controlled by the Patriarchs of Aquileia starting from 967; the Venetians conquered it in 1420 after three days of siege, keeping it until 1511, when it fell to the French.
Conquered back by Venice, it was ravaged by the troops of the Habsburg emperor Maximilian I in 1513, who destroyed the Rocca. In 1521 it was returned to the Republic of Venice, under which it remained until its dissolution by the 1797 Treaty of Campo Formio. From 1805 it was controlled by the French Empire until the fall of Napoleon in 1814, after which it was included in the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, part of the Austrian Empire. Incorporated into the crown land of Gorizia and Gradisca, it belonged to the Austrian Littoral from 1849; the first shipyards arose from about 1908 onwards, among them the Cantiere Navale Triestino company building steamships for the Austro-Americana Line based in Trieste. During World War I, the town was captured by Italian forces according to the 1915 London Pact. Upon the bloody Battles of the Isonzo, Monfalcone was recaptured by Austria, after the 1917 Battle of Caporetto, but returned to Italy in 1918; the shipyards were damaged by bitter fighting and had to be rebuilt afterwards.
Rocca. Of medieval origin, its current appearance dates to the Venetian restorations in the early 16th century; the interior houses a speleology exhibition. Park of World War I Karst area Cathedral of Sant'Ambrogio Roman villas and thermae: Several remains of roman villas have been found on the territory of the municipality of Monfalcone; the sites are not open to public. A thermae dating back to the roman era is present and what remains of the ancient edifice is now included in the current thermal establishment, reactivated in 2014. Monfalcone railway station, opened in 1860, is a junction between the Venice–Trieste railway and the Udine–Trieste railway; the construction and design records of the ships produced in Monfalcone Shipyard Number 1 from 1909 - 1967 have been preserved in the Fondo Egone Missio Archives. Enrico Toti, was killed in the Sixth Battle of the Isonzo in Monfalcone Antonio Sant'Elia, was killed in the Eighth Battle of the Isonzo in Monfalcone Filippo Zappata, worked in Monfalcone Mirko Gruden, footballer Gino Paoli, singer-songwriter Paolo Rossi, actor Stefano Zoff, boxer Mo-Do, musician Elisa Toffoli, singer-songwriter, grew up in Monfalcone Massimiliano Versace, scientist Monfalcone is twinned with: Neumarkt in Steiermark, Austria Gallipoli, Italy Karadeniz Ereğli, Turkey Zonguldak, Turkey Official website
Italian destroyer Caio Duilio
Caio Duilio is a destroyer of the Italian Navy. She and her sister Italian destroyer Andrea Doria form the Andrea Doria class. Caio Duilio is marked by hull number D 554 according to NATO classification; the ship takes her name from admiral Gaius Duilius. Duilius ordered the construction of 120 ships that were armed with hooked bridges called corvus, Latin for “crow”; this innovation allowed the Romans to defeat the powerful enemy fleet of Carthage transforming the naval battle into a melee combat. After the victory over the Carthaginians at the Battle of Mylae in 260 BC, Duilius was honored with a triumphal parade and the erection in the Roman Forum of a column adorned with the beaks of captured Carthaginian warships; the destroyer Caio Duilio is the fourth Italian warship with this historical name. The first, the ironclad Caio Duilio, was commissioned in 1886 and served until 1909. Fitted with the largest guns available, 100-ton 450 mm calibre muzzle-loading guns, she was regarded as the most powerful warship afloat in her day.
The second unit, the Andrea Doria-class battleship Caio Duilio, was commissioned on 24 April 1913 and was subsequently refitted in 1937, serving in the Regia Marina during World War I and World War II. Caio Duilio was launched on October 23, 2007 and transported to Muggiano shipyard on October 29 for the mounting of the combat system. Caio Duilio's motto refers to the ancient Roman tradition, in which the name acquires religious connotations; some ancient fragments point up this intimate meaning. "Nomen Numen" can be translated as "the name means power". On February 12, 2008 she made the first sea trial and, after the admission into military fleet which took place on April 3, 2009, in Gulf of La Spezia she took part, together with Andrea Doria and French ships Forbin and Chevalier Paul, in a joint exercise which brought together the whole Horizon class on May 5, 2009. Caio Duilio was, along with the aircraft carrier Cavour and the training ship Amerigo Vespucci, one of the Navy Units visitable in Civitavecchia harbour on the Day of the Unification of Italy and the Armed Forces on November 4, 2009.
She participated in the naval parades for the celebrations of the Italian Navy Day in Naples on June 10, 2010 and in La Spezia on June 10, 2011, in the presence of President Giorgio Napolitano. During the development of many complex systems on board, during the trials that led her many times in the Naval Station of Taranto, she made her debut in the international arena during NATO exercise Proud Manta 2011 from February 4 to February 17, 2011, in the waters of the Ionian Sea before the delivery of the Battle Ensign, working together with ships and aircraft of nine allied nations. Nowadays Caio Duilio is the only destroyer based in La Spezia harbour, flagship of the Commander of First Naval Group and under the command of Captain Gaetano Virgilio. Caio Duilio is a multirole ship, with a bias towards anti-aircraft warfare and short and medium-range defence capabilities, she is highly capable in anti-submarine and anti-surface warfare. The ship has been designed to take and operate with Rotary wing aircraft of much higher performance and more autonomy than previous generation helicopters.
The handling of wheeled helicopters on the flight deck is guaranteed up to sea state 6 by the semi-automatic Canadian system TC-ASIST of Indal Technologies committing to these operations a single operator. By type of ship and technology aboard Caio Duilio is able to cover a broad spectrum of maritime activities, ranging from high-intensity military operations to Maritime Security operations; the missions that the unit can perform are: Escort role in an aircraft carrier battle group or naval convoy. The ship was designed to be as little detectable by radar as possible, by using stealth technology for the hull and superstructure. Sea-keeping in unfavorable weather conditions is granted by two pairs of stabilizers; the acoustic signature was reduced with an appropriate choice of machinery and engineering solutions and verifying the intensity of the radiated noise, since the design phase. Equal attention has been directed in the infrared signature branch, by lowering the temperature of engine gases through coaxial exhausts.
After the abandonment of the old system of command and control SADOC, used in the latest modernized version in the Durand de la Penne and Maestrale classes, an integrated type CMS based on Linux OS was installed by EuroSysNav. This is provided with 10 redundant servers and 24 consoles named MFC, of which 19 are located in the Primary CIC, 3 in the secondary CIC in a remote area from the primary CIC, 1 in the Admiral CIC and 1 in the bridge for the officer of the watch. With a MFC each operator, once logged in with own user name and password, can access to all relevant tactical data to his role and has the possibility to us
Friuli–Venezia Giulia is one of the 20 regions of Italy, one of five autonomous regions with special statute. The regional capital is Trieste; the city of Venice is not despite the name. Friuli–Venezia Giulia has an area of 7,924 km2 and about 1.2 million inhabitants. A natural opening to the sea for many Central European countries, the region is traversed by the major transport routes between the east and west of southern Europe, it encompasses the historical-geographical region of Friuli and a small portion of the historical region of Venezia Giulia – known in English as the Julian March – each with its own distinct history and identity. The name of the region was spelled Friuli–Venezia Giulia until 2001, when, in connection with a modification of article nr. 116 of the Italian constitution, the official spelling Friuli Venezia Giulia was adopted. The term "Venezia Giulia" was coined by Graziadio Isaia Ascoli. Names in other regional languages include Friulian: Friûl-Vignesie Julie. Friuli–Venezia Giulia is Italy's north-easternmost region.
It is the fifth smallest region of the country. It borders Austria to Slovenia to the east. To the south it faces the Adriatic Sea and to the west its internal border is with the Veneto region; the region spans a wide variety of climates and landscapes from the mild Oceanic in the south to Alpine continental in the north. The total area is subdivided into a 42.5% mountainous-alpine terrain in the north, 19.3% is hilly to the south-east, while the remaining 38.2% comprises the central and coastal plains. Morphologically the region can be subdivided into four main areas; the mountainous area in the north: this part of the region includes Carnia and the ending section of the Alps, of which the highest peaks exceed 2,700 m above sea level. Its landscapes are characterised by vast pine forests and pastures, mountain lakes and numerous streams and small rivers descending from the mountains; the area is known for its tourist destinations during the winter season. The hilly area, situated to the south of the mountains and along the central section of the border with Slovenia.
The main product of agriculture in this area is wine, whose quality the white, is known worldwide. The easternmost part of the hilly area is known as Slavia Friulana, as it is inhabited by ethnic Slovenes; the central plains are characterised by poor and permeable soil. The soil has been made fertile with an extensive irrigation system and through the adoption of modern intensive farming techniques. In this part of the region most of the agricultural activities are concentrated; the coastal area can be further subdivided in two, western-eastern, subsections separated by the river Isonzo's estuary. To the west, the coast is shallow and sandy, with numerous tourist resorts and the lagoons of Grado and Marano Lagunare. To the east, the coastline rises into cliffs, where the Kras plateau meets the Adriatic, all the way to Trieste and Muggia on the border with Slovenia; the Carso has geological features and phenomena such as hollows, cave networks and underground rivers, which extend inland in the provinces of Trieste and Gorizia, with an altitude ranging between 300m and 600m.
The rivers of the region flow from Slovenia into the Adriatic. The two main rivers are the Tagliamento, which flows west-east in its upper part in the Carnic Alps and bends into a north-south flow that separates the Julian Alps from Alpine foothills and the Isonzo which flows from Slovenia into Italy; the Timavo is an underground river that flows for 38 km from Slovenia and resurfaces near its mouth north-west of Duino. The region Friuli–Venezia Giulia has a temperate climate. However, due to the terrain's diversity, it varies from one area to another. Walled by the Alps on its northern flank, the region is exposed to air masses from the East and the West; the region receives the southerly Sirocco from the Adriatic sea, which brings in heavy rainfall. Along the coast the climate is pleasant. Trieste records the smallest temperature differences between winter and summer and between day and night; the climate is Alpine-continental in the mountainous areas, where, in some locations, the coldest winter temperatures in Italy can be found.
The Kras plateau has its own weather and climate, influenced during autumn and winter, by masses of cold air coming from the north-east. These generate a special feature of the local climate: the north-easterly wind Bora, which descends onto the Gulf of Trieste with gusts exceeding speeds of 150 km/h. In Roman times, modern Friuli–Venezia Giulia was located within Regio X Venetia et Histria of Roman Italy; the traces of its Roman origin are visible over all the territory. In fact, the city of Aquileia, founded in 181 BC, served as capital of the region and rose to prominence in the Augustan period. Starting from the Lombard settlements, the historical paths of Friuli and Venezia Giulia begin to diverge. In 568, Cividale del Friuli became the capital of the first Lombard dukedom in Italy. In 774, the Franks, favoured the growth of the church of Aquileia and established Cividale as a March. In 1077, Patriarchate of Aquileia was given temporal power by the Holy Roman Emperors and this power was extended temporarily even
The Hudson River is a 315-mile river that flows from north to south through eastern New York in the United States. The river originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York, flows southward through the Hudson Valley to the Upper New York Bay between New York City and Jersey City, it drains into the Atlantic Ocean at New York Harbor. The river serves as a political boundary between the states of New Jersey and New York at its southern end. Further north, it marks local boundaries between several New York counties; the lower half of the river is a tidal estuary, deeper than the body of water into which it flows, occupying the Hudson Fjord, an inlet which formed during the most recent period of North American glaciation, estimated at 26,000 to 13,300 years ago. Tidal waters influence the Hudson's flow from as far north as the city of Troy; the river is named after Henry Hudson, an Englishman sailing for the Dutch East India Company, who explored it in 1609, after whom Hudson Bay in Canada is named.
It had been observed by Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano sailing for King Francis I of France in 1524, as he became the first European known to have entered the Upper New York Bay, but he considered the river to be an estuary. The Dutch called the river the North River – with the Delaware River called the South River – and it formed the spine of the Dutch colony of New Netherland. Settlements of the colony clustered around the Hudson, its strategic importance as the gateway to the American interior led to years of competition between the English and the Dutch over control of the river and colony. During the eighteenth century, the river valley and its inhabitants were the subject and inspiration of Washington Irving, the first internationally acclaimed American author. In the nineteenth century, the area inspired the Hudson River School of landscape painting, an American pastoral style, as well as the concepts of environmentalism and wilderness; the Hudson was the eastern outlet for the Erie Canal, when completed in 1825, became an important transportation artery for the early-19th-century United States.
The source of the Hudson River is Lake Tear of the Clouds in the Adirondack Park at an altitude of 4,322 feet. However, the river is not cartographically called the Hudson River until miles downstream; the river is named Feldspar Brook until its confluence with Calamity Brook, is named Calamity Brook until the river reaches Indian Pass Brook, flowing south from the outlet of Henderson Lake. From that point on, the stream is cartographically known as the Hudson River; the U. S. Geological Survey uses this cartographical definition; the longest source of the Hudson River as shown on the most detailed USGS maps is the "Opalescent River" on the west slopes of Little Marcy Mountain, originating two miles north of Lake Tear of the Clouds, several miles, past the Flowed Lands, to the Hudson River. And a mile longer than "Feldspar Brook", which flows out of that lake in the Adirondack Mountains. Popular culture and convention, more cite the photogenic Lake Tear of the Clouds as the source. Using river names as seen on maps, Indian Pass Brook flows into Henderson Lake, the outlet from Henderson Lake flows east and meets the southwest flowing Calamity Brook.
The confluence of the two rivers is. South of the outlet of Sanford Lake, the Opalescent River flows into the Hudson; the Hudson flows south, taking in Beaver Brook and the outlet of Lake Harris. After its confluence with the Indian River, the Hudson forms the boundary between Essex and Hamilton counties. In the hamlet of North River, the Hudson flows in Warren County and takes in the Schroon River. Further south, the river forms the boundary between Saratoga Counties; the river takes in the Sacandaga River from the Great Sacandaga Lake. Shortly thereafter, the river leaves the Adirondack Park, flows under Interstate 87, through Glens Falls, just south of Lake George although receiving no streamflow from the lake, it next goes through Hudson Falls. At this point the river forms the boundary between Saratoga Counties. Here the river has an elevation of 200 feet. Just south in Fort Edward, the river reaches its confluence with the Champlain Canal, which provided boat traffic between New York City and Montreal and the rest of Eastern Canada via the Hudson, Lake Champlain and the Saint Lawrence Seaway.
Further south the Hudson takes in water from the Batten Kill River and Fish Creek near Schuylerville. The river forms the boundary between Saratoga and Rensselaer counties; the river enters the heart of the Capital District. It takes in water from the Hoosic River. Shortly thereafter the river has its confluence with the Mohawk River, the largest tributary of the Hudson River, in Waterford; the river reaches the Federal Dam in Troy, marking an impoundment of the river. At an elevation of 2 feet, the bottom of the dam marks the beginning of the tidal influence in the Hudson as well as the beginning of the lower Hudson River. South of the Federal Dam, the Hudson River begins to widen considerably; the river enters the Hudson Valley, flowing along the west bank of Albany and the east bank of Rensselaer. Interstate 90 crosses the Hudson into Albany at this point in the river; the Hudson leaves the Capital District, forming the boundary between Greene and Columbia Counties. It meets its confluence with Schodack Creek, widening at this point.
After flowing by Hudson, the river forms the boundary between Ulster and Columbia Counties and Ulster and Dutchess Counties, passing Germantown and Kingston. The Delaware and Hudson Canal meets the river at t
Cassiopea-class patrol vessel
The Cassiopea class is a heavy series of four patrol boats of the Italian Navy. They were built in the late 1980s on civilian standards, they are designed for patrol in safe areas. In the early 1980s the Italian navy developed two classes of corvettes to replace older vessels; the Minerva class were combatant ships to serve as coastal escorts, equipped with modern sensors and armament, while the Cassiopea class were simpler offshore patrol vessels intended to replace the old Albatros-class corvettes used for fisheries patrol. Construction of four ships was authorized in December 1982, with funding from the Ministry of Merchant Marine. Orders were placed in December 1986, with construction starting the next year at Fincantieri shipyard, Muggiano; the ships were built to mercantile standards, the first ship entered service in 1989. A further two ships were cancelled in 1991, prior to the start of construction; the ships' main gun armament is a single 76mm/L62 Allargato gun. Each ship is fitted with a flight deck and fixed hangar to accommodate a helicopter type Agusta-Bell AB-212 ASW of the Italian navy.
Each carries equipment for dealing with pollution. Between 2012 and 2014 all units were fitted with Selex ES Janus-N IR optronic system; as of 2014 the ships, starting with Libra were fitted with new dual-band navigation Gemini-DB radar systems from GEM Elettronica. Source: Baker, A. D; the Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World 1998–1999. Annapolis, Maryland, USA. ISBN 1-55750-111-4. Gardiner and Stephen Chumbley. Conway's All The World's Fighting Ships 1947–1995. Annapolis, Maryland, USA. ISBN 1-55750-132-7. Grove, Eric J. NATO Major Warships - Europe. Tri-Service Pocketbook. London: Tri-Service Press, 1990. ISBN 1-85400-006-3