Long Island is a densely populated island off the East Coast of the United States, beginning at New York Harbor 0.35 miles from Manhattan Island and extending eastward into the Atlantic Ocean. The island comprises four counties in the U. S. state of New York. Kings and Queens Counties and Nassau County share the western third of the island, while Suffolk County occupies the eastern two-thirds. More than half of New York City's residents now live in Brooklyn and Queens. However, many people in the New York metropolitan area colloquially use the term Long Island to refer to Nassau and Suffolk Counties, which are suburban in character, conversely employing the term the City to mean Manhattan alone. Broadly speaking, "Long Island" may refer both to the main island and the surrounding outer barrier islands. North of the island is Long Island Sound, across which lie Westchester County, New York, the state of Connecticut. Across the Block Island Sound to the northeast is the state of Rhode Island. To the west, Long Island is separated from the island of Manhattan by the East River.
To the extreme southwest, it is separated from Staten Island and the state of New Jersey by Upper New York Bay, the Narrows, Lower New York Bay. To the east lie Block Island—which belongs to the State of Rhode Island—and numerous smaller islands. Both the longest and the largest island in the contiguous United States, Long Island extends 118 miles eastward from New York Harbor to Montauk Point, with a maximum north-to-south distance of 23 miles between Long Island Sound and the Atlantic coast. With a land area of 1,401 square miles, Long Island is the 11th-largest island in the United States and the 149th-largest island in the world—larger than the 1,214 square miles of the smallest U. S. state, Rhode Island. With a Census-estimated population of 7,869,820 in 2017, constituting nearly 40% of New York State's population, Long Island is the most populated island in any U. S. state or territory, the 18th-most populous island in the world. Its population density is 5,595.1 inhabitants per square mile.
If Long Island geographically constituted an independent metropolitan statistical area, it would rank fourth most populous in the United States. S. state, Long Island would rank 13th in population and first in population density. Long Island is culturally and ethnically diverse, featuring some of the wealthiest and most expensive neighborhoods in the Western Hemisphere near the shorelines as well as working-class areas in all four counties; as a hub of commercial aviation, Long Island contains two of the New York City metropolitan area's three busiest airports, JFK International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, in addition to Islip MacArthur Airport. Nine bridges and 13 tunnels connect Brooklyn and Queens to the three other boroughs of New York City. Ferries connect Suffolk County northward across Long Island Sound to the state of Connecticut; the Long Island Rail Road is the busiest commuter railroad in North America and operates 24/7. Nassau County high school students feature prominently as winners of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair and similar STEM-based academic awards.
Biotechnology companies and scientific research play a significant role in Long Island's economy, including research facilities at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, State University of New York at Stony Brook, the New York University Tandon School of Engineering, the City University of New York, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine. Prior to European contact, the Lenape people inhabited the western end of Long Island, spoke the Munsee dialect of Lenape, one of the Algonquian language family. Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to record an encounter with the Lenapes, after entering what is now New York Bay in 1524; the eastern portion of the island was inhabited by speakers of the Mohegan-Montauk-Narragansett language group of Algonquian languages. In 1609, the English navigator Henry Hudson explored the harbor and purportedly landed at Coney Island. Adriaen Block followed in 1615, is credited as the first European to determine that both Manhattan and Long Island are islands.
Native American land deeds recorded by the Dutch from 1636 state that the Indians referred to Long Island as Sewanhaka. Sewan was one of the terms for wampum, is translated as "loose" or "scattered", which may refer either to the wampum or to Long Island; the name "'t Lange Eylandt alias Matouwacs" appears in Dutch maps from the 1650s. The English referred to the land as "Nassau Island", after the Dutch Prince William of Nassau, Prince of Orange, it is unclear. Another indigenous name from colonial time, comes from the Native American name for Long Island and means "the island that pays tribute." The first settlements on Long Island were by settlers from England and its colonies in present-day New England. Lion Gardiner settled nearby Gardiners Island. T
The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895; the prizes in Chemistry, Peace and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. The prizes are regarded as the most prestigious awards available in the fields of chemistry, peace activism and physiology or medicine. In 1968, Sweden's central bank, Sveriges Riksbank, established the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, although not a Nobel Prize, has become informally known as the "Nobel Prize in Economics"; the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, the Nobel Prize in Physics, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel. Between 1901 and 2018, the Nobel Prizes were awarded 590 times to 935 organizations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 27 organizations and 908 individuals.
The prize ceremonies take place annually in Sweden. Each recipient receives a gold medal, a diploma, a sum of money, decided by the Nobel Foundation. Medals made before 1980 were struck in 23-carat gold, in 18-carat green gold plated with a 24-carat gold coating; the prize is not awarded posthumously. A prize may not be shared among more than three individuals, although the Nobel Peace Prize can be awarded to organizations of more than three people. Alfred Nobel was born on 21 October 1833 in Stockholm, into a family of engineers, he was a chemist and inventor. In 1894, Nobel purchased the Bofors iron and steel mill, which he made into a major armaments manufacturer. Nobel invented ballistite; this invention was a precursor to many smokeless military explosives the British smokeless powder cordite. As a consequence of his patent claims, Nobel was involved in a patent infringement lawsuit over cordite. Nobel amassed a fortune during his lifetime, with most of his wealth coming from his 355 inventions, of which dynamite is the most famous.
In 1888, Nobel was astonished to read his own obituary, titled The merchant of death is dead, in a French newspaper. As it was Alfred's brother Ludvig who had died, the obituary was eight years premature; the article made him apprehensive about how he would be remembered. This inspired him to change his will. On 10 December 1896, Alfred Nobel died in his villa in San Remo, from a cerebral haemorrhage, he was 63 years old. Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, he composed the last over a year before he died, signing it at the Swedish–Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895. To widespread astonishment, Nobel's last will specified that his fortune be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, physiology or medicine and peace. Nobel bequeathed 94 % of 31 million SEK, to establish the five Nobel Prizes; because of skepticism surrounding the will, it was not until 26 April 1897 that it was approved by the Storting in Norway. The executors of Nobel's will, Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of Nobel's fortune and organised the award of prizes.
Nobel's instructions named a Norwegian Nobel Committee to award the Peace Prize, the members of whom were appointed shortly after the will was approved in April 1897. Soon thereafter, the other prize-awarding organizations were designated; these were Karolinska Institute on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 11 June. The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for. In 1905, the personal union between Sweden and Norway was dissolved. According to his will and testament read in Stockholm on 30 December 1896, a foundation established by Alfred Nobel would reward those who serve humanity; the Nobel Prize was funded by Alfred Nobel's personal fortune. According to the official sources, Alfred Nobel bequeathed from the shares 94% of his fortune to the Nobel Foundation that now forms the economic base of the Nobel Prize; the Nobel Foundation was founded as a private organization on 29 June 1900. Its function is to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.
In accordance with Nobel's will, the primary task of the Foundation is to manage the fortune Nobel left. Robert and Ludvig Nobel were involved in the oil business in Azerbaijan, according to Swedish historian E. Bargengren, who accessed the Nobel family archives, it was this "decision to allow withdrawal of Alfred's money from Baku that became the decisive factor that enabled the Nobel Prizes to be established". Another important task of the Nobel Foundation is to market the prizes internationally and to oversee informal ad
College of Creative Studies
The College of Creative Studies is the smallest of the three undergraduate colleges at the University of California, Santa Barbara, unique within the University of California system in terms of structure and philosophy. Its small size, student privileges, grading system are designed to encourage self-motivated students with strong interests in a field to accomplish original work as undergraduates. A former student has called it a “graduate school for undergraduates”; the college has 350 students in eight majors and 60 professors and lecturers. There is an additional application process to the standard UCSB admission for prospective CCS students, CCS accepts applications for admissions throughout the year. In the late 1960s, the Chancellor of UCSB, Vernon I. Cheadle, was looking for an alternative education program for undergraduate students which could embody the new thinking of the 60s and attract attention to his growing university, he contacted a professor in the English department, Marvin Mudrick, to come up with ideas for this new program.
In 1967 the University of California allowed funding for Mudrick to start up the most promising of those ideas, the College of Creative Studies. The program started with 50 students in 7 majors: Art, Chemistry, Music Composition and Physics; the experimental program struck a chord with its students and faculty, along with the powerful pushing of Mudrick as its provost, it secured its place at UCSB. The program grew over the years in student and faculty size and in 1975 found its home in a building at UCSB that dates from when the campus was a World War II marine base. In 1995 the college added the major of Computer Science. In 2005, with the retirement of Provost William Ashby, the title of the Provost was changed to Dean and the College was placed under the leadership of Dr. Bruce Tiffney; the Art department includes the only undergraduate book arts program in the University of California system. The Physics program has become regarded as one of the best undergraduate Physics programs in the nation.
CCS students have won the UCSB Chancellor's Award for Excellence in Undergraduate Research several times in recent years. Literature students run Spectrum, a literary magazine, Into the Teeth of the Wind, a poetry review; the philosophy of the College of Creative Studies is that certain undergraduate students are capable of rigorously exploring and adding to their chosen field of knowledge. Students skip introductory courses as appropriate and are encouraged to accomplish original work throughout their time at the College: Literature students compile a portfolio of writing, art students put on a minimum of two shows displaying their work, music students perform their own compositions, science students enter labs by their sophomore years to conduct research and write scholarly papers for publication; the College considers students to be the most important people involved, not the faculty or administration. It has a low student-teacher ratio, each student is paired with a faculty adviser with whom they meet at least once a quarter.
CCS students have few general education requirements and may take any course in the entire university, including graduate classes, without being required to complete the prerequisites. They can drop classes up to the last day of instruction in the quarter, a privilege intended to encourage students to attempt taking many units and advanced classes without being penalized in the case that they bit off more than they could chew. In CCS classes, students do not receive letter grades. Instead, the College uses a sliding unit scale where if a student completes all the work for a class at a satisfactory level, the student receives a full 4 units for most classes. If the student completes less work, he/she would receive fewer units, if the student goes beyond expectations, a professor may give student more units; this system aims to promote a non-competitive atmosphere that focuses more on the student learning the material rather than learning how to take a test. CCS students are afforded many privileges to help in the pursuit of their education.
Fewer prerequisites: If a CCS student can show a capability of taking an upper division or graduate class without the prerequisites, the college facilitates the process of getting the student in that class. Drop class and change grading: CCS students may drop any class up until the last day of instruction; this privilege is given as a backup if a student happens to try taking advanced classes or more classes than the usual student. They may change their grading between letter grade or pass/no-pass for classes outside CCS. Priority registration: CCS students are among the first students at UCSB to sign up for classes each quarter, they sign up at the same time as honors athletes. Higher unit cap: CCS students have a unit cap of 95.5 units per quarter. However, most students take between 25 units a quarter. Building access: All CCS students receive a key to the CCS building and have 24-hour access to it. Computer Lab: CCS students have 24-hour access to their own computer lab where they have free Internet access and photocopying.
Library checkout: CCS students get quarter-long check-out from the UCSB library and may renew materials up to five times. The College of Creative Studies is housed in its own single story building, number 494, located between campus dorms, a dining commons, the University Center; the building was built during World War II and shares the title as the oldest building at UCSB with the other buildings left from when the campus was a marine base. The building contains classrooms, art studios and administrat
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded yearly for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine. It is one of five Nobel Prizes established in his will in 1895 by Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite. Nobel was interested in experimental physiology and wanted to establish a prize for scientific progress through laboratory discoveries; the Nobel Prize is presented at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death, along with a diploma and a certificate for the monetary award. The front side of the medal displays the same profile of Alfred Nobel depicted on the medals for Physics and Literature; the reverse side is unique to this medal. The most recent Nobel prize was announced by Karolinska Institute on 1 October 2018, has been awarded to American James P. Allison and Japanese Tasuku Honjo – for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation; as of 2015, 106 Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine have been awarded to 12 women.
The first one was awarded in 1901 to the German physiologist Emil von Behring, for his work on serum therapy and the development of a vaccine against diphtheria. The first woman to receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Gerty Cori, received it in 1947 for her role in elucidating the metabolism of glucose, important in many aspects of medicine, including treatment of diabetes; some awards have been controversial. This includes one to António Egas Moniz in 1949 for the prefrontal lobotomy, bestowed despite protests from the medical establishment. Other controversies resulted from disagreements over, included in the award; the 1952 prize to Selman Waksman was litigated in court, half the patent rights awarded to his co-discoverer Albert Schatz, not recognized by the prize. The 1962 prize awarded to James D. Watson, Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins for their work on DNA structure and properties did not acknowledge the contributing work from others, such as Oswald Avery and Rosalind Franklin who had died by the time of the nomination.
Since the Nobel Prize rules forbid nominations of the deceased, longevity is an asset, considering prizes are awarded as long as 50 years after the discovery. Forbidden is awarding any one prize to more than three recipients. In the last half century there has been an increasing tendency for scientists to work as teams, resulting in controversial exclusions. Alfred Nobel was born on 21 October 1833 in Stockholm, into a family of engineers, he was a chemist and inventor who amassed a fortune during his lifetime, most of it from his 355 inventions of which dynamite is the most famous. He was interested in experimental physiology and set up his own labs in France and Italy to conduct experiments in blood transfusions. Keeping abreast of scientific findings, he was generous in his donations to Ivan Pavlov's laboratory in Russia, was optimistic about the progress resulting from scientific discoveries made in laboratories. In 1888, Nobel was surprised to read his own obituary, titled "The merchant of death is dead", in a French newspaper.
As it happened, it was Nobel's brother Ludvig who had died, but Nobel, unhappy with the content of the obituary and concerned that his legacy would reflect poorly on him, was inspired to change his will. In his last will, Nobel requested that his money be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, peace, physiology or medicine, literature. Though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last was written a little over a year before he died at the age of 63; because his will was contested, it was not approved by the Storting until 26 April 1897. After Nobel's death, the Nobel Foundation was set up to manage the assets of the bequest. In 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly created statutes were promulgated by Swedish King Oscar II. According to Nobel's will, the Karolinska Institute in Sweden, a medical school and research center, is responsible for the Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Today, the prize is referred to as the Nobel Prize in Medicine.
It was important to Nobel that the prize be awarded for a "discovery" and that it be of "greatest benefit on mankind". Per the provisions of the will, only select persons are eligible to nominate individuals for the award; these include members of academies around the world, professors of medicine in Sweden, Norway and Finland, as well as professors of selected universities and research institutions in other countries. Past Nobel laureates may nominate; until 1977, all professors of Karolinska Institute together decided on the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. That year, changes in Swedish law forced the Institute to make public any documents pertaining to the Nobel Prize and it was considered necessary to establish a independent body for the Prize work. Therefore, the Nobel Assembly was constituted, it elects the Nobel Committee with 5 members who evaluate the nominees, the Secretary, in charge of the organization, each year 10 adjunct members to assist in the evaluation of candidates. In 1968, a provision was added.
True to its mandate, the Committee has chosen researchers working in the basic sciences over those who have made applied science contributions. Harvey Cushing, a pioneering American neurosurgeon who identified Cushing's syndrome, was not awarded the prize, nor was Sigmund Freud, as his psychoanalysis lacks hypotheses that can be experimentally confirmed; the public expected Jonas Salk or Albert Sabin to receive th
Elizabeth Helen Blackburn, is an Australian-American Nobel laureate, the former President of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies. She was a biological researcher at the University of California, San Francisco, who studied the telomere, a structure at the end of chromosomes that protects the chromosome. In 1984, Blackburn co-discovered telomerase, the enzyme that replenishes the telomere, with Carol W. Greider. For this work, she was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, sharing it with Greider and Jack W. Szostak, becoming the only Tasmanian-born Nobel laureate, she worked in medical ethics, was controversially dismissed from the Bush Administration's President's Council on Bioethics. Elizabeth Helen Blackburn was born in Hobart, Tasmania on 26 November 1948 to parents who were both family physicians, her family moved to the city of Launceston when she was four, where she attended the Broadland House Church of England Girls' Grammar School until the age of sixteen. Upon her family's relocation to Melbourne, she attended University High School, gained high marks in the end-of-year final statewide matriculation exams.
She went on to earn a Bachelor of Science in 1970 and Master of Science in 1972, both from the University of Melbourne in the field of biochemistry. Blackburn went to receive her PhD in 1975 from the University of Cambridge, where she worked with Frederick Sanger developing methods to sequence DNA using RNA, as well studied the bacteriophage Phi X 174, it was here, the Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology at Cambridge University, where Blackburn met her husband John Sedat. Blackburn's soon to be husband had taken a position at Yale, so she had decided to try and do her postdoctoral research there. “Thus it was that love brought me to a most fortunate and influential choice: Joe Gall’s lab at Yale.” So Elizabeth would go to complete her postdoctoral at Yale University. During her postdoctoral work at Yale, Blackburn was doing research on the protozoan Tetrahymena thermophil and noticed a repeating codon at the end of the linear rDNA which varied in size. Blackburn noticed that this hexanucleotide at the end of the chromosome contained a TTGGGG sequence, tandomly repeated, the terminal end of the chromosomes were palindromic.
These characteristics allowed Blackburn and colleagues to conduct further research on the protozoan. Using the telomeric repeated end of Tetrahymena and colleague Jack Szostak showed the unstable replicating plasmids of yeast were protected from degradation, proving that these sequences contained characteristics of telomeres; this research proved the telomeric repeats of Tetrahymena were conserved evolutionarily between the species. Through this research and collaborators noticed the replication system for chromosomes was not to add to the lengthening of the telomere, that the addition of these hexanucleotides to the chromosomes was due to the activity of an enzyme, able to transfer specific functional groups; the proposition of a possible transferase-like enzyme lead Blackburn and PhD student Carol W. Greider to the discovery of an enzyme with reverse transcriptase activity, able to fill in the terminal ends of telomeres without leaving the chromosome incomplete and unable to divide without loss of the end of the chromosome.
This 1985 discovery lead to the purification of this enzyme in lab, showing the transferase-like enzyme contained both RNA and protein components. The RNA portion of the enzyme served as a template for adding the telomeric repeats to the incomplete telomere, the protein added enzymatic function for the addition of these repeats. Through this breakthrough, the term “telomerase” was given to the enzyme, solving the end-replication process that had troubled scientists at the time. Telomerase works by adding base pairs to the overhang of DNA on the 3’ end, extending the strand until DNA polymerase and an RNA primer can complete the complementary strand and synthesize the double stranded DNA. Since DNA polymerase only synthesizes DNA in the leading strand direction, the shortening of the telomere results. Through their research and collaborators were able to show that the telomere is replenished by the enzyme telomerase, which conserves cellular division by preventing the rapid loss of genetic information internal to the telomere, leading to cellular aging.
On January 1, 2016, Blackburn was interviewed about her studies, discovering telomerase, her current research. When she was asked to recall the moment of telomerase discovery she stated:Carol had done this experiment, we stood, just in the lab, I remember sort of standing there, she had this – we call it a gel. It's an autoradiogram because there were trace amounts of radioactivity that were used to develop an image of the separated DNA products of what turned out to be the telomerase enzyme reaction. I remember looking at it and just thinking,'Ah! This could be big; this looks just right.' It had a pattern to it. There was a regularity to it. There was something, not just sort of garbage there, and, kind of coming through though we look back at it now, we'd say, there was this and the other, but it was a pattern shining through, it just had this sort of sense,'Ah! There's something real here.' But of course, the good scientist has to be sceptical and say,'Okay, we're going to test this every way around here, nail this one way or the other.'
If it's going to be true, you have to make sure that it's true, because you can get a lot of false leads if you're w
A knockout mouse or knock-out mouse is a genetically modified mouse in which researchers have inactivated, or "knocked out", an existing gene by replacing it or disrupting it with an artificial piece of DNA. They are important animal models for studying the role of genes which have been sequenced but whose functions have not been determined. By causing a specific gene to be inactive in the mouse, observing any differences from normal behaviour or physiology, researchers can infer its probable function. Mice are the laboratory animal species most related to the humans for which the knockout technique can be applied, they are used in knockout experiments those investigating genetic questions that relate to human physiology. Gene knockout in rats is much harder and has only been possible since 2003; the first recorded knockout mouse was created by Mario R. Capecchi, Martin Evans, Oliver Smithies in 1989, for which they were awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Aspects of the technology for generating knockout mice, the mice themselves have been patented in many countries by private companies.
Knocking out the activity of a gene provides information about what that gene does. Humans share many genes with mice. Observing the characteristics of knockout mice gives researchers information that can be used to better understand how a similar gene may cause or contribute to disease in humans. Examples of research in which knockout mice have been useful include studying and modeling different kinds of cancer, heart disease, arthritis, substance abuse, anxiety and Parkinson's disease. Knockout mice offer a biological and scientific context in which drugs and other therapies can be developed and tested. Millions of knockout mice are used in experiments each year. There are several thousand different strains of knockout mice. Many mouse models are named after the gene, inactivated. For example, the p53 knockout mouse is named after the p53 gene which codes for a protein that suppresses the growth of tumours by arresting cell division and/or inducing apoptosis. Humans born with mutations that deactivate the p53 gene suffer from Li-Fraumeni syndrome, a condition that increases the risk of developing bone cancers, breast cancer and blood cancers at an early age.
Other mouse models are named according to their physical behaviours. There are several variations to the procedure of producing knockout mice; the gene to be knocked out is isolated from a mouse gene library. A new DNA sequence is engineered, similar to the original gene and its immediate neighbour sequence, except that it is changed sufficiently to make the gene inoperable; the new sequence is given a marker gene, a gene that normal mice don't have and that confers resistance to a certain toxic agent or that produces an observable change. In addition, a second gene, such as herpes tk+, is included in the construct in order to accomplish a complete selection. Embryonic stem cells are grown in vitro. For this example, we will take stem cells from a white mouse; the new sequence from step 1 is introduced into the stem cells from step 2 by electroporation. By the natural process of homologous recombination some of the electroporated stem cells will incorporate the new sequence with the knocked-out gene into their chromosomes in place of the original gene.
The chances of a successful recombination event are low, so the majority of altered cells will have the new sequence in only one of the two relevant chromosomes – they are said to be heterozygous. Cells that were transformed with a vector containing the neomycin resistance gene and the herpes tk+ gene are grown in a solution containing neomycin and Ganciclovir in order to select for the transformations that occurred via homologous recombination. Any insertion of DNA that occurred via random insertion will die because they test positive for both the neomycin resistance gene and the herpes tk+ gene, whose gene product reacts with Ganciclovir to produce a deadly toxin. Moreover, cells that do not integrate any of the genetic material test negative for both genes and therefore die as a result of poisoning with neomycin; the embryonic stem cells that incorporated the knocked-out gene are isolated from the unaltered cells using the marker gene from step 1. For example, the unaltered cells can be killed using a toxic agent to which the altered cells are resistant.
The knocked-out embryonic stem cells from step 4 are inserted into a mouse blastocyst. For this example, we use blastocysts from a grey mouse; the blastocysts now contain two types of stem cells: the original ones, the knocked-out cells. These blastocysts are implanted into the uterus of female mice, where they develop; the newborn mice will therefore be chimeras: some parts of their bodies result from the original stem cells, other parts from the knocked-out stem cells. Their fur will show patches of white and grey, with white patches derived from the knocked-out stem cells and grey patches from the recipient blastocyst; some of the newborn chimera mice will have gonads derived from knocked-out stem cells, will therefore produce eggs or sperm containing the knocked-out gene. When these chimera mice are crossbred with others of the wild type, some of their offspring will have one copy of the knocked-out gene in all their cells; these mice will be white and are not chimeras, however they are still heterozygous.
When these heterozygous offspring are interbred, some of their offspring will inherit
Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University is a private research university in Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, the university was named for its first benefactor, the American entrepreneur and philanthropist Johns Hopkins, his $7 million bequest —of which half financed the establishment of Johns Hopkins Hospital—was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States up to that time. Daniel Coit Gilman, inaugurated as the institution's first president on February 22, 1876, led the university to revolutionize higher education in the U. S. by integrating teaching and research. Adopting the concept of a graduate school from Germany's ancient Heidelberg University, Johns Hopkins University is considered the first research university in the United States. Over the course of several decades, the university has led all U. S. universities in annual research and development expenditures. In fiscal year 2016, Johns Hopkins spent nearly $2.5 billion on research. Johns Hopkins is organized into 10 divisions on campuses in Maryland and Washington, D.
C. with international centers in Italy and Singapore. The two undergraduate divisions, the Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences and the Whiting School of Engineering, are located on the Homewood campus in Baltimore's Charles Village neighborhood; the medical school, the nursing school, the Bloomberg School of Public Health are located on the Medical Institutions campus in East Baltimore. The university consists of the Peabody Institute, the Applied Physics Laboratory, the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, the School of Education, the Carey Business School, various other facilities. Johns Hopkins was a founding member of the American Association of Universities. Johns Hopkins University is cited as among the world's top universities; the university is ranked 10th among undergraduate programs at National Universities in U. S. News & World Report latest rankings, 10th among global universities by U. S. News & World Report in its 2019 rankings, as well as 12th globally in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings.
Over the course of more than 140 years, 37 Nobel laureates and 1 Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Johns Hopkins. Founded in 1883, the Blue Jays men's lacrosse team has captured 44 national titles and joined the Big Ten Conference as an affiliate member in 2014. On his death in 1873, Johns Hopkins, a Quaker entrepreneur and childless bachelor, bequeathed $7 million to fund a hospital and university in Baltimore, Maryland. At that time this fortune, generated from the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States; the first name of philanthropist Johns Hopkins is the surname of his great-grandmother, Margaret Johns, who married Gerard Hopkins. They named their son Johns Hopkins. Samuel named one of his sons for his father and that son would become the university's benefactor. Milton Eisenhower, a former university president, once spoke at a convention in Pittsburgh where the Master of Ceremonies introduced him as "President of John Hopkins."
Eisenhower retorted that he was "glad to be here in Pittburgh." The original board opted for an novel university model dedicated to the discovery of knowledge at an advanced level, extending that of contemporary Germany. Building on the Humboldtian model of higher education, the German education model of Wilhelm von Humboldt, it became dedicated to research. Johns Hopkins thereby became the model of the modern research university in the United States, its success shifted higher education in the United States from a focus on teaching revealed and/or applied knowledge to the scientific discovery of new knowledge. The trustees worked alongside four notable university presidents – Charles W. Eliot of Harvard, Andrew D. White of Cornell, Noah Porter of Yale College and James B. Angell of Michigan, they each vouched for Daniel Coit Gilman to lead the new University and he became the university's first president. Gilman, a Yale-educated scholar, had been serving as president of the University of California prior to this appointment.
In preparation for the university's founding, Gilman visited University of Freiburg and other German universities. Gilman launched what many at the time considered an audacious and unprecedented academic experiment to merge teaching and research, he dismissed the idea that the two were mutually exclusive: "The best teachers are those who are free and willing to make original researches in the library and the laboratory," he stated. To implement his plan, Gilman recruited internationally known luminaries such as the mathematician James Joseph Sylvester. Gilman focused on the expansion of graduate support of faculty research; the new university fused advanced scholarship with such professional schools as medicine and engineering. Hopkins became the national trendsetter in doctoral programs and the host for numerous scholarly journals and associations; the Johns Hopkins University Press, founded in 1878, is the oldest American university press in continuous operation. With the completion of Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1889 and the medical school in 1893, the university's research-focused mode of instruction soon began attracting world-renowned faculty members who would become major figures in the emerging field of acad