It covered an area of 190,800 sq mi. According to the testimony of Julius Caesar, Gaul was divided into three parts, Gallia Celtica and Aquitania, during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, Gaul fell under Roman rule, Gallia Cisalpina was conquered in 203 BC and Gallia Narbonensis in 123 BC. Gaul was invaded after 120 BC by the Cimbri and the Teutons, Gallia remains a name of France in modern Greek and modern Latin. The Greek and Latin names Galatia, and Gallia are ultimately derived from a Celtic ethnic term or clan Gal-to-. Galli of Gallia Celtica were reported to refer to themselves as Celtae by Caesar. Hellenistic folk etymology connected the name of the Galatians to the supposedly milk-white skin of the Gauls, modern researchers say it is related to Welsh gallu, Cornish galloes, power, thus meaning powerful people. The English Gaul is from French Gaule and is unrelated to Latin Gallia, as adjectives, English has the two variants and Gallic. The two adjectives are used synonymously, as pertaining to Gaul or the Gauls, although the Celtic language or languages spoken in Gaul is predominantly known as Gaulish.
The Germanic w- is regularly rendered as gu- / g- in French, unrelated in spite of superficial similarity is the name Gael. The Irish word gall did originally mean a Gaul, i. e. an inhabitant of Gaul, but its meaning was widened to foreigner, to describe the Vikings, and still the Normans. The dichotomic words gael and gall are sometimes used together for contrast, by 500 BC, there is strong Hallstatt influence throughout most of France. By the late 5th century BC, La Tène influence spreads rapidly across the territory of Gaul. The La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age in France, Italy, southwest Germany, Moravia, farther north extended the contemporary pre-Roman Iron Age culture of northern Germany and Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the Romans described Gallia Transalpina as distinct from Gallia Cisalpina, while some scholars believe the Belgae south of the Somme were a mixture of Celtic and Germanic elements, their ethnic affiliations have not been definitively resolved.
One of the reasons is political interference upon the French historical interpretation during the 19th century, in addition to the Gauls, there were other peoples living in Gaul, such as the Greeks and Phoenicians who had established outposts such as Massilia along the Mediterranean coast. Also, along the southeastern Mediterranean coast, the Ligures had merged with the Celts to form a Celto-Ligurian culture, the prosperity of Mediterranean Gaul encouraged Rome to respond to pleas for assistance from the inhabitants of Massilia, who were under attack by a coalition of Ligures and Gauls. The Romans intervened in Gaul in 154 BC and again in 125 BC, whereas on the first occasion they came and went, on the second they stayed. Massilia was allowed to keep its lands, but Rome added to its territories the lands of the conquered tribes. The direct result of conquests was that by now, Rome controlled an area extending from the Pyrenees to the lower Rhône river
A lur, lure or lurr, is a long natural blowing horn without finger holes that is played by embouchure. Lurs can be straight or curved in various shapes, the purpose of the curves was to make long instruments easier to carry and to prevent directing the loud noise at nearby people. The name lur is particularly given to two types of ancient wind instruments. The more recent type is made of wood and was in use in Scandinavia during the Middle Ages. The older type, named after the more recent type, is made of bronze, dates to the Bronze Age and was found in pairs, deposited in bogs, mainly in Denmark. It consists of a mouthpiece and several pieces and/or pipes and its length can reach between 1.5 meters and 2 meters. It has been found in Norway, South Sweden, illustrations of lurs have been found on several rock paintings in Scandinavia. The earliest references to an instrument called the lur come from Icelandic sagas and these lurs, several examples of which have been discovered in longboats, are straight, end-blown wooden tubes, around one meter long.
They do not have holes, and are played much like a modern brass instrument. A kind of lur very similar to these war instruments has been played by farmers and these instruments, called in English a birch trumpet were used for calling cattle and signaling. They are similar in construction and playing technique to the war instrument, the word lur is still in the Swedish language, indicating any funnel-shaped implement used for producing or receiving sound. For instance, the Swedish word for headphones is hörlurar, the Norwegian and Swedish words for foghorn are respectively tåkelur and mistlur. The Danish butter brand Lurpak is named after the lur, the word lur has several other meanings in Danish and Swedish that are not related to sound. Birch trumpet Natural trumpet 2007 CD by Odd Sylvarnes Lund of Lur and Bukkehorn music - informations on recordings with modern use of the old instruments The Nordic Lurs, part of O. J. s Trumpet Page
Trajans Column is a Roman triumphal column in Rome, that commemorates Roman emperor Trajans victory in the Dacian Wars. It was probably constructed under the supervision of the architect Apollodorus of Damascus at the order of the Roman Senate and it is located in Trajans Forum, built near the Quirinal Hill, north of the Roman Forum. Completed in AD113, the column is most famous for its spiral bas relief. Its design has inspired numerous victory columns, both ancient and modern, the structure is about 30 metres in height,35 metres including its large pedestal. The shaft is made from a series of 20 colossal Carrara marble drums, each weighing about 32 tons, the 190-metre frieze winds around the shaft 23 times. Inside the shaft, a staircase of 185 steps provides access to a viewing platform at the top. The capital block of Trajans Column weighs 53.3 tons, on December 4,1587, the top was crowned by Pope Sixtus V with a bronze figure of St. Peter, which remains to this day. The column was originally flanked by two libraries, which may have contained Trajans scroll-written despatches from his Roman-Dacian Wars, filippo Coarelli suggests that such scrolls are the basis both of the columns design and its spiraling, sculpted narrative.
The column shows 2,662 figures, and 155 scenes, the continuous helical frieze winds twenty-three times from base to capital, and was in its time an architectural innovation. The design was adopted by emperors such as Marcus Aurelius, the narrative band expands from about 1 metre at the base of the column to 1.2 metres at the top. Often a variety of different perspectives are used in the same scene, the relief portrays Trajans two victorious military campaigns against the Dacians, the lower half illustrating the first, and the top half illustrating the second. These campaigns were contemporary to the time of the Columns building, the frieze repeats standardized scenes of imperial address and the army setting out on campaign. Scenes of battle are much an minority on the column, instead it emphasizes images of orderly soldiers carrying out ceremony. The war against Dacia was one of conquest and expansion, wartime violence in general seems to have been downplayed. The two sections are separated by a personification of Victory writing on a shield flanked on either side by Trophies, great care is taken to distinguish the men and women from both sides of the campaign as well as the ranks within these distinct groups.
The scenes are crowded with sailors, soldiers and priests and it exists as a valuable source of information on Roman and barbaric arms and methods of warfare and costume. The relief shows details such as a ballista or catapult, the precise details of the depictions creates a reality effect for the viewer in which designers hope is that these images are taken for objective historical truth. The emperor Trajan is depicted realistically in the Veristic style, the focus on Trajan as the heroic protagonist is central
Pixar, referred to as Pixar Animation Studios, is an American computer animation film studio based in Emeryville, California that is a subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company. Disney purchased Pixar in 2006 at a valuation of $7.4 billion, Pixar has produced seventeen feature films, beginning with Toy Story, which was the first-ever computer-animated feature film, and its most recent being Finding Dory. All 17 of its films have debuted with CinemaScore ratings of at least an A−, the studio has produced several short films. As of October 2016, its films have earned approximately $10.8 billion at the box office worldwide. Fourteen of Pixars films are among the 50 highest-grossing animated films of all time, the studio has earned sixteen Academy Awards, seven Golden Globe Awards, and eleven Grammy Awards, among many other awards and acknowledgments. Monsters, Inc. and Cars are the two films that were nominated for the award without winning it, while Cars 2, Monsters University, The Good Dinosaur. Up and Toy Story 3 were the second and third animated films to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture, the first being Walt Disney Animation Studios Beauty.
Luxo Jr. a character from the studios 1986 short film of the name, is the studios mascot. The award was presented by Lucasfilms founder George Lucas, Schure kept pouring money into the computer graphics lab, an estimated $15 million, giving the group everything they desired and drove NYIT into serious financial troubles. During the following months, they resigned from CGL, found temporary jobs for about a year to avoid making Schure suspicious. He was reunited with Alvy Ray Smith, who made the journey from NYIT to Lucasfilm. At NYIT, the researchers pioneered many of the CG foundation techniques—in particular the invention of the alpha channel, Years later, the CGL produced a few frames of an experimental film called The Works. In 1982, the team working on special effects film sequences with Industrial Light & Magic. In 1983, Nolan Bushnell founded a new computer-guided animation studio called Kadabrascope as a subsidiary of his Chuck E. Cheeses Pizza Time Theatres company, only one major project was made out of the new studio, an animated Christmas movie for NBC starring Chuck E.
The animation movement would be made using Tweening instead of cel animation. After the North American Video Game Crash of 1983, Bushnell started selling some subsidiaries of PTT to keep the business afloat, sente Technologies would be sold to Bally Games and Kadabrascope would be sold to LucasFilm. The Kadabrascope assets s would be combined with the Computer Division of LucasFilm, PTT would be sold to ShowBiz Pizza Place, a competitor, in 1985. Amongst the 38 remaining employees, there were Malcolm Blanchard, David DiFrancesco, Ralph Guggenheim and Bill Reeves, Tom Duff, an NYIT member, would join Pixar after its formation
The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes. The wars paved the way for Julius Caesar to become the ruler of the Roman Republic. Still, Gaul was of significant military importance to the Romans, conquering Gaul allowed Rome to secure the natural border of the river Rhine. The Gallic Wars are described by Julius Caesar in his book Commentarii de Bello Gallico, as a result of the financial burdens of his consulship in 59 BC, Caesar incurred significant debt. When the Governor of Transalpine Gaul, Metellus Celer, died unexpectedly, Caesars governorships were extended to a five-year period, a new idea at the time. Caesar had initially four veteran legions under his command, Legio VII, Legio VIII, Legio IX Hispana. As he had been Governor of Hispania Ulterior in 61 BC and had campaigned successfully with them against the Lusitanians, Caesar had the legal authority to levy additional legions and auxiliary units as he saw fit.
His ambition was to conquer and plunder some territories to get out of debt. It is more likely that he was planning a campaign against the Kingdom of Dacia, the countries of Gaul were civilized and wealthy. Most had contact with Roman merchants and some, particularly those that were governed by such as the Aedui. The Romans respected and feared the Gallic tribes, only fifty years before, in 109 BC, Italy had been invaded from the north and saved only after several bloody and costly battles by Gaius Marius. Around 62 BC, when a Roman client state, the Arverni, conspired with the Sequani and the Suebi nations east of the Rhine, to attack the Aedui, the Sequani and Arverni sought Ariovistus’ aid and defeated the Aedui in 63 BC at the Battle of Magetobriga. The Sequani rewarded Ariovistus with land following his victory, Ariovistus settled the land with 120,000 of his people. When 24,000 Harudes joined his cause, Ariovistus demanded that the Sequani give him land to accommodate the Harudes people.
This demand concerned Rome because if the Sequani conceded, Ariovistus would be in a position to all of the Sequani land. They did not appear to be concerned about a conflict between non-client and allied states, by the end of the campaign, the non-client Suebi under the leadership of the belligerent Ariovistus, stood triumphant over both the Aedui and their coconspirators. Fearing another mass migration akin to the devastating Cimbrian War, the Helvetii was a confederation of about five related Gallic tribes that lived on the Swiss plateau, hemmed in by the mountains, and the Rhine and Rhone rivers. They began to come under increased pressure from German tribes to the north, by 58 BC, the Helvetii were well on their way in the planning and provisioning for a mass migration under the leadership of Orgetorix
Tintignac is a hamlet near Naves in the Corrèze region of France. It is primarily known for the remains of a sanctuary where Gallic and Gallo-Roman artefacts have been found, including seven carnyces. The site is classified on the List of historic monuments of 1840, the village has been known since the 12th century, using the Occitan spelling of Tintinhac. It is associated with Arnaut de Tintinhac, a troubadour and lord of Tintinhac who was born at Castle Tintignac, four of his poems have survived. The Gallic and Gallo-Roman site is located on the plateau of Naves, north of the towns of Naves and Tulle, in the foothills east of Puy lAiguille, around the sanctuary researchers have discovered traces of dense occupation and activity. In September 2004 about 500 fragments of iron and bronze objects were discovered in a Gallic pit, the first such objects found in the context of a Gallic sanctuary. These unique military and religious objects are now being studied by the team led by Christophe Maniquet, in 2009 an aqueduct was discovered,2 metres high and feeding a well 13 metres deep.
The items were restored by the Materia Viva laboratory in Toulouse, objects found at Tintignac were exhibited at the 2012 exhibition Les Gaulois, une expo renversante. The official website of Tintignac-Naves Archeo-Tintignac, toutes les nouvelles récentes
Slaidburn is a village and civil parish within the Ribble Valley district of Lancashire, England. With a population in 2001 of just under 300, increasing to 351 at the 2011 Census, the parish covers just over 5,000 acres of the Forest of Bowland. Historically in the West Riding of Yorkshire, Slaidburn lies near the head of the River Hodder and Stocks Reservoir, farming is still a major employer, but the area attracts tourists, for walking in particular. The civil parish of Slaidburn shares a parish council with Easington, the parish church of St Andrew has a superb Jacobean screen and a fine Georgian pulpit. The brass band composer William Rimmer composed the march, named Slaidburn after the village. A new village hall has opened to much fanfare and is being well used, the manors within the liberty were Slaidburn, Waddington, Bashall, Withgill, Leagram and Dunnow. Among other changes, this saw Newton subsumed into the demesne of Slaidburn, two of the Lord of Bowlands mesne manors - Battersby and Knowlmere - fell within the bounds of the township of Newton but did not become part of the demesne of Slaidburn.
Title to the Manor and Liberty of Slaidburn, West Bradford and Grindleton, including the township of Newton-in-Bowland, was bought by Tory MP, Ralph Assheton, first Baron Clitheroe, in 1977, his second son, the Hon Nicholas Assheton, was granted title. Since 2003, the Lord of the Manor and Liberty of Slaidburn has been Thomas Assheton, son of the Hon Nicholas Assheton, Steward to the Manor of Slaidburn is Michael Parkinson. Parkinson, an agent and chartered surveyor, serves the Lord of Bowland as his Chief Steward of the Forest of Bowland. Along with Bowland Forest Low, Newton and Bolton-by-Bowland, the ward had a population of 1,243 in 2001, rising to 1,325 in 2011. The ward elects a councillor, who currently is Joan Elms of the Conservative Party. The Roman road known as Watling Street, that runs from Manchester via Ribchester to Carlisle and this section is known as the Hornby Road. The River Hodder flows through the parish, joined by Croasdale Brook on the edge of the village. To commemorate the 400th anniversary of the trials of the Pendle witches, ten tercet waymarkers, designed by Stephen Raw, each inscribed with a verse of a poem by Carol Ann Duffy have been installed along the route, with the fifth located here.
Thomas Sanderson, Farmer of Woodhouse, Slaidburn and he was for many years Overseer of the Poor for the Slaidburn District and an Officer of HM Customs & Excise. In 1850, he and his wife Frances and their children emigrated to Wisconsin, USA, Wisconsin Senator who became one of the largest sheep breeders in Texas Thomas Sanderson Farmer and State Legislator/Politician. Jonathan Sanderson, He was known as the Pioneer Giant of Nebraska, whilst he and his wife were still newcomers in Nebraska William F. Cody, and a scout stopped by and asked for shelter during a storm
Banffshire is a historic county, registration county and lieutenancy area of Scotland. The county town was Banff although the largest community was Buckie to the west and it borders the Moray Firth to the north and Inverness-shire to the west, and Aberdeenshire to the south. Until 1891 the county contained various exclaves which were situated in Aberdeenshire. Between 1890 and 1975 the County of Banff, known as Banffshire, had its own county council, in 1975 its Local Government council administration was superseded and divided between Moray council and Aberdeenshire councils. From 1975 to 1996, its local government lay within the Grampian Region, considerable evidence of prehistoric human habitation exists particularly near the coastal area. For example, the Longman Hill cairn and Cairn Lee are situated in the portion of Banffshire in the vicinity of the Burn of Myrehouse. Located in the area are the ruins of medieval castles. The region remained largely Roman Catholic after the Reformation and suffered greatly in the ensuing struggles, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Banffshire was a Royalist stronghold.
Cullen Church was known to have existed in 1236, the south aisle was added by Elena Hay in 1536 and dedicated to St Anne. It became a church in 1543 with six prebendaries and two singing boys to sing mass decently and in order every day. Civil parishes are still used for statistical purposes, and separate census figures are published for them. As their areas have been unchanged since the 19th century this allows for comparison of population figures over an extended period of time. From 1845 to 1930, parishes formed part of the government system of Scotland. Principal mansions in Banffshire c.1854 The Imperial Gazetteer of Scotland Vol. I. by the Rev, born in Banff James Ferguson, FRS, born Rothiemay and instrument maker. George Gauld Saint John Ogilvie, born in Keith was a Scottish Catholic martyr
Diodorus Siculus or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian. He is known for writing the monumental universal history Bibliotheca historica, much of which survives and it is arranged in three parts. The first covers mythic history up to the destruction of Troy, arranged geographically, describing regions around the world from Egypt and Arabia to Greece, the second covers the Trojan War to the death of Alexander the Great. The third covers the period to about 60 BC, meaning library, acknowledges that he was drawing on the work of many other authors. According to his own work, he was born at Agyrium in Sicily, with one exception, antiquity affords no further information about his life and doings beyond in his work. Only Jerome, in his Chronicon under the year of Abraham 1968, Diodorus of Sicily and it was divided into three sections. In the next section, he recounts the history of the world from the Trojan War down to the death of Alexander the Great, the last section concerns the historical events from the successors of Alexander down to either 60 BC or the beginning of Julius Caesars Gallic Wars.
He selected the name Bibliotheca in acknowledgment that he was assembling a composite work from many sources. His account of gold mining in Nubia in eastern Egypt is one of the earliest extant texts on the topic, pappus of Alexandria wrote a Commentary on Diodoruss Analemma. The now lost Analemma applied geometrical constructions in a plane to solve some astronomy related problems of spherical geometry and it contained, for example, a discussion of sundial theory. They are boasters and threateners and are fond of pompous language, pliny the Elder Strabo Acadine Ambaglio, Franca Landucci Gattinoni and Luigi Bravi. Diodoro Siculo, Biblioteca storica, commento storico, introduzione generale, aspects of Greek History 750-323 BC, A Source-based Approach. Library of History, Loeb Classical Library, Diodorus, G. Booth, H. Valesius, I. The Historical Library of Diodorus the Sicilian in Fifteen Books to which are added the Fragments of Diodorus, Diodori, Peter Wesseling, L. Rhodoman, G. Heyn, N. Eyring. Bibliothecae Historicae Libri Qui Supersunt, Nova Editio, Diodorus Siculus, the manuscripts of the Bibliotheca Historica
A trumpet is a musical instrument commonly used in classical and jazz ensembles. The trumpet group contains the instruments with the highest register in the brass family, trumpets are used in art music styles, for instance in orchestras, concert bands, and jazz ensembles, as well as in popular music. They are played by blowing air through almost-closed lips, producing a sound that starts a standing wave vibration in the air column inside the instrument. Since the late 15th century they have primarily been constructed of brass tubing, there are many distinct types of trumpet, with the most common being pitched in B♭, having a tubing length of about 1.48 m. Early trumpets did not provide means to change the length of tubing, most trumpets have valves of the piston type, while some have the rotary type. The use of rotary-valved trumpets is more common in orchestral settings, each valve, when engaged, increases the length of tubing, lowering the pitch of the instrument. A musician who plays the trumpet is called a trumpet player or trumpeter, the earliest trumpets date back to 1500 BC and earlier.
The bronze and silver trumpets from Tutankhamuns grave in Egypt, bronze lurs from Scandinavia, trumpets from the Oxus civilization of Central Asia have decorated swellings in the middle, yet are made out of one sheet of metal, which is considered a technical wonder. The Shofar, made from a ram horn and the Hatzotzeroth and they were played in Solomons Temple around 3000 years ago. They were said to be used to blow down the walls of Jericho and they are still used on certain religious days. The Salpinx was a straight trumpet 62 inches long, made of bone or bronze, Salpinx contests were a part of the original Olympic Games. The Moche people of ancient Peru depicted trumpets in their art going back to AD300, the earliest trumpets were signaling instruments used for military or religious purposes, rather than music in the modern sense, and the modern bugle continues this signaling tradition. Improvements to instrument design and metal making in the late Middle Ages, the natural trumpets of this era consisted of a single coiled tube without valves and therefore could only produce the notes of a single overtone series.
Changing keys required the player to change crooks of the instrument, the development of the upper, clarino register by specialist trumpeters—notably Cesare Bendinelli—would lend itself well to the Baroque era, known as the Golden Age of the natural trumpet. During this period, a vast body of music was written for virtuoso trumpeters, the art was revived in the mid-20th century and natural trumpet playing is again a thriving art around the world. The melody-dominated homophony of the classical and romantic periods relegated the trumpet to a role by most major composers owing to the limitations of the natural trumpet. Berlioz wrote in 1844, Notwithstanding the real loftiness and distinguished nature of its quality of tone, there are few instruments that have been more degraded. The attempt to give the trumpet more chromatic freedom in its range saw the development of the keyed trumpet, the symphonies of Mozart, and as late as Brahms, were still played on natural trumpets
The history of pre-Celtic Europe remains very uncertain. According to one theory, the root of the Celtic languages, the Proto-Celtic language, arose in the Late Bronze Age Urnfield culture of Central Europe. Thus this area is called the Celtic homeland. The earliest undisputed examples of a Celtic language are the Lepontic inscriptions beginning in the 6th century BC. Continental Celtic languages are attested almost exclusively through inscriptions and place-names, Insular Celtic languages are attested beginning around the 4th century in Ogham inscriptions, although it was clearly being spoken much earlier. Celtic literary tradition begins with Old Irish texts around the 8th century, coherent texts of Early Irish literature, such as the Táin Bó Cúailnge, survive in 12th century recensions. Between the 5th and 8th centuries, the Celtic-speaking communities in these Atlantic regions emerged as a cohesive cultural entity. They had a linguistic and artistic heritage that distinguished them from the culture of the surrounding polities.
By the 6th century, the Continental Celtic languages were no longer in wide use, Insular Celtic culture diversified into that of the Gaels and the Celtic Britons of the medieval and modern periods. A modern Celtic identity was constructed as part of the Romanticist Celtic Revival in Great Britain, today, Scottish Gaelic and Breton are still spoken in parts of their historical territories, and Cornish and Manx are undergoing a revival. The first recorded use of the name of Celts – as Κελτοί – to refer to a group was by Hecataeus of Miletus, the Greek geographer, in 517 BC. In the fifth century BC Herodotus referred to Keltoi living around the head of the Danube, the etymology of the term Keltoi is unclear. Possible roots include Indo-European *kʲel ‘to hide’, IE *kʲel ‘to heat’ or *kel ‘to impel’, several authors have supposed it to be Celtic in origin, while others view it as a name coined by Greeks. Linguist Patrizia De Bernardo Stempel falls in the group. Yet he reports Celtic peoples in Iberia, and uses the ethnic names Celtiberi and Celtici for peoples there, as distinct from Lusitani, pliny the Elder cited the use of Celtici in Lusitania as a tribal surname, which epigraphic findings have confirmed.
Latin Gallus might stem from a Celtic ethnic or tribal name originally and its root may be the Proto-Celtic *galno, meaning “power, strength”, hence Old Irish gal “boldness, ferocity” and Welsh gallu “to be able, power”. The tribal names of Gallaeci and the Greek Γαλάται most probably have the same origin, the suffix -atai might be an Ancient Greek inflection. Proto-Germanic *walha is derived ultimately from the name of the Volcae and this means that English Gaul, despite its superficial similarity, is not actually derived from Latin Gallia, though it does refer to the same ancient region
Brave (2012 film)
Brave is a 2012 American 3D computer-animated fantasy comedy-drama film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures. It was directed by Mark Andrews and Brenda Chapman and co-directed by Steve Purcell, the story is by Chapman, with the screenplay by Andrews, Purcell and Irene Mecchi. The film was produced by Katherine Sarafian, with John Lasseter, Andrew Stanton, the films voice cast features Kelly Macdonald, Billy Connolly, Emma Thompson, Julie Walters, Robbie Coltrane, Kevin McKidd, and Craig Ferguson. Set in the Scottish Highlands, the tells the story of a princess named Merida who defies an age-old custom. Chapman drew inspiration for the story from her relationship with her own daughter. Co-directing with Mark Andrews, Chapman became Pixar’s first female director of a feature-length film, to create the most complex visuals possible, Pixar completely rewrote their animation system for the first time in 25 years. Brave is the first film to use the Dolby Atmos sound format, Brave premiered on June 10,2012, at the Seattle International Film Festival, and was released in North America on June 22,2012, to both positive reviews and box office success.
The film won the Academy Award, the Golden Globe, preceding the feature theatrically was a short film entitled La Luna, directed by Enrico Casarosa. In Medieval Scotland, Merida, a princess of the clan Dunbroch, is given a bow and arrow by her father, King Fergus. While venturing into the woods to fetch a stray arrow, Merida encounters a will-o-the-wisp, soon afterward, Mordu, a huge demon bear, attacks the family. Merida flees on horseback with Elinor, while Fergus fends off Mordu, now a teenager, Merida discovers that to her dismay, she is to be betrothed to the son of one of her fathers allies. Elinor reminds Merida of a legend of a prince whose pride and refusal to follow his fathers wishes destroyed his kingdom, the allied clan chieftains and their first-born sons arrive to compete in the Highland games for Meridas hand in marriage. Merida twists the rules, announcing that as her own clans firstborn she is eligible to compete for her own hand and she easily bests her suitors in an archery contest, shaming the other clans.
Elinor, reprimands Merida, and in an argument, Merida rips her mothers tapestry of the family. Merida storms out and rides into the forest, where she follows the wisps to the hut of an elderly witch, Merida bargains with the witch for a spell to change her fate. When Merida gives the spell, in the form of a cake, to Elinor, it causes Elinor to transform into a bear and Elinor are led by the wisps to ancient ruins, where they encounter Mordu. Realizing that Mordu was the prince in the legend, Merida vows that she will not let the same thing happen to her mother and they return to the castle to find the clans on the verge of war. The clans agree, breaking tradition but renewing and strengthening their alliance, Merida sneaks into the tapestry room with Elinor