Alberto Mercado Monserrate was a Jr. Featherweight boxer, on the verge of fighting for a world title at least twice in his career. Mercado started boxing as an amateur at the age of 12 winning a nationwide competition known as the "Olimpiadas Jíbaras de la Vivienda"; this hoping to win a world title in the future. In 1978, Mercado represented Puerto Rico at the 1978 Central American and Caribbean Games held at Colombia, he participated in a world cup tournament. Hoping to become the first Puerto Rican to win a gold medal at an Olympic Games, Mercado moved to Cuba periodically. Around that era, Mercado worked alongside one of Jose Celso Barbosa's children. Mercado was one of only three American citizens to participate in the 1980 Olympics celebrated in Moscow, Soviet Union, bearing the flag of and competing in boxing for Puerto Rico after having won the gold medal at the 1979 Pan American Games; the other two were representants from Puerto Rico and boxers: Luis Pizarro and José Angel Molina. In the professional ranks Mercado had a winning record, but had some bad luck.
He lost to Refugio Rojas in a USBA Featherweight title try on points by split decision, on a fight to decide the IBF's #1 challenger, he lost by a knockout in 7 rounds to eventual world champion Antonio Rivera, after leading the fight on all scorecards at the end of round 6. Mercado trained at the famous Bairoa gym at Caguas and he was friends with gym-mate Juan Carazo. Mercado worked as a fireman in Dade County, for many years, he resided in Cayey during his years as a top boxing contender. He had a professional record of 14 losses and 1 draw, with 27 wins by knockout. Mercado works at the gym of the University of Puerto Rico at Cayey. There are plans to build a small museum in Cayey dedicated to him. Juan Carazo List of Puerto Ricans Miguel Angel Cotto Sports in Puerto Rico Evans, Hilary. "Alberto Mercado". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC
John Richard Owens was a professional boxer from Wales who fought under the name Johnny Owen. His fragile appearance earned him many epithets, including'the Bionic Bantam' and'the Merthyr Matchstick'. During his brief career, he held the Bantamweight Championships of Great Britain and Europe and became the first Welsh holder of the Bantamweight Championship of the Commonwealth, he challenged champion Lupe Pintor for his version of the World Bantamweight title on 19 September 1980, losing a torturously difficult contest by way of twelfth round knockout. Owen never fell into a coma and died seven weeks later. A statue commemorating his life and career was unveiled in Merthyr Tydfil in 2002. Johnny Owen was born John Richard Owens, the fourth of a family of eight children to working class parents Dick and Edith Owens in Merthyr Tydfil on 7 January 1956, he began to box at the age of eight and enjoyed a lengthy amateur boxing career taking in some one hundred and twenty six fights. Highlights of his amateur exploits were the winning of several Welsh titles.
Owen was a quiet, friendly character outside the ring. Inside the ring Owen was a formidable opponent with determination and strength in contrast to his frail looking body and possessed impressive stamina built by long hours running up the steep hills of the South Wales Valleys, he turned professional in 1976, winning his debut match with a points victory over fellow Welshman George Sutton, in Pontypool, on 30 September. Owen enjoyed an auspicious start to his professional career, lifting the Bantamweight Championship of Wales after just six contests and knocking out Paddy Maguire to claim the British title after only ten. Guided by manager and trainer Dai Gardiner, Owen grew to dominate the domestic bantamweight scene and by the end of 1978 felt ready to take on his first, international test, his encounter with Paul Ferreri to contest the vacant Bantamweight Championship of the Commonwealth, delivered one of the finest performances of Owen's entire career. Ferrari, Italian born and resident in Australia, had held the title before and was expected to be a difficult, if not insurmountable obstacle to the comparatively inexperienced Owen.
Ferreri's shots were clean and hard and both men boxed well in a fight that went the full distance of fifteen rounds. Towards the end, the Australian began to wilt, his punches seeming to have little effect on Owen as he continued to pressure Ferreri; the judges saw the contest Owen's way and he was proclaimed Wales' first Bantamweight Champion of the Commonwealth. Owen's victory allowed him to challenge for the division's European title, held by Juan Francisco Rodriguez of Spain, it was seen as a controversial match. The fight took place in the champion's home-town in Almeria amid a series of allegations of foul play by the challenger's camp. Rodriguez was said to have exceeded the weight limit and his camp to have engaged in gamesmanship designed, amongst other things, to disrupt Owen's sleep. During the contest itself, the champion was stated to have elbowed and butted Owen throughout the contest, whilst his seconds were believed to have smeared his gloves with an agent for the purpose of obscuring his opponent's vision.
Owen, who had appeared to dominate the contest, was to be the victim of a hometown decision and the Spanish boxing authorities withheld his purse. Until the meeting with Lupe Pintor, this was Owen's sole professional defeat and was avenged a little less than twelve months later. With the European Championship once more at stake, Rodriguez journeyed to Ebbw Vale and acquitted himself bravely. Four months and Owen defended his British Championship for the third and final time, winning a Lonsdale Belt outright in the process, his next outing would be to an encounter with the reigning World Champion. A Mexican slugger, Lupe Pintor had edged a controversial split decision over stable mate and long-time champion Carlos Zarate to lay claim to his WBC World Bantamweight title. Zarate retired in disgust, but Pintor proved to be a worthy successor and few rated Owen's chances when they came together at the Grand Olympic Auditorium, Los Angeles on 19 September 1980. Despite the difference in the fighters' frames, Owen held his own against the assertive champion.
When the bell rang to signal the end of the eighth round, most observers had the Welshman ahead, but he was tiring fast and, in the ninth, suffered the first knockdown of his professional career. The momentum of the whole fight moved in the champion's direction and from the tenth round Pintor was in the ascendency. Misfortune came with twenty five seconds left in the twelfth. A final right sent Owen to the canvas and Pintor had retained his title. Following the knockout, Owen lay flat on his back for five minutes and he was taken out; the promoters' insurance paid about $94,000 in medical costs, but did not pay any death benefits to survivors. Owen, who it transpired had an unusually delicate skull, never regained consciousness and, despite extensive surgery, fell into a coma, he was pronounced dead on 4 November aged twenty-four. Owen's family, far from blaming the World Champion, telegraphed him shortly after their loss and encouraged him to go on fighting. Twenty years a memorial to Johnny Owen was unveiled in Merthyr Tydfil.
At the request of the late fighter's father, the unveiling was performed by Lupe Pintor. Historian Martin Johnes has argued that Owen was an "emblematic figure who represented both the ideals o
A knockout is a fight-ending, winning criterion in several full-contact combat sports, such as boxing, muay thai, mixed martial arts, some forms of taekwondo and other sports involving striking, as well as fighting-based video games. A full knockout is considered any legal strike or combination thereof that renders an opponent unable to continue fighting; the term is associated with a sudden traumatic loss of consciousness caused by a physical blow. Single powerful blows to the head can produce a cerebral concussion or a carotid sinus reflex with syncope and cause a sudden, dramatic KO. Body blows the liver punch, can cause progressive, debilitating pain that can result in a KO. In boxing and kickboxing, a knockout is awarded when one participant falls to the canvas and is unable to rise to their feet within a specified period of time because of exhaustion, disorientation, or unconsciousness. For example, if a boxer is knocked down and is unable to continue the fight within a ten-second count, they are counted as having been knocked out and their opponent is awarded the KO victory.
In mixed martial arts competitions, no time count is given after a knockdown, as the sport allows submission grappling as well as ground and pound. If a fighter loses consciousness as a result of legal strikes it is declared a KO. If the fighter loses consciousness for a brief moment and wakes up again to continue to fight, the fight is stopped and declared a KO; as many MMA fights can take place on the mat rather than standing, it is possible to score a KO via ground and pound, a common victory for grapplers. In fighting-based video games, such as Street Fighter and Tekken, a player scores a knockout by depleting the opponent's health bar, which awards the round to the winning player; the player who wins the most rounds wins the match. This is different from real-life combat sports. A technical knockout, or stoppage, is declared when the referee or official ring physician decides during a round that a fighter cannot safely continue the match for any reason, without the need for an intervening count.
In most regions, a TKO is declared. Other reasons for stopping a fight include severe facial lacerations and a fighter's inability to put up a sufficient defense following a knockdown. A TKO only occurs. If a fighter or his/her cornerman decides to end the fight between rounds, it is ruled a corner retirement or "referee technical decision". Both TKO's and corner retirements are counted as knockouts in a fighter's record. In MMA bouts, the referee may declare a TKO if a fighter cannot intelligently defend him/herself while being struck. A double knockout, in both real life combat sports and fighting-based video games, is when both fighters trade blows and knock each other out and are both unable to continue fighting. In such cases, the match is declared a draw. In fighting games such as Street Fighter and Tekken, a draw is counted as a loss for both players. Little is known about what causes one to be knocked unconscious, but many agree it is related to trauma to the brain stem; this happens when the head rotates often as a result of a strike.
There are three general manifestations of such trauma: a typical knockout, which results in a sustained loss of consciousness, a "flash" knockout, when a transient loss of consciousness occurs, the recipient maintains awareness and memory of the combat a "stunning," a "dazing" or a fighter being "KO'ed on his feet", is when basic consciousness is maintained despite a general loss of awareness and extreme distortions in proprioception, visual fields, auditory processing. Referees are taught to watch for this state, as it cannot be improved by sheer willpower and means the fighter is concussed and unable to safely defend themselves. A basic principle of boxing and other combat sports is to defend against this vulnerability by keeping both hands raised about the face and the chin tucked in; that could still be ineffective if the opponent punches to the solar plexus. A fighter who becomes unconscious from a strike with sufficient knockout power is referred to as having been knocked out or KO'd.
Losing balance without losing consciousness is referred to as being knocked down. Repeated blows to the head, regardless whether they cause loss of consciousness, are known to cause permanent brain damage. In severe cases this may cause strokes or paralysis; this loss of consciousness is known as becoming "punch drunk" or "shot". Because of this, many physicians advise against sports involving knockouts. A knockdown occurs when a fighter touches the floor of the ring with any part of the body other than the feet following a hit, but is able to rise back up and continue fighting; the term is used if the fighter is hanging on to the ropes, caught between the ropes, or is hanging over the ropes and is unable to fall to the floor and cannot protect himself. A knockdown triggers a count by the referee. A flash knockdown is a knockdown where the fighter hits the canvas but recovers enou
Detroit is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Michigan, the largest United States city on the United States–Canada border, the seat of Wayne County. The municipality of Detroit had a 2017 estimated population of 673,104, making it the 23rd-most populous city in the United States; the metropolitan area, known as Metro Detroit, is home to 4.3 million people, making it the second-largest in the Midwest after the Chicago metropolitan area. Regarded as a major cultural center, Detroit is known for its contributions to music and as a repository for art and design. Detroit is a major port located on the Detroit River, one of the four major straits that connect the Great Lakes system to the Saint Lawrence Seaway; the Detroit Metropolitan Airport is among the most important hubs in the United States. The City of Detroit anchors the second-largest regional economy in the Midwest, behind Chicago and ahead of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 13th-largest in the United States. Detroit and its neighboring Canadian city Windsor are connected through a tunnel and the Ambassador Bridge, the busiest international crossing in North America.
Detroit is best known as the center of the U. S. automobile industry, the "Big Three" auto manufacturers General Motors and Chrysler are all headquartered in Metro Detroit. In 1701, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, the future city of Detroit. During the 19th century, it became an important industrial hub at the center of the Great Lakes region. With expansion of the auto industry in the early 20th century, the city and its suburbs experienced rapid growth, by the 1940s, the city had become the fourth-largest in the country. However, due to industrial restructuring, the loss of jobs in the auto industry, rapid suburbanization, Detroit lost considerable population from the late 20th century to the present. Since reaching a peak of 1.85 million at the 1950 census, Detroit's population has declined by more than 60 percent. In 2013, Detroit became the largest U. S. city to file for bankruptcy, which it exited in December 2014, when the city government regained control of Detroit's finances.
Detroit's diverse culture has had both local and international influence in music, with the city giving rise to the genres of Motown and techno, playing an important role in the development of jazz, hip-hop and punk music. The erstwhile rapid growth of Detroit left a globally unique stock of architectural monuments and historic places, since the 2000s conservation efforts managed to save many architectural pieces and allowed several large-scale revitalizations, including the restoration of several historic theatres and entertainment venues, high-rise renovations, new sports stadiums, a riverfront revitalization project. More the population of Downtown Detroit, Midtown Detroit, various other neighborhoods has increased. An popular tourist destination, Detroit receives 19 million visitors per year. In 2015, Detroit was named a "City of Design" by UNESCO, the first U. S. city to receive that designation. Paleo-Indian people inhabited areas near Detroit as early as 11,000 years ago including the culture referred to as the Mound-builders.
In the 17th century, the region was inhabited by Huron, Odawa and Iroquois peoples. The first Europeans did not penetrate into the region and reach the straits of Detroit until French missionaries and traders worked their way around the League of the Iroquois, with whom they were at war, other Iroquoian tribes in the 1630s; the north side of Lake Erie was held by the Huron and Neutral peoples until the 1650s, when the Iroquois pushed both and the Erie people away from the lake and its beaver-rich feeder streams in the Beaver Wars of 1649–1655. By the 1670s, the war-weakened Iroquois laid claim to as far south as the Ohio River valley in northern Kentucky as hunting grounds, had absorbed many other Iroquoian peoples after defeating them in war. For the next hundred years no British, colonist, or French action was contemplated without consultation with, or consideration of the Iroquois' response; when the French and Indian War evicted the Kingdom of France from Canada, it removed one barrier to British colonists migrating west.
British negotiations with the Iroquois would both prove critical and lead to a Crown policy limiting the west of the Alleghenies settlements below the Great Lakes, which gave many American would-be migrants a casus belli for supporting the American Revolution. The 1778 raids and resultant 1779 decisive Sullivan Expedition reopened the Ohio Country to westward emigration, which began immediately, by 1800 white settlers were pouring westwards; the city was named by French colonists, referring to the Detroit River, linking Lake Huron and Lake Erie. On July 24, 1701, the French explorer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, along with more than a hundred other settlers began constructing a small fort on the north bank of the Detroit River. Cadillac would name the settlement Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, after Louis Phélypeaux, comte de Pontchartrain, Minister of Marine under Louis XIV. France offered free land to colonists to attract families to Detroit. By 1773, the population of Detroit was 1,400. By 1778, its population was up to 2,144 and it was the third-largest city in the Province of Quebec.
The region's economy was based on the lucrative fur trade, in which nume
Sugar Ray Leonard
Ray Charles Leonard, best known as "Sugar" Ray Leonard, is an American former professional boxer, motivational speaker, occasional actor. Regarded as one of the greatest boxers of all time, he competed from 1977 to 1997, winning world titles in five weight divisions. Leonard was part of "The Fabulous Four", a group of boxers who all fought each other throughout the 1980s, consisting of himself, Roberto Durán, Thomas Hearns and Marvin Hagler. "The Fabulous Four" created a wave of popularity in the lower weight classes that kept boxing relevant in the post-Muhammad Ali era, during which Leonard defeated future fellow International Boxing Hall of Fame inductees Hearns, Durán, Wilfred Benítez. Leonard was the first boxer to earn more than $100 million in purses, was named "Boxer of the Decade" in the 1980s; the Ring magazine named him Fighter of the Year in 1979 and 1981, while the Boxing Writers Association of America named him Fighter of the Year in 1976, 1979, 1981. In 2002, Leonard was voted by The Ring as the ninth greatest fighter of the last 80 years.
Sugar Ray Leonard is ranked #2 greatest welterweight boxer of all time and #11 greatest boxer of all time by Boxing Action Magazine. Leonard, the fifth of seven children of Cicero and Getha Leonard, was born in Wilmington, North Carolina, he was named after his mother's favorite singer. The family moved to Washington, D. C. when he was three, they settled permanently in Palmer Park, Maryland when he was ten. His father worked as his mother was a nurse, he attended Parkdale High School, Leonard was a shy child, aside from the time he nearly drowned in a creek during a flood in Seat Pleasant, his childhood was uneventful. He stayed home a lot, playing with his dog, his mother said: "He never did talk too much. We never could tell, but I never had any problems with him. I never had to go to school once because of him." Leonard started boxing at the Palmer Park Recreation Center in 1969. His older brother, started boxing first. Roger helped urging the center's director, Ollie Dunlap, to form a team. Dave Jacobs, a former boxer, Janks Morton volunteered as boxing coaches.
Roger won some showed them off in front of Ray, goading him to start boxing. In 1972, Leonard boxed in the featherweight quarterfinals of the National AAU Tournament, losing by decision to Jerome Artis, it was his first defeat. That year, he boxed in the Eastern Olympic Trials; the rules stated that a boxer had to be seventeen to box in international competition, so Leonard, only sixteen, lied about his age. He made it to the lightweight semifinals, losing a disputed decision to Greg Whaley, who took such a beating that he wasn't allowed to continue in the trials and never boxed again. Sarge Johnson, assistant coach of the US Olympic Boxing Team, said to Dave Jacobs, "That kid you got is sweet as sugar"; the nickname stuck. However, given his style and first name, it was only a matter of time before people started calling him Sugar Ray, after the man many consider to be the best boxer of all time, Sugar Ray Robinson. In 1973, Leonard won the National Golden Gloves Lightweight Championship, but lost to Randy Shields in the lightweight final of the National AAU Tournament.
The following year, Leonard won the National Golden Gloves and National AAU Lightweight Championships. Leonard suffered his last two losses as an amateur in 1974, he lost a disputed decision to Anatoli Kamnev in Moscow, after which, Kamnev gave the winner's trophy to Leonard. In Poland, Kazimierz Szczerba was given a decision victory over Leonard though he was dominated in the first two rounds and dropped three times in the third. Leonard won the National Golden Gloves and National AAU Light Welterweight Championships in 1974; the following year, he again won the National AAU Light Welterweight Championship, as well as the Light Welterweight Championship at the Pan American Games. In 1976, Leonard made the U. S. Olympic Team as the light welterweight representative; the team included Leon and Michael Spinks, Howard Davis, Jr. Leo Randolph, Charles Mooney, John Tate. Many consider the 1976 U. S. team to be the greatest boxing team in the history of the Olympics. Leonard won his first four Olympic bouts by 5–0 decisions.
He faced Kazimierz Szczerba in the semifinals and won by a 5–0 decision, avenging his last amateur loss. In the final, Leonard boxed the great Cuban knockout artist Andrés Aldama, who scored five straight knockouts to reach the final. Leonard landed several good left hooks in the first round. In the second, he dropped Aldama with a left to the chin. Late in the final round, he again hurt Aldama, which brought a standing eight count from the referee. With only a few seconds left in the fight, a Leonard combination forced another standing eight count. Leonard was awarded a 5 -- the Olympic Gold Medal. Afterward, Leonard announced, "I'm finished... I've fought my last fight. My journey has ended, my dream is fulfilled. Now I want to go to school." He was given a scholarship to the University of Maryland, a gift from the citizens of Glenarden, Maryland. He planned to study communications, he finished his amateur career with a record of 145–5 and 75 KOs. 1973 National Golden Gloves Lightweight Champion, defeating Hilmer Kenty 1973 National AAU Light Welterweight Championship runner-up, losing to Randy Shields 1974 National Golden Gloves Light Welterweight Champion, defeating Jeff Lemeir 1974 National AAU Light Welterweight Champion, defeating
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined amount of time in a boxing ring. Amateur boxing is both an Olympic and Commonwealth Games sport and is a common fixture in most international games—it has its own World Championships. Boxing is overseen by a referee over a series of one- to three-minute intervals called rounds; the result is decided when an opponent is deemed incapable to continue by a referee, is disqualified for breaking a rule, or resigns by throwing in a towel. If a fight completes all of its allocated rounds, the victor is determined by judges' scorecards at the end of the contest. In the event that both fighters gain equal scores from the judges, professional bouts are considered a draw. In Olympic boxing, because a winner must be declared, judges award the content to one fighter on technical criteria. While humans have fought in hand-to-hand combat since the dawn of human history, the earliest evidence of fist-fighting sporting contests date back to the ancient Near East in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC.
The earliest evidence of boxing rules date back to Ancient Greece, where boxing was established as an Olympic game in 688 BC. Boxing evolved from 16th- and 18th-century prizefights in Great Britain, to the forerunner of modern boxing in the mid-19th century with the 1867 introduction of the Marquess of Queensberry Rules; the earliest known depiction of boxing comes from a Sumerian relief in Iraq from the 3rd millennium BC. Depictions from the 2nd millennium BC are found in reliefs from the Mesopotamian nations of Assyria and Babylonia, in Hittite art from Asia Minor. A relief sculpture from Egyptian Thebes shows both spectators; these early Middle-Eastern and Egyptian depictions showed contests where fighters were either bare-fisted or had a band supporting the wrist. The earliest evidence of fist fighting with the use of gloves can be found on Minoan Crete. Various types of boxing existed in ancient India; the earliest references to musti-yuddha come from classical Vedic epics such as the Ramayana and Rig Veda.
The Mahabharata describes two combatants boxing with clenched fists and fighting with kicks, finger strikes, knee strikes and headbutts. Duels were fought to the death. During the period of the Western Satraps, the ruler Rudradaman - in addition to being well-versed in "the great sciences" which included Indian classical music, Sanskrit grammar, logic - was said to be an excellent horseman, elephant rider and boxer; the Gurbilas Shemi, an 18th-century Sikh text, gives numerous references to musti-yuddha. In Ancient Greece boxing was enjoyed consistent popularity. In Olympic terms, it was first introduced in the 23rd Olympiad, 688 BC; the boxers would wind leather thongs around their hands. There were no boxers fought until one of them acknowledged defeat or could not continue. Weight categories were not used; the style of boxing practiced featured an advanced left leg stance, with the left arm semi-extended as a guard, in addition to being used for striking, with the right arm drawn back ready to strike.
It was the head of the opponent, targeted, there is little evidence to suggest that targeting the body was common. Boxing was a popular spectator sport in Ancient Rome. In order for the fighters to protect themselves against their opponents they wrapped leather thongs around their fists. Harder leather was used and the thong soon became a weapon; the Romans introduced metal studs to the thongs to make the cestus. Fighting events were held at Roman Amphitheatres; the Roman form of boxing was a fight until death to please the spectators who gathered at such events. However in times, purchased slaves and trained combat performers were valuable commodities, their lives were not given up without due consideration. Slaves were used against one another in a circle marked on the floor; this is. In AD 393, during the Roman gladiator period, boxing was abolished due to excessive brutality, it was not until the late 16th century. Records of Classical boxing activity disappeared after the fall of the Western Roman Empire when the wearing of weapons became common once again and interest in fighting with the fists waned.
However, there are detailed records of various fist-fighting sports that were maintained in different cities and provinces of Italy between the 12th and 17th centuries. There was a sport in ancient Rus called Kulachniy Boy or "Fist Fighting"; as the wearing of swords became less common, there was renewed interest in fencing with the fists. The sport would resurface in England during the early 16th century in the form of bare-knuckle boxing sometimes referred to as prizefighting; the first documented account of a bare-knuckle fight in England appeared in 1681 in the London Protestant Mercury, the first English bare-knuckle champion was James Figg in 1719. This is the time when the word "boxing" first came to be used; this earliest form of modern boxing was different. Contests in Mr. Figg's time, in addition to fist fighting contained fencing and cudgeling. On 6 January 1681, the first recorded boxing match took place in Britain when Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle engineered a bout between his butler and his butcher with the latter winning the prize.
Early fighting had no written rules. There were no weight divisions or round limits, no referee. In general, it was chaotic. An early article on boxing was published i