A wildfire or wildland fire is a fire in an area of combustible vegetation occurring in rural areas. Depending on the type of vegetation present, a wildfire can be classified more as a brush fire, desert fire, forest fire, grass fire, hill fire, peat fire, vegetation fire, or veld fire. Fossil charcoal indicates that wildfires began soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants 420 million years ago. Wildfire's occurrence throughout the history of terrestrial life invites conjecture that fire must have had pronounced evolutionary effects on most ecosystems' flora and fauna. Earth is an intrinsically flammable planet owing to its cover of carbon-rich vegetation, seasonally dry climates, atmospheric oxygen, widespread lightning and volcanic ignitions. Wildfires can be characterized in terms of the cause of ignition, their physical properties, the combustible material present, the effect of weather on the fire. Wildfires can cause damage to property and human life, although occurring wildfires may have beneficial effects on native vegetation and ecosystems that have evolved with fire.
High-severity wildfire creates complex early seral forest habitat, which has higher species richness and diversity than unburned old forest. Many plant species depend on the effects of fire for reproduction. Wildfires in ecosystems where wildfire is uncommon or where non-native vegetation has encroached may have negative ecological effects. Wildfire behavior and severity result from a combination of factors such as available fuels, physical setting, weather. Analyses of historical meteorological data and national fire records in western North America show the primacy of climate in driving large regional fires via wet periods that create substantial fuels, or drought and warming that extend conducive fire weather. Strategies for wildfire prevention and suppression have varied over the years. One common and inexpensive technique is controlled burning: intentionally igniting smaller fires to minimize the amount of flammable material available for a potential wildfire. Vegetation may be burned periodically to maintain high species diversity and limit the accumulation of plants and other debris that may serve as fuel.
Wildland fire use is the cheapest and most ecologically appropriate policy for many forests. Fuels may be removed by logging, but fuels treatments and thinning have no effect on severe fire behavior when under extreme weather conditions. Wildfire itself is "the most effective treatment for reducing a fire's rate of spread, fireline intensity, flame length, heat per unit of area", according to Jan Van Wagtendonk, a biologist at the Yellowstone Field Station. Building codes in fire-prone areas require that structures be built of flame-resistant materials and a defensible space be maintained by clearing flammable materials within a prescribed distance from the structure. Three major natural causes of wildfire ignitions exist: dry climate lightning volcanic eruptionThe most common direct human causes of wildfire ignition include arson, discarded cigarettes, power-lines arcs, sparks from equipment. Ignition of wildland fires via contact with hot rifle-bullet fragments is possible under the right conditions.
Wildfires can be started in communities experiencing shifting cultivation, where land is cleared and farmed until the soil loses fertility, slash and burn clearing. Forested areas cleared by logging encourage the dominance of flammable grasses, abandoned logging roads overgrown by vegetation may act as fire corridors. Annual grassland fires in southern Vietnam stem in part from the destruction of forested areas by US military herbicides and mechanical land-clearing and -burning operations during the Vietnam War; the most common cause of wildfires varies throughout the world. In Canada and northwest China, lightning operates as the major source of ignition. In other parts of the world, human involvement is a major contributor. In Africa, Central America, Mexico, New Zealand, South America, Southeast Asia, wildfires can be attributed to human activities such as agriculture, animal husbandry, land-conversion burning. In China and in the Mediterranean Basin, human carelessness is a major cause of wildfires.
In the United States and Australia, the source of wildfires can be traced both to lightning strikes and to human activities. Coal seam fires burn in the thousands around the world, such as those in Burning Mountain, New South Wales, they can flare up unexpectedly and ignite nearby flammable material. The spread of wildfires varies based on the flammable material present, its vertical arrangement and moisture content, weather conditions. Fuel arrangement and density is governed in part by topography, as land shape determines factors such as available sunlight and water for plant growth. Overall, fire types can be characterized by their fuels as follows: Ground fires are fed by subterranean roots and other buried organic matter; this fuel type is susceptible to ignition due to spotting. Ground fires burn by smoldering, can burn for days to months, such as peat fires in Kalimantan and Eastern Sumatra, which resulted from a riceland creation project that unintentionally drained and dried the peat.
Crawling or surface fires are fueled by low-lying vegetation on the forest floor such as leaf and timber litter, debris and low-lying shrubbery. This kind of fire burns at a lower temperature than crown fires and may spread
South Carolina is a state in the Southeastern United States and the easternmost of the Deep South. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southwest by Georgia across the Savannah River. South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution on May 23, 1788. South Carolina became the first state to vote in favor of secession from the Union on December 20, 1860. After the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25, 1868. South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and 23rd most populous U. S. state. Its GDP as of 2013 was $183.6 billion, with an annual growth rate of 3.13%. South Carolina is composed of 46 counties; the capital is Columbia with a 2017 population of 133,114. The Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin metropolitan area is the largest in the state, with a 2017 population estimate of 895,923. South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, who first formed the English colony, with Carolus being Latin for "Charles".
South Carolina is known for its 187 miles of coastline, beautiful lush gardens, historic sites and Southern plantations, colonial and European cultures, its growing economic development. The state can be divided into three geographic areas. From east to west: the Atlantic coastal plain, the Piedmont, the Blue Ridge Mountains. Locally, the coastal plain is referred to the other two regions as Upstate; the Atlantic Coastal Plain makes up two-thirds of the state. Its eastern border is a chain of tidal and barrier islands; the border between the low country and the up country is defined by the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, which marks the limit of navigable rivers. The state's coastline contains many salt marshes and estuaries, as well as natural ports such as Georgetown and Charleston. An unusual feature of the coastal plain is a large number of Carolina bays, the origins of which are uncertain; the bays tend to be oval. The terrain is flat and the soil is composed of recent sediments such as sand and clay.
Areas with better drainage make excellent farmland. The natural areas of the coastal plain are part of the Middle Atlantic coastal forests ecoregion. Just west of the coastal plain is the Sandhills region; the Sandhills are remnants of coastal dunes from a time when the land was sunken or the oceans were higher. The Upstate region contains the roots of an eroded mountain chain, it is hilly, with thin, stony clay soils, contains few areas suitable for farming. Much of the Piedmont was once farmed. Due to the changing economics of farming, much of the land is now reforested in Loblolly pine for the lumber industry; these forests are part of the Southeastern mixed forests ecoregion. At the southeastern edge of the Piedmont is the fall line, where rivers drop to the coastal plain; the fall line was an important early source of water power. Mills built to harness this resource encouraged the growth of several cities, including the capital, Columbia; the larger rivers are navigable up to the fall line. The northwestern part of the Piedmont is known as the Foothills.
The Cherokee Parkway is a scenic driving route through this area. This is. Highest in elevation is the Blue Ridge Region, containing an escarpment of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which continue into North Carolina and Georgia, as part of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Sassafras Mountain, South Carolina's highest point at 3,560 feet, is in this area. In this area is Caesars Head State Park; the environment here is that of the Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests ecoregion. The Chattooga River, on the border between South Carolina and Georgia, is a favorite whitewater rafting destination. South Carolina has several major lakes covering over 683 square miles. All major lakes in South Carolina are man-made; the following are the lakes listed by size. Lake Marion 110,000 acres Lake Strom Thurmond 71,100 acres Lake Moultrie 60,000 acres Lake Hartwell 56,000 acres Lake Murray 50,000 acres Russell Lake 26,650 acres Lake Keowee 18,372 acres Lake Wylie 13,400 acres Lake Wateree 13,250 acres Lake Greenwood 11,400 acres Lake Jocassee 7,500 acres Lake Bowen Earthquakes in South Carolina demonstrate the greatest frequency along the central coastline of the state, in the Charleston area.
South Carolina averages 10–15 earthquakes a year below magnitude 3. The Charleston Earthquake of 1886 was the largest quake to hit the Southeastern United States; this 7.2 magnitude earthquake destroyed much of the city. Faults in this region are difficult to study at the surface due to thick sedimentation on top of them. Many of the ancient faults are within plates rather than along plate boundaries. South Carolina has a humid subtropical climate, although high-elevation areas in the Upstate area have fewer subtropical characteristics than areas on the Atlantic coastline. In the summer, South Carolina is hot and humid, with daytime temperatures averaging between 86–93 °F in most of the state and overnight lows averaging 70–75 °F on the coast and from 66–73 °F inland. Winter temperatures are much less uniform in South Carolina. Coastal areas of the state have mild winters, with high temperatures approaching an average of 60 °F and overnight lows around 40 °F. Inland, the average January overnight low is around 32 °F i
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
U.S. Route 1
U. S. Route 1 is a major north–south U. S. Highway that serves the East Coast of the United States, it runs 2,369 miles, from Key West, Florida north to Fort Kent, Maine, at the Canada–US border, making it the longest north–south road in the United States. US 1 is paralleled by I-95, though the former is farther west between Jacksonville and Petersburg, Virginia; the highway connects most of the major cities of the East Coast—including Miami, Richmond, Washington, D. C. Baltimore, New York City and Portland, passing from the Southeastern United States to New England. While US 1 is the easternmost of the main north–south U. S. Highways, parts of several others occupy corridors closer to the ocean; when the road system was laid out in the 1920s, US 1 was assigned to the existing Atlantic Highway, which followed the Fall Line between the Piedmont and the Atlantic Coastal Plain north of Augusta, Georgia. At the time, the highways farther east were of lower quality and did not serve the major population centers.
Construction of the Interstate Highway system changed the use and character of US 1, I-95 became the major north–south East Coast highway by the late 1960s. US 1 travels along the east coast of Florida, beginning at 490 Whitehead St. in Key West and passing through Miami, Fort Lauderdale, Boca Raton, West Palm Beach, Fort Pierce, Cocoa, Daytona Beach, Palm Coast, St. Augustine, Jacksonville; the southernmost piece through the chain islands of the Florida Keys, about 100 miles long, is the two-lane Overseas Highway built in the late 1930s after railroad tycoon Henry Flagler's Florida East Coast Railway's Overseas Railroad, built 1905-1912 on stone pillars was ruined by the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935. The rest of US 1 in Florida is a four-lane divided highway, despite the existence of the newer I-95 not far away. Famous vacation scenic route Florida State Road A1A is a continuous oceanfront alternate to US 1 that runs along the beaches of the Atlantic Ocean, cut only by assorted unbridged inlets and the Kennedy Space Center at Cape Canaveral.
North of Jacksonville, US 1 turns northwest towards Georgia. In Florida until the 1990s, US 1 used high-contrast markers; the part of US 1 in Georgia, as it shifts from the coastal alignment in Florida to the Fall Line alignment in South Carolina, is very rural, passing through marshes and former plantations between the towns and cities of Folkston, Alma, Lyons and Augusta. The Georgia Department of Transportation has an ongoing plan to widen all of US 1 to four lanes with bypasses, more than 50 percent complete. In South Carolina, US 1 serves rural areas as it falls west of I-95 while the coastal areas are served by routes east of it. Starting in South Carolina, US 1 is paralleled by Interstate 20 along the Fall Line through Aiken and Columbia to Camden and Lugoff. US 1 functions as a local two-lane road with occasional boulevard stretches. After Camden, US 1 continues northeast away from any Interstate towards Bethune, Patrick, McBee and Cheraw with no bypasses or four-lane sections except around Cheraw through the US 52 and SC 9 multiplexes.
After SC 9, it continues northward into North Carolina as a two-lane highway. SCDOT has no plans to widen or bypass any US 1 alignments northeast of Camden to the North Carolina line. Between the South Carolina line and the US 74 bypass, US 1 is a two-lane road but sees a considerable amount of truck and tourist traffic of people cutting through from the US 74/US 220 and I-73/I-74 corridor attempting to reach points south and east. US 1 goes with a bypass in the future plans. North of the NC 177 junction, it becomes four lanes or greater, becoming a super-street with limited access and becoming a limited access freeway. US 1 becomes a major artery for the state. After Richmond County, it goes into Moore County with two expressway bypasses in Southern Pines and Cameron. US 1 continues with the Jefferson Davis Highway label through Lee County and Sanford, on to Cary and Raleigh. US 1 runs concurrently with US 64 through most of Cary, where the freeway underwent a major renovation and improvements that added lanes in both directions.
North of Raleigh, US 1 crosses Interstate 540 and again becomes a four-lane divided arterial to Interstate 85 near Henderson. The North Carolina Department of Transportation has begun a corridor study for this section of US 1. Moreover, NCDOT is planning to finish four-laning US 1 in Richmond County past NC 177 with a Rockingham bypass to the east. There are no plans from SCDOT to widen US 1 from the state line. From Henderson into Virginia, US 1 runs parallel with I-85 as a two-lane local road until the state line, where Virginia hosts a continuous third center lane for alternate passing towards US Highway 58 before South Hill. Main articles: U. S. Route 1 in Virginia, District of Columbia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New YorkIn the Mid-Atlantic region, US 1 serves some of the most populated areas of the east coast. Through Virginia, US 1 is paralleled by Interstates: the remainder of Interstate 85 to Petersburg, Interstate 95 through Richmond and Fredericksburg to Alexandria, Interstate 395 into Arlington.
In most of Virginia, US 1 is called Jefferson Davis Highway by state law, although most of the Fairfax County portion is better known as Richmond Highway.
National Trails System
The National Trails System was created by the National Trails System Act, codified at 16 U. S. C. § 1241 et seq. The Act created a series of National trails "to promote the preservation of, public access to, travel within, enjoyment and appreciation of the open-air, outdoor areas and historic resources of the Nation." The Act authorized three types of trails: the National Scenic Trails, National Recreation Trails and connecting-and-side trails. The 1968 Act created two national scenic trails: the Appalachian and the Pacific Crest. In 1978, as a result of the study of trails that were most significant for their historic associations, a fourth category of trail was added: the National Historic Trails. Since 1968, over forty trail routes have been studied for inclusion in the system. Of these studied trails, twenty-one have been established as part of the system. Today, the National Trails System consists of 30 National Scenic and Historic Trails and over 1,000 National Recreation Trail and two connecting-and-side trails, with a total length of more than 50,000 miles.
These National Trails are more than just for hiking, many are open for horseback riding, mountain biking, camping and/or scenic driving. As Congressionally established long-distance trails, each one is administered by a federal agency, either the Bureau of Land Management, United States Forest Service, or National Park Service. Two of the trails are jointly administered by the BLM and the NPS; these agencies acquire lands to protect key sites and viewsheds. More than not, they work in partnership with the states, local units of government, land trusts and private landowners, to protect lands and structures along these trails, enabling them to be accessible to the public. National Recreation Trails and connecting-and-side trails do not require Congressional action, but are recognized by actions of the Secretary of the Interior or the Secretary of Agriculture. All of the National Trails are supported by private non-profit organizations that work with the various federal agencies under the Partnership for the National Trails System.
The Act is codified as 16 U. S. C. §§ 1241–1251. However, it has been amended numerous times since its passage, most on October 18, 2004. National Scenic Trails are established to provide access to spectacular natural beauty and to allow the pursuit of healthy outdoor recreation; the National Scenic Trail system provides access to the crest of the Appalachian Mountains in the east, on the Appalachian Trail, to the Rocky Mountains of the west on the Continental Divide Trail. These provide access to viewing the subtle beauties of the southern wetlands and Gulf Coast on the Florida Trail, wandering the North Woods from New York to North Dakota on the North Country Trail, or experiencing the vast diversity of landscapes of the southwest on the Arizona National Scenic Trail. Of the eleven national scenic trails, Natchez Trace, Potomac Heritage are official units of the NPS. National Historic Trails are designated to protect the remains of significant overland or water routes to reflect the history of the nation.
They represent the earliest travels across the continent on the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail. They commemorate the forced displacement and hardships of the Native Americans, on the Trail of Tears. There are 19 Historic Trails. Most of them are scenic routes instead of non-motorized trails. National Historic Trails were authorized under the National Parks and Recreation Act of 1978, amending the National Trails System Act of 1968 The act established a category of trails known as connecting and side trails. To date, only two national side trails have been designated, both in 1990: The Timms Hill Trail, which connects the Ice Age Trail to Wisconsin's highest point, Timms Hill, the 86-mile Anvik Connector, which joins the Iditarod Trail to the village of Anvik, Alaska. Timms Hill Trail Anvik Connector The first National Geologic Trail was established by the Omnibus Public Land Management Act of 2009. Ice Age Floods National Geologic Trail National Historic Trails Interpretive Center Recreational Trail Program Protected areas of the United States List of long-distance footpaths Long-distance trails in the United States Karen Berger, Bill McKibben & Bart Smith: America's Great Hiking Trails: Appalachian, Pacific Crest, Continental Divide, North Country, Ice Age, Potomac Heritage, Natchez Trace, Pacific Northwest, New England.
Rizzoli, 2014, ISBN 978-0789327413 About the Partnership for National Trails System PNTS Find a Trail Historic Trail Facts National Trails System Text of the National Trails System Act
National Wilderness Preservation System
The National Wilderness Preservation System of the United States protects federally managed wilderness areas designated for preservation in their natural condition. Activity on formally designated wilderness areas is coordinated by the National Wilderness Preservation System. Wilderness areas are managed by four federal land management agencies: the National Park Service, the U. S. Forest Service, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management; the term "wilderness" is defined as "an area where the earth and community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain" and "an area of undeveloped Federal land retaining its primeval character and influence, without permanent improvements or human habitation, protected and managed so as to preserve its natural conditions." As of 2016, there are 765 designated wilderness areas, totaling 109,129,657 acres, or about 4.5% of the area of the United States. During the 1950s and 1960s, as the American transportation system was on the rise, concern for clean air and water quality began to grow.
A conservation movement began to take place with the intent of establishing designated wilderness areas. Howard Zahniser created the first draft of the Wilderness Act in 1956, it took nine years and 65 rewrites before the Wilderness Act was passed in 1964. The Wilderness Act of 1964, which established the NWPS, was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson on September 3, 1964; the Wilderness Act mandated that the National Park Service, U. S. Forest Service, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service review all federal lands under their jurisdiction for wilderness areas to include in the NWPS; the first national forest wilderness areas were established by the Wilderness Act itself. The Great Swamp in New Jersey became the first National Wildlife Refuge with formally designated wilderness in 1968. Wilderness areas in national parks followed, beginning with the designation of wilderness in part of Craters of the Moon National Monument in Idaho in 1970. A dramatic spike in acreage added to the wilderness system in 1980 was due in large part to the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act, signed into law by President Jimmy Carter on December 2, 1980.
A smaller spike in 1984 came with the passage of many bills establishing national forest wilderness areas identified by the Forest Service's Roadless Area Review and Evaluation process. The Bureau of Land Management was not required to review its lands for inclusion in the NWPS until after October 21, 1976, when the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 was signed into law. Over 200 wilderness areas have been created within Bureau of Land Management administered lands since consisting of 8.71 million acres in September 2015. As of August 2008, a total of 704 separate wilderness areas, encompassing 107,514,938 acres, had become part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. With the passage of the Omnibus Public Lands Act in March 2009, there were 756 wilderness areas; as of September 2015, the system includes 765 wilderness areas totaling 109,129,657 acres. On federal lands in the United States, Congress may designate an area as wilderness under the provisions of the Wilderness Act of 1964.
Multiple agencies, including the Bureau of Land Management, the National Park Service, the Fish and Wildlife Service, the U. S. Forest Service, are responsible for the submission of new areas that fit the criteria to become wilderness to congress. Congress reviews these cases on a state by state basis and determines which areas and how much land in each area will become part of the WPS. There have been multiple occasions in which congress designated more federal land than had been recommended by the nominating agency. Whereas the Wilderness Act stipulated that a wilderness area must be "administered for the use and enjoyment of the American people in such a manner as will leave them unimpaired for future use and enjoyment as wilderness", the Eastern Wilderness Act, which added 16 National Forest areas to the NWPS, allowed for the inclusion of areas, modified by human interference; the Wilderness Act provides criteria for lands being considered for wilderness designation. Though there are some exceptions, the following conditions must be present for an area to be included in the NWPS: the land is under federal ownership and management, the area consists of at least five thousand acres of land, human influence is "substantially unnoticeable," there are opportunities for solitude and recreation, the area possesses "ecological, geological, or other features of scientific, scenic, or historical value."
Wilderness areas are subject to specific management restrictions. During these activities, patrons are asked to abide by the "Leave No Trace" policy; this policy sets guidelines for using the wilderness responsibly, leaving the area as it was before usage. These guidelines include: Packing all trash out of the wilderness, using a stove as opposed to a fire, camping at least 200 feet from trails or water sources, staying on marked trails, keeping group size small; when observed, the "Leave No Trace" ethos ensures that wilderness areas remain untainted by human interaction. In general, the law prohibits logging, mechanized vehicles, road-building, other forms of development in wilderness areas, though pre-existing mining claims and grazing ranges are permitted through grandf