San Francisco the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most populous in California, with 884,363 residents as of 2017, it covers an area of about 46.89 square miles at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, the fifth-most densely populated U. S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; as of 2017, it was the seventh-highest income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $119,868. As of 2015, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $154.2 billion, a GDP per capita of $177,968. The San Francisco CSA was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2017, with a GDP of $907 billion.
Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the US, the San Francisco CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2017, at $93,938. San Francisco was ranked 14th in the world and third in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of September 2018. San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, all named for St. Francis of Assisi; the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater.
It became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes along liberal Democratic Party lines. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, its Chinatown district. San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Gap Inc. Fitbit, Salesforce.com, Reddit, Inc. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation and Weather Underground.
It is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco State University, the De Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the California Academy of Sciences. As of 2019, San Francisco is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings; the earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. Seven years on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís, established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system ended, its lands became privatized.
In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, Mexico ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography; the California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849; the promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.
Some of these 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels.
The twist is a dance, inspired by rock and roll music. From 1959 to the early sixties it became a worldwide dance craze, enjoying immense popularity while drawing controversies from critics who felt it was too provocative, it inspired dances such as the Jerk, the Pony, the Watusi, the Mashed Potato, the Monkey, the Funky Chicken, but none were as popular. Having seen teenagers in Tampa, Florida doing the dance, Hank Ballard wrote "The Twist" and released it as the B-side of Hank Ballard and The Midnighters' 1959 single "Teardrops on Your Letter". Dick Clark, having noticed the dance becoming popular among teenagers, recommended to Cameo Records that the more wholesome Chubby Checker rerecord the song, released in 1959 and became a number one hit in 1960; the dance became passe among teenagers as it became acceptable among adults and the song was released, becoming a number one hit again in 1962. A world record was set in DeLand, Florida, on October 11, 2012, when Chubby Checker sang the song live and the crowd danced.
An estimated 4,000 people twisted along with Checker, surpassing the previous Guinness World Record for most people twisting in the streets at once. The twist is performed by standing with the feet shoulder width apart; the torso may be squared to the knees and hips, or turned at an angle so one foot is farther forward than the other. The arms are held out from the body, bent at the elbow; the hips and legs rotate on the balls of the feet as a single unit, with the arms staying more or less stationary. The feet grind back and forth on the floor, the dance can be varied in speed and vertical height as necessary. One leg is lifted off the floor for styling, but the dance posture is low and with the feet in contact with the floor with little vertical motion; the moves include the mashed potato, drowning, arm swing and single leg twist. According to Time, "the dancers scarcely touch each other or move their feet. Everything else, moves; the upper body sways forward and backward and the hips and shoulders twirl erotically, while the arms thrust in, out, up and down with the pistonlike motions of baffled bird keepers fighting off a flock of attack blue jays."
The use of the name "twist" for dancing goes back to the nineteenth century. According to Marshall and Jean Stearns in Jazz Dance, a pelvic dance motion called the twist came to America from the Congo during slavery. One of the hit songs of early blackface minstrelsy was banjo player Joel Walker Sweeney's "Vine Twist". One of the early black dance crazes of the early twentieth century was the "Mess Around", described by songwriter Perry Bradford in his 1912 hit "Messin' Around" as: "Now anybody can learn the knack, put your hands on your hips and bend your back, but the twist at this point was grinding the hips. Blues singer Bo Carter recorded "Twist It Babe" in 1931, the reference in the lyrics being a metaphor for sex. In his "Winin' Boy Blues" in the late 1930s, Jelly Roll Morton sang, "Mama, look at sis, she's out on the levee doing the double twist". In the 1953 song "Let the Boogie Woogie Roll", Clyde McPhatter and the Drifters sang, "When she looked at me her eyes just shined like gold, when she did the twist she bopped me to my soul".
But the simple dance that we now know as the Twist originates in the late fifties among teenagers, was popularized by Chubby Checker in his preparation to debut the song to a national audience on August 6, 1960, on The Dick Clark Show, a Saturday night program that, unlike disc jockey Clark's daytime American Bandstand, was a stage show with a sitting audience. Dick Clark was a powerhouse in music at the time, thanks to American Bandstand, which ran five times a week in the afternoons, showcasing local dancers and visiting performers who lip-synched along with their recordings. Clark saw the song's potential when he heard Hank Ballard's original version, but Ballard and his group, whose greatest hit had been "Work With Me Annie" in 1954, was considered too raunchy to appeal to Clark's teenage audience, he urged Philadelphia record label Cameo/Parkway to record a new version of "The Twist" with young, wholesome Chubby Checker, who had displayed his talent for copying other artists on an earlier novelty hit "The Class".
Released in summer 1960, Checker's rendition of "The Twist" became number one on the singles chart in the United States in 1960 and again in 1962. In 1961, at the height of the craze, patrons at New York's Peppermint Lounge on West 45th Street were twisting to the house band, a local group from Jersey, Joey Dee and the Starliters, their song, "The Peppermint Twist" became number one in the United States for three weeks in January 1962. In 1962 Bo Diddley released his album Bo Diddley's A Twister, he recorded several Twist tracks, including "The Twister", "Bo's Twist", "Mama Don't Allow No Twistin'", which referenced the objections many parents had to the pelvic motions of the dance. In Latin America, the twist caught fire in the early 1960s, fueled by His Comets, their recordings of "The Spanish Twist" and "Florida Twist" were successes in Mexico. Haley, in interviews, credited Checker and Ballard. Coincidentally, Checker appeared in two musicals that took their titles from films Haley made in the 1950s: Twist Around the Clock and Don't Knock the Twist.
"The Twist" by Hank Ballard and The Midnighters "The Twist" by Chubby Checker "Let's Twist Again" by Chubby Checker "Twistin' U. S. A." by Danny & the Juniors "Slow Twistin" by Chubby Checker "P
Robert Rafelson is an American film director and producer. He is regarded as one of the founders of the New Hollywood movement in the 1970s. Among his best-known films are Five Easy Pieces, The King of Marvin Gardens, The Postman Always Rings Twice, he was one of the creators of the pop group and TV series The Monkees with Raybert/BBS Productions partner Bert Schneider. His first wife was the production designer Toby Carr Rafelson, his eldest son is songwriter Peter Rafelson, who co-wrote the hit song "Open Your Heart" for Madonna. Rafelson was born to a Jewish family in the son of a hat ribbon manufacturer, his uncle was screenwriter and playwright Samson Raphaelson, the author of The Jazz Singer, who wrote nine films for director Ernst Lubitsch. "Samson took an interest in my work," Rafelson told critic David Thomson. "If he liked a picture I was his favorite nephew. But if he didn't like it, I was a distant cousin!" Rafelson had an older brother and attended Trinity-Pawling School on scholarship.
As a teenager he would run away from home to pursue an adventurous lifestyle, including riding in a rodeo in Arizona and playing in a jazz band in Acapulco. After studying philosophy at Dartmouth College, Rafelson was drafted into the U. S. stationed in Japan. In Japan he worked as a disk jockey, translated Japanese films and was an adviser to the Shochiku Film Company as to what films would be financially successful in the United States. In an interview with critic Peter Tonguette, he said he was fascinated by the films he saw in Japan: "I'd have to watch an Ozu movie over and over again--say, Tokyo Story--and I was hypnotized by the stillness of his frames, his sureness of composition," he said. "So I suppose my own aesthetic evolved from looking at certain kinds of pictures--Bergman and Ozu and John Ford, if you will."Rafelson began dating Toby Carr in high school and they married in the mid-1950s. The couple had two children: Peter Rafelson, born in 1960, Julie Rafelson, born in 1962. Toby Rafelson was a production designer on many films, including her husband's Five Easy Pieces, The King of Marvin Gardens, Stay Hungry, as well as Martin Scorsese's Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore and Jonathan Demme's Melvin and Howard.
Rafelson's first professional job was as a story editor on the TV series Play of the Week for producer David Susskind in 1959. The series produced televised stage plays from classical authors. Rafelson's job required him to read hundreds of plays, select which were to be produced, write some additional dialogue uncredited. Rafelson's first writing credits were for an episode of the TV series The Witness in 1960 and an episode of the series The Greatest Show on Earth in 1963. In June 1962, Rafelson and his family moved to Hollywood, where he began working as an associate producer on television shows and films at Universal Pictures, Revue Productions, Desilu Productions and Screen Gems. After an argument with Lew Wasserman over creative differences on the show Channing, culminating in Rafelson sweeping "awards, souvenir ashtrays, other tchotchkes" from Wasserman's desk, he was fired. Wasserman told him to come back when he learned that "film was a collaborative process."While working on the TV series The Wackiest Ship in the Army for Screen Gems in 1965, Rafelson met fellow producer Bert Schneider.
They created the company Raybert Productions together that year. Raybert would become BBS Productions and produce films as a subsidiary of Columbia Pictures. Encouraged by the Beatles' film A Hard Day's Night and Beatlemania in general and Schneider's first project was a television series about a rock'n' roll group. However, Rafelson said, "I had conceived the show before The Beatles existed," and it was based on his time as an itinerant musician more "interested in having fun" than "in earning a living." Raybert Productions sold the idea to Screen Gems and, when they were unable to get either the Dave Clark Five or the Lovin' Spoonful for the show, ran ads in Daily Variety and The Hollywood Reporter for musicians. The band that they created was The Monkees and the series ran from 1966 until 1968; the Monkees was a success with audiences and, despite the band being a manufactured product, was popular with the youth demographic at the time. Rafelson and Schneider won the Emmy Award for Outstanding Comedy Series as producers in 1967.
Rafelson has said. The tempo was of paramount importance... I had to direct one or two of the shows for television to set the pattern of how these things should be made." Rafelson had said that "of the first 32 shows, 29 were directed by people who had never directed before, including me. So the idea of using new directors not too encumbered by traditional ways of thinking was initiated on that series and just continued on the movies we made later." He has cited the series' "radically different way of cutting and doing a half hour comedy because there were interviews that were interspersed there was documentary footage." Rafelson and Bert Schneider's newfound success allowed them to get more funding for Raybert Productions and to establish the record company Colgems. Their next project was a feature film starring the Monkees. Co-written with friend Jack Nicholson, featuring appearances by Nicholson, Victor Mature, Teri Garr, Carol Doda, Annette Funicello, Frank Zappa, Sonny Liston, Timothy Carey, Ray Nitschke, Dennis Hopper, it was Rafelson's debut as a director.
Rafelson said, "Of course Head is an utterly and fragmented film. Among other reasons for making it was that I thought I wo
The Watusi is a solo dance that enjoyed brief popularity during the early 1960s. It was one of the most popular dance crazes of the 1960s in the United States. "Watusi" is a former name for the Tutsi people of Africa, whose traditions include spectacular dances. The naming of the American dance may have been inspired, in particular, by a scene in the 1950 film King Solomon's Mines which featured Tutsi dancers, or by its sequel Watusi; the Orlons, a vocal quartet from Philadelphia, had the biggest hit of their career as recording artists with their recording of "The Wah-Watusi", which debuted on the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart on June 9, 1962 and remained on the Hot 100 for 14 weeks. On the R&B chart, the single peaked at #5; this was not the only version of the song to hit the charts. On January 18, 1963, Chubby Checker released his single version of "The Wah-Watusi"; that year, Smokey Robinson and the Miracles recorded their own version. Popular covers of the song included Annette Funicello, The Isley Brothers.
The Vibrations had released an R&B single in 1961 called "The Watusi". In 1963, Puerto Rican jazz musician Ray Barretto had his first hit with a song called "El Watusi", - although he didn't invent the dancing style - he came to be typecast as connected to the style. Barretto's recording, "El Watusi", debuted on the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart on April 27, 1963 and remained on the Hot 100 for 9 weeks; the Ventures covered Barretto's version on their 1965 album Let's Go!. The "Monkey Watusi" is mentioned in the 1964 single "Hey Harmonica Man" by Stevie Wonder. "The Watusi", along with "The Twist", is mentioned in the fragmentary "lyrics" of the Beatles' sound collage "Revolution 9". "The Watusi" is mentioned in Patti Smith's song Horses/Land of a Thousand Dances/La Mer on her 1975 album Horses. "The Watusi" was one of the inspirations for the Exodus song "The Toxic Waltz", from their 1989 album Fabulous Disaster. The dance was central to "We Love You Miss Pringle." That 26th episode of the second season of the My Favorite Martian television series first aired March 28, 1965.
In the classic Watusi, the dancer is stationary with knees bent, although may move forward and back by one or two small rhythmic paces. The arms, with palms flat in line, are held straight, alternately flail up and down in the vertical; the head is kept in line with the upper torso but may bob to accentuate the arm flailing. The dance, which became popular in the American surf/beach sub-culture of the 1960s, may be enhanced if one imagines that one's feet are on sand; the Batusi, a dance named by analogy to the Watusi
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Head is a 1968 American satirical musical adventure film written by Jack Nicholson and Bob Rafelson, directed by Rafelson, starring television rock group the Monkees, distributed by Columbia Pictures. During production, one of the working titles for the film was Changes, the name of an unrelated album by The Monkees. Another working title was Untitled. A rough cut of the film was previewed for audiences in Los Angeles in the summer of 1968 under the name Movee Untitled; the film featured Victor Mature as "The Big Victor" and cameo appearances by Nicholson, Teri Garr, Carol Doda, Annette Funicello, Frank Zappa, Sonny Liston, Timothy Carey, Percy Helton and Ray Nitschke. Appearing on screen in brief non-speaking parts are Dennis Hopper and film choreographer Toni Basil. Head begins at the dedication of the Gerald Desmond Bridge; as a local politician struggles with his microphone during the dedication speech, The Monkees interrupt the ceremony by running through the assembled officials to the sound of various horns and sirens.
Micky jumps off the bridge into the water below. He floats around, as several mermaids attempt to revive him; the scene transitions into a living room, in which the Monkees are having a kissing contest with a young woman, who pronounces them all "even." The opening song plays, filling the screen with images from the film, ending with the Execution of Nguyễn Văn Lém followed by a woman screaming. However, the woman is not screaming in terror but in excitement, as the Monkees are about to take the stage at a concert; when the Monkees arrive, they lead the audience in a cheer of "WAR!" The movie meanders along, alternating between scenes with the group and scenes with individual members. Each Monkee takes a turn in the spotlight, experiencing confusion and dissatisfaction with their situation. Together, they find themselves trapped in some form of enclosure, from a vacuum cleaner to a large black box; when trapped, they are alone and spend their time trying to find a way out, but each time they escape they have little control over the situations they find themselves in.
Any initiative they do take is invariably short-lived. Peter discovers a swami he believes to have "the answer", but when Peter tries to share this with the rest of the group, they ignore him; when they decide to listen, Davy becomes enraged with Peter's conclusion that, "I know nothing." Davy goes on a rampage through the studio and the lot landing the group back inside the black box, flown out to the desert. There they are released; the Monkees flee on foot. This time, we see all four Monkees jump from the bridge, still pursued by their enemies; as each Monkee lands in the water below, they begin to swim away. However, they soon discover that they are inside an aquarium on the back of a truck; the movie ends with the truck driving away, the Monkees still trapped in the glass box. Kolima's role is sometimes attributed to Tor Johnson; the storylines and peak moments of the film came from a weekend visit to an Ojai, California resort where The Monkees and Nicholson brainstormed into a tape recorder with the aid of a quantity of marijuana.
Jack Nicholson took the tapes and used them as the basis for his screenplay which he structured while under the influence of LSD. When the band learned that they would not be allowed to direct themselves or to receive screenwriting credit, Dolenz and Nesmith staged a one-day walkout, leaving Tork the only Monkee on the set the first day; the strike ended after the first day when, to mollify The Monkees, the studio agreed to a larger percentage share of the film's net for the group. But the incident damaged The Monkees' relationship with Rafelson and Bert Schneider, would end their professional relationship together. Filmed from February 15 to May 17, 1968, at Columbia Pictures/Screen Gems Studios in Culver City and at the Columbia Ranch in Burbank as well as on various locations in California: ribbon cutting ceremony – Gerald Desmond Bridge, Long Beach WAR chant cheerleader sequence – Pasadena Rose Bowl, Pasadena factory sequence – Hyperion Sewage Treatment Plant, Playa Del Rey war sequence – Bronson Canyon.
Another part of the promotional campaign was placing Head stickers in random places. Rafelson commented that he and Nicholson were arrested at the New York City premiere on October 6 for trying to affix a sticker to a police officer's helmet as he mounted his horse. While the film's music disappointed fans of the band's more traditional pop sound, it features what some critics considered to be some of The Monkees' best recorded work, including contributions by Carole King and Harry Nilsson. Jack Nicholson compil