A papoose is an American English loanword whose present meaning is "a Native American child" or more any child used as a term of endearment in the context of the child's mother. The word came from the Narragansett tribe. In 1643, Roger Williams recorded the word in his A Key Into the Language of America, helping to popularize it. Cradle boards and other child carriers used by Native Americans are known by various names. In the United Kingdom, the term "papoose" is sometimes used to refer to a child carrier
A wigwam, wickiup or wetu is a semi-permanent domed dwelling used by certain Native American and First Nations tribes, still used for ceremonial purposes. The term wickiup is used to label these kinds of dwellings in the Southwestern United States and Western United States, while wigwam is applied to these structures in the Northeastern United States and Canada. Wetu is the Wampanoag term for a wigwam dwelling; these terms can refer to many distinct types of Native American structures regardless of location or cultural group. The wigwam is not to be confused with the Native Plains teepee, which has a different construction and use; the domed, round shelter was used by numerous Native American cultures. The curved surfaces make it an ideal shelter for all kinds of conditions; these structures are formed with a frame of arched poles, most wooden, which are covered with some sort of roofing material. Details of construction vary with the culture and local availability of materials; some of the roofing materials used include grass, bark, mats, hides or cloth.
Wigwams were most seasonal structures although the term is applied to rounded and conical structures built by Native American groups that were more permanent. Wigwams take longer to put up than tipis and their frames are not portable like a tipi. A typical wigwam in the Northeast had a curved surface. Young green tree saplings of just about any type of wood, ten to fifteen feet long, were cut down and bent. While the saplings were being bent, a circle was drawn on the ground; the diameter of the circle varied from ten to sixteen feet. The bent saplings were placed over the drawn circle, using the tallest saplings in the middle and the shorter ones on the outside; the saplings formed arches all in one direction on the circle. The next set of saplings were used to wrap around the wigwam to give the shelter support; when the two sets of saplings were tied together, the sides and roof were placed on it. The sides of the wigwam were bark stripped from trees; the male of the family was responsible for the framing of the wigwam.
Mary Rowlandson uses the term Wigwam in reference to the dwelling places of the Native Americans that she stayed with while in their captivity during King Philip's War in 1675. The term wigwam has remained in common English usage as a synonym for any "Indian house". During the American revolution the term wigwam was used by British soldiers to describe a wide variety of makeshift structures. Wickiups were used by different indigenous peoples of the Great Basin and Pacific Coast, they were single room, dome-shaped dwellings, with a great deal of variation in size and materials. The Acjachemen, an indigenous people of California, built cone-shaped huts made of willow branches covered with brush or mats made of tule leaves. Known as Kiichas, the temporary shelters were utilized for sleeping or as refuge in cases of inclement weather; when a dwelling reached the end of its practical life it was burned, a replacement erected in its place in about a day's time. Below is a description of Chiricahua wickiups recorded by anthropologist Morris Opler: The home in which the family lives is made by the men and is ordinarily a circular, dome-shaped brush dwelling, with the floor at ground level.
It is eight feet high at the center and seven feet in diameter. To build it, long fresh poles of oak or willow are driven into the ground or placed in holes made with a digging stick; these poles, which form the framework, are arranged at one-foot intervals and are bound together at the top with yucca-leaf strands. Over them a thatching of bundles of big bluestem grass or bear grass is tied, shingle style, with yucca strings. A smoke hole opens above a central fireplace. A hide, suspended at the entrance, is fixed on a cross-beam so that it may be swung forward or backward; the doorway may face in any direction. For waterproofing, pieces of hide are thrown over the outer hatching, in rainy weather, if a fire is not needed the smoke hole is covered. In warm, dry weather much of the outer roofing is stripped off, it takes three days to erect a sturdy dwelling of this type. These houses are "warm and comfortable though there is a big snow." The interior is lined with brush and grass beds over which robes are spread....}}
The woman not only makes the furnishings of the home but is responsible for the construction and repair of the dwelling itself and for the arrangement of everything in it. She provides the grass and brush beds and replaces them when they become too old and dry.... However "they had no permanent homes, so they didn't bother with cleaning." The dome-shaped dwelling or wickiup, the usual home type for all the Chiricahua bands, has been described.... Said a Central Chiricahua informant: Both the teepee and the oval-shaped house were used when I was a boy; the oval hut was the best house. The more well-to-do had this kind; the teepee type was just made of brush. It had a place for a fire in the center, it was just thrown together. Both types were common before my time... A house form that departed from the more common dome-shaped variety is recorded for the Southern Chiricahua as well: When we settled down, we used the wickiup; the English word wigwam derives from Proto-Algonquian * wi · kiwa · ʔmi. Others have similar names for the structure: wigwôm in Abenaki wiigiwaam in the Anishinaabe language wiigiwaam with v
The moose or elk, Alces alces is a member of the New World deer subfamily and is the largest and heaviest extant species in the Deer family. Moose are distinguished by the palmate antlers of the males. Moose inhabit boreal forests and temperate broadleaf and mixed forests of the Northern Hemisphere in temperate to subarctic climates. Hunting and other human activities have caused a reduction in the size of the moose's range over time. Moose have been reintroduced to some of their former habitats. Most moose are found in Canada, New England, Baltic states, Russia, their diet consists of both aquatic vegetation. The most common moose predators are the gray wolf along with humans. Unlike most other deer species, moose do not form herds and are solitary animals, aside from calves who remain with their mother until the cow begins estrus, at which point the cow chases away young bulls. Although slow-moving and sedentary, moose can become aggressive and move if angered or startled, their mating season in the autumn features energetic fights between males competing for a female.
Alces alces is called an "elk" in British English. The word "elk" in North American English refers to a different species of deer, the Cervus canadensis called the wapiti. A mature male moose is called a bull, a mature female a cow, an immature moose of either sex a calf; the word "elk" originated in Proto-Germanic, from which Old English evolved and has cognates in other Indo-European languages, e.g. elg in Danish/Norwegian. In the continental-European languages, these forms of the word "elk" always refer to the Alces alces; the word "moose" had first entered English by 1606 and is borrowed from the Algonquian languages, involved forms from multiple languages mutually reinforcing one another. The Proto-Algonquian form was *mo·swa; the moose became extinct in Britain during the Bronze Age, long before the European arrival in the Americas. The youngest bones were found in Scotland and are 3,900 years old; the word "elk" remained in usage because of its existence in continental Europe but, without any living animals around to serve as a reference, the meaning became rather vague to most speakers of English, who used "elk" to refer to "large deer" in general.
Dictionaries of the 18th century described "elk" as a deer, "as large as a horse". Confusingly, the word "elk" is used in North America to refer to a different animal, Cervus canadensis, called by the Algonquian indigenous name, "wapiti"; the British began colonizing America in the 17th century, found two common species of deer for which they had no names. The wapiti appeared similar to the red deer of Europe although it was much larger and was not red; the moose was a rather strange-looking deer to the colonists, they adopted local names for both. In the early days of American colonization, the wapiti was called a grey moose and the moose was called a black moose, but early accounts of the animals varied wildly, adding to the confusion; the wapiti is superficially similar to the red deer of central and western Europe, although it is distinctly different behaviorally and genetically. Early European explorers in North America in Virginia where there were no moose, called the wapiti "elk" because of its size and resemblance to familiar-looking deer like the red deer.
The moose resembled the "German elk", less familiar to the British colonists. For a long time neither species were called a variety of things. In North America the wapiti became known as an elk while the moose retained its Anglicized Native-American name. In 1736, Samuel Dale wrote to the Royal Society of Great Britain: The common light-grey moose, called by the Indians and the large or black-moose, the beast whose horns I herewith present; as to the grey moose, I take it to be no larger than what Mr. John Clayton, in his account of the Virginia Quadrupeds, calls the Elke... was in all respects like those of our red-deer or stags, only larger... The black moose is accounted a large creature.... The stag, buck, or male of this kind has a palmed horn, not like that of our common or fallow-deer, but the palm is much longer, more like that of the German elke. Moose require habitat with adequate edible plants, cover from predators, protection from hot or cold weather. Moose travel among different habitats with the seasons to address these requirements.
Moose are cold-adapted mammals with thickened skin, heat-retaining coat, a low surface:volume ratio, which provides excellent cold tolerance but poor heat tolerance. Moose survive hot weather by immersion in cool water. In hot weather, moose are found wading or swimming in lakes or ponds; when heat-stressed, moose may fail to adequately forage in summer and may not gain adequate body fat to survive the winter. Also
Phonetic transcription is the visual representation of speech sounds. The most common type of phonetic transcription uses a phonetic alphabet, such as the International Phonetic Alphabet; the pronunciation of words in many languages, as distinct from their written form, has undergone significant change over time. Pronunciation can vary among dialects of a language. Standard orthography in some languages French and Irish, is irregular and makes it difficult to predict pronunciation from spelling. For example, the words bough and through do not rhyme in English though their spellings might suggest otherwise. In French, the sequence "-ent" is pronounced /ɑ̃/ in accent but is silent in "posent". Other languages, such as Spanish and Italian have a more consistent relationship between orthography and pronunciation. Therefore, phonetic transcription can provide a function, it displays a one-to-one relationship between symbols and sounds, unlike traditional writing systems. Phonetic transcription allows one to step outside orthography, examine differences in pronunciation between dialects within a given language and identify changes in pronunciation that may take place over time.
Phonetic transcription may aim to transcribe the phonology of a language, or it may be used to go further and specify the precise phonetic realisation. In all systems of transcription there is a distinction between broad transcription and narrow transcription. Broad transcription indicates only the most noticeable phonetic features of an utterance, whereas narrow transcription encodes more information about the phonetic variations of the specific allophones in the utterance; the difference between broad and narrow is a continuum. One particular form of a broad transcription is a phonemic transcription, which disregards all allophonic difference, and, as the name implies, is not a phonetic transcription at all, but a representation of phonemic structure. For example, one particular pronunciation of the English word little may be transcribed using the IPA as /ˈlɪtəl/ or. In North American English, there would be no difference at all between the pronunciation of little and the constructed word *liddle.
Indeed, middle. The advantage of the narrow transcription is that it can help learners to get the right sound, allows linguists to make detailed analyses of language variation; the disadvantage is that a narrow transcription is representative of all speakers of a language. Most Americans and Australians would pronounce the /t/ of little as a tap; some people in southern England would say /t/ as and/or the second /l/ as or something similar yielding. A further disadvantage in less technical contexts is that narrow transcription involves a larger number of symbols that may be unfamiliar to non-specialists. To most native English speakers those who don't merge /t/ and /d/ as in unstressed positions; the advantage of the broad transcription is that it allows statements to be made which apply across a more diverse language community. It is thus more appropriate for the pronunciation data in foreign language dictionaries, which may discuss phonetic details in the preface but give them for each entry.
A rule of thumb in many linguistics contexts is therefore to use a narrow transcription when it is necessary for the point being made, but a broad transcription whenever possible. Most phonetic transcription is based on the assumption that linguistic sounds are segmentable into discrete units that can be represented by symbols; the Avestan alphabet is an early phonetic alphabet developed in Sassanian Persia to write down the Avestan-language hymns of Zoroastrianism, or the Avesta, when Avestan was a dead language. The correct pronunciation of the prayers was considered to be important; the International Phonetic Alphabet is one of the most well-known phonetic alphabets. It was created by British language teachers, with efforts from European phoneticians and linguists, it has changed from its earlier intention as a tool of foreign language pedagogy to a practical alphabet of linguists. It is becoming the most seen alphabet in the field of phonetics. Most American dictionaries for native English-speakers—American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Random House Dictionary of the English Language, Webster's Third New International Dictionary—employ respelling systems based on the English alphabet, with diacritical marks over the vowels and stress marks.
Another encountered alphabetic tradition was created for the transcription of Native American and European languages, is still used by linguists of Slavic, Semitic and Caucasian languages. This is sometimes labeled the Americanist phonetic alphabet, but this is misleading because it has always been u
The opossum is a marsupial of the order Didelphimorphia endemic to the Americas. The largest order of marsupials in the Western Hemisphere, it comprises 103 or more species in 19 genera. Opossums originated in South America and entered North America in the Great American Interchange following the connection of the two continents, their unspecialized biology, flexible diet, reproductive habits make them successful colonizers and survivors in diverse locations and conditions. Although the animal is called a possum in North America, which would refer to the Virginia opossum species, it should not be confused with the suborder Phalangeriformes, which are arboreal marsupials in the Eastern Hemisphere called "possums" because of their resemblance to Didelphimorphia; the word "opossum" is borrowed from the Powhatan language and was first recorded between 1607 and 1611 by John Smith and William Strachey. Both men encountered the language at the British settlement of Jamestown, which Smith helped to found and where Strachey served as its first secretary.
Strachey's notes describe the opossum as a "beast in bigness of a pig and in taste alike," while Smith recorded it "hath an head like a swine... tail like a rat... of the bigness of a cat." The Powhatan word derives from a Proto-Algonquian word meaning "white dog or dog-like beast."Following the arrival of Europeans in Australia, the term "possum" was borrowed to describe distantly related Australian marsupials of the suborder Phalangeriformes, which are more related to other Australian marsupials such as kangaroos. "Didelphimorphia" refers to the fact. Didelphimorphs are small to medium-sized marsupials, they tend to be semi-arboreal omnivores. Most members of this taxon have long snouts, a narrow braincase, a prominent sagittal crest; the dental formula is: 22.214.171.124.1.3.4 × 2 = 50 teeth. By mammalian standards, this is an unusually full jaw; the incisors are small, the canines large, the molars are tricuspid. Didelphimorphs have a plantigrade stance and the hind feet have an opposable digit with no claw.
Like some New World monkeys, opossums have prehensile tails. Like that of all marsupials, the fur consists of awn hair only, the females have a pouch; the tail and parts of the feet bear scutes. The stomach is simple, with a small cecum. Like most marsupials, the male opossum has a forked penis bearing twin glandes. Although all living opossums are opportunistic omnivores, different species vary in the amount of meat and vegetation they include in their diet. Members of the Caluromyinae are frugivorous; the yapok is unusual, as it is the only living semi-aquatic marsupial, using its webbed hindlimbs to dive in search of freshwater mollusks and crayfish. The extinct Thylophorops, the largest known opossum at 4–7 kg, was a macropredator. Most opossums are scansorial, well-adapted to life in the trees or on the ground, but members of the Caluromyinae and Glironiinae are arboreal, whereas species of Metachirus, to a lesser degree Didelphis show adaptations for life on the ground; the Metachirus nudicaudatus, found in the upper Amazon basin, consumes fruit seeds, small vertebrate creatures like birds and reptiles and invertebrates like crayfish and snails, but seems to be most insectivorous.
As a marsupial, the female opossum has a reproductive system that includes a bifurcated vagina, a divided uterus and a marsupium, her pouch. The average estrous cycle of the opossum is about 28 days. Opossums do possess a placenta, but it is short-lived, simple in structure, unlike that of placental mammals, not functional; the young are therefore born at a early stage, although the gestation period is similar to that of many other small marsupials, at only 12 to 14 days. Once born, the offspring must find their way into the marsupium to hold on to and nurse from a teat. Baby opossums, like their Australian cousins, are called joeys. Female opossums give birth to large numbers of young, most of which fail to attach to a teat, although as many as thirteen young can attach, therefore survive, depending on species; the young are weaned between 125 days, when they detach from the teat and leave the pouch. The opossum lifespan is unusually short for a mammal of its size only one to two years in the wild and as long as four or more years in captivity.
Senescence is rapid. The species are moderately sexually dimorphic with males being larger, much heavier, having larger canines than females; the largest difference between the opossum and non-marsupial mammals is the bifurcated penis of the male and bifurcated vagina of the female. Opossum spermatozoa exhibit sperm-pairing; this may ensure that flagella movement can be coordinated for maximal motility. Conjugate pairs dissociate into separate spermatozoa before fertilization. Opossums are solitary and nomadic, staying in one area as long as food and water are available; some families will group together in ready-made burrows or under houses. Though they will temporarily occupy abandoned burrows, they do not dig or put much effort into building their own; as nocturnal animals, they favor secure areas. These areas may be below ground or above; when threatened or harmed, they will "play possum", mimicking the app
Manteo (Native American leader)
Manteo was a Native American Croatan Indian, the chief of a local tribe that befriended the English explorers who landed at Roanoke Island in 1584. In 1585 the English returned to Roanoke, arriving too late in the year to plant crops and harvest food, Manteo helped the colonists make it through the harsh winter, he traveled to England on two occasions, in 1584 and 1585. After staying there, he was among those who sailed for the New World in 1587 along with Governor John White and his colonists, who founded the failed settlement known as "The Lost Colony". On Sunday, August 13, 1587, Manteo was christened on Roanoke Island, making him the first Native American to be baptized into the Church of England. Little is known of Manteo's early life, he was born into the Croatan tribe, a small Native American group living in the coastal areas of what is now North Carolina. They allied with them; the Croatan lived in current Dare County, an area encompassing the Alligator River, Croatan Sound, Roanoke Island, parts of the Outer Banks, including Hatteras Island.
Manteo first entered the historical record through his encounter with English explorers in 1584, when Sir Walter Raleigh dispatched the first of a number of expeditions to Roanoke Island to explore and settle the New World. Early English encounters with the natives were friendly, Manteo became one of the first Native Americans to travel to England. Despite the difficulties in communication, the explorers persuaded "two of the savages, being lustie men, whose names were Wanchese and Manteo" to accompany them on the return voyage to London, in order for the English people to report both the conditions of the New World that they had explored and what the usefulness of the territory might be to the English. Once safely delivered to England in September 1584, Manteo and Wanchese soon caused a sensation at court. Raleigh's priority, was not publicity but rather intelligence about his new land of Virginia, he restricted access to the exotic newcomers, he assigned the scientist Thomas Harriot with the job of deciphering and learning the Carolina Algonquian language, using a phonetic alphabet of his own invention in order to effect the translation.
Both Wanchese and Manteo were hosted at Durham House. Unlike Manteo, Wanchese evinced little interest in learning English and did not befriend his hosts, remaining suspicious of English motives in the New World, he soon considered himself as a captive of the English rather than as their guest. By Christmas of 1584, Harriot learned to converse in the Algonquin language with the two Croatans. Accounts suggest. Harriot and Manteo spent many days in one another's the company. In addition, he recorded the sense of awe with which the Native Americans viewed European technology: Many things they sawe with us...as mathematical instruments, sea compasses... spring clocks that seemed to goe of themselves – and many other things we had – were so strange unto them, so farre exceeded their capacities to comprehend the reason and meanes how they should be made and done, that they thought they were rather the works of gods than men. Manteo and Wanchese returned to the New World in April 1585, sailing with Sir Richard Grenville's expedition in the Tiger.
They reached the warm waters of the Caribbean in just 21 days. The expedition was led by Sir Ralph Lane, was accompanied by Harriot who, having mastered the Carolina Algonquin language, would act as translator between the local tribes and the English settlers. Records indicate that Manteo and Wanchese traveled again to England in the same decade. Following the voyage, Manteo and the English returned to Roanoke, it is speculated that Sir Walter Raleigh chose to have Manteo accompany him on his journey to England in order to better acquaint him with certain elements of English culture. In 1587 Manteo returned to Roanoke along with Governor John White's ill-fated expedition to plant a permanent English colony in the New World. Manteo was involved in several nighttime attacks which took place in 1587; the Native Americans had informed the English. To seek revenge, the English attempted to plot an attack on the Roanoke, who they believed had killed the English men. But, the English killed several Croatan people by mistake, including Manteo's mother, leader of the Croatan natives.
As a mediator between the English and the Native Americans, due to his loyalty to the English people, Manteo was caught in the middle. He understood the points of views of both sides. Manteo was essential to English–Native American communications during those early voyages to and explorations of the New World organized by Raleigh; the relationship that Manteo shared with the English serves as an early example of positive racial and cultural relations in North America and as a unique example of race relations within the context of Western Civilization. Manteo was a trusted friend and guide to the English settlers while remaining loyal to his native people during early American history, when English and Native American relations were unstable. Manteo is one of the foremost examples of positive race relations in early American history. Manteo was useful to the English people in several ways, he served as a translator to the English. Manteo and the English people were able to lear
Thomas Harriot spelled Harriott, Hariot or Heriot, was an English astronomer, mathematician and translator who made advances within the scientific field. Thomas Harriot was recognized for his contributions in astronomy and navigational techniques. Harriot worked with John White to create advanced maps for navigation. While Harriot worked extensively on numerous papers on the subjects of astronomy and navigation the amount of work, published was sparse. So sparse, that the only publication, produced by Harriot was “the briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia.” The premise of the book includes descriptions of English settlements and financial issues in Virginia at the time. He is sometimes credited with the introduction of the potato to the British Isles. Harriot was the first person to make a drawing of the Moon through a telescope, on 26 July 1609, over four months before Galileo. After graduating from St Mary Hall, Harriot travelled to the Americas, accompanying the 1585 expedition to Roanoke island funded by Sir Walter Raleigh and led by Sir Ralph Lane.
Harriot was a vital member of the venture, having learned and translating the Carolina Algonquian language from two Native Americans: Wanchese and Manteo. On his return to England, he worked for the 9th Earl of Northumberland. At the Earl's house, he became a prolific mathematician and astronomer to whom the theory of refraction is attributed. Born in 1560 in Oxford, Thomas Harriot attended St Mary Hall, Oxford, his name appears in the hall's registry dating from 1577. Harriot started to study navigation shortly after receiving a bachelor's degree from Oxford University; the study of navigation that Harriot studied concentrated on the idea of the open seas and how to cross to the New World from the Atlantic Ocean. He used instruments such as sextants to aide his studies of navigation. After educating himself by incorporating ideals from his astronomic and nautical studies, Harriot taught other captains his navigational techniques in Raleigh, his findings were recorded in the Articon but was never found.
After his graduation from Oxford in 1580, Harriot was first hired by Sir Walter Raleigh as a mathematics tutor. Prior to his expedition with Raleigh, Harriot wrote a treatise on navigation, he made efforts to communicate with Manteo and Wanchese, two Native Americans, brought to England. Harriot devised a phonetic alphabet to transcribe their Carolina Algonquian language. Harriot and Manteo spent many days in one another's company. In addition, he recorded the sense of awe with which the Native Americans viewed European technology: "Many things they sawe with us...as mathematical instruments, sea compasses... spring clocks that seemed to goe of themselves - and many other things we had - were so strange unto them, so farre exceeded their capacities to comprehend the reason and meanes how they should be made and done, that they thought they were rather the works of gods than men."He made only one expedition, around 1585-86, spent some time in the New World visiting Roanoke Island off the coast of North Carolina, expanding his knowledge by improving his understanding of the Carolina Algonquian language.
As the only Englishman who had learned Algonquin prior to the voyage, Harriot was vital to the success of the expedition. Hariot smoked tobacco before Raleigh, may have taught him to do so, his account of the voyage, named A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia, was published in 1588. The True Report contains an early account of the Native American population encountered by the expedition, he wrote: "Whereby it may be hoped, if means of good government be used, that they may in short time be brought to civility and the embracing of true religion." At the same time, his views of Native Americans' industry and capacity to learn were largely ignored in favour of the parts of the "True Report" about extractable minerals and resources. As a scientific adviser during the voyage, Harriot was asked by Raleigh to find the most efficient way to stack cannonballs on the deck of the ship, his ensuing theory about the close-packing of spheres shows a striking resemblance to atomism and modern atomic theory, which he was accused of believing.
His correspondence about optics with Johannes Kepler, in which he described some of his ideas influenced Kepler's conjecture. Harriot was employed for many years by Henry Percy, 9th Earl of Northumberland, with whom he resided at Syon House, run by Henry Percy's cousin Thomas Percy. Harriot's sponsors began to fall from favour: Raleigh was the first, Harriot's other patron Henry Percy, the Earl of Northumberland, was imprisoned in 1605 in connection with the Gunpowder Plot as he was connected to one of the conspirators, Thomas Percy. Around 1605, Harriot was imprisoned for a minimal amount of time due to the crimes involved with the Ninth Earl of Northumberland and the attempted assassination of King James I of England, known as the Jesuit Treason. While this was occurring, Harriot continued his work involving astronomy and in 1607, Harriot used his notes from the observations of the Halley's Comet to elaborate on his understanding of its orbit. Soon after in 1609 and 1610 Harriot turned his attention towards the physical aspects of the moon and