Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear
One Day International
A One Day International is a form of limited overs cricket, played between two teams with international status, in which each team faces a fixed number of overs 50. The Cricket World Cup is played in this format, held every four years. One Day International matches are called Limited Overs Internationals, although this generic term may refer to Twenty20 International matches, they are major considered the highest standard of List A, limited overs competition. The international one-day game is a late-twentieth-century development; the first ODI was played on 5 January 1971 between Australia and England at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. When the first three days of the third Test were washed out officials decided to abandon the match and, play a one-off one-day game consisting of 40 eight-ball overs per side. Australia won the game by 5 wickets. ODIs were played in white kits with a red ball. In the late 1970s, Kerry Packer established the rival World Series Cricket competition, it introduced many of the features of One Day International cricket that are now commonplace, including coloured uniforms, matches played at night under floodlights with a white ball and dark sight screens, for television broadcasts, multiple camera angles, effects microphones to capture sounds from the players on the pitch, on-screen graphics.
The first of the matches with coloured uniforms was the WSC Australians in wattle gold versus WSC West Indians in coral pink, played at VFL Park in Melbourne on 17 January 1979. This led not only to Packer's Channel 9 getting the TV rights to cricket in Australia but led to players worldwide being paid to play, becoming international professionals, no longer needing jobs outside cricket. Matches played with coloured kits and a white ball became more commonplace over time, the use of white flannels and a red ball in ODIs ended in 2001. In the main the Laws of cricket apply. However, in ODIs, each team bats for a fixed number of overs. In the early days of ODI cricket, the number of overs was 60 overs per side, matches were played with 40, 45 or 55 overs per side, but now it has been uniformly fixed at 50 overs. Stated, the game works as follows: An ODI is contested by two teams of 11 players each; the Captain of the side winning the toss bowl first. The team batting first sets the target score in a single innings.
The innings lasts until the batting side is "all out" or all of the first side's allotted overs are completed. Each bowler is restricted to bowling a maximum of 10 overs. Therefore, each team must comprise at least five competent bowlers; the team batting second tries to score more. The side bowling second tries to bowl out the second team or make them exhaust their overs before they reach the target score in order to win. If the number of runs scored by both teams is equal when the second team loses all its wickets or exhausts all its overs the game is declared a tie. Where a number of overs are lost, for example, due to inclement weather conditions the total number of overs may be reduced. In the early days of ODI cricket, the team with the better run rate won, but this favoured the second team. For the 1992 World Cup, an alternative method was used of omitting the first team's worst overs, but that favoured the first team. Since the late 1990s, the target or result is determined by the Duckworth-Lewis method, a method with statistical approach.
It takes into consideration the fact that the wickets in hand plays a crucial role in pacing the run-rate. In other words, a team with more wickets in hand can play way more aggressively than the team with fewer wickets in hand; when insufficient overs are played to apply the Duckworth-Lewis method, a match is declared no result. Important one-day matches in the latter stages of major tournaments, may have two days set aside, such that a result can be achieved on the "reserve day" if the first day is washed out—either by playing a new game, or by resuming the match, rain-interrupted; the original DL-method however had a few inherent flaws. For example, Tony Lewis, one of the formulators of this method recognized after the match between India and Kenya during the 1999 World Cup held in Bristol, that the original method gave an unfair advantage to the team chasing scores above 350 runs in a 50 overs match. Hence, the method was revised and a new version was released in 2004. There was one more such change made, first implemented on 2009.
Off late, the Duckworth-Lewis-Stern method is used, a modification of the DL-Method suggested by Prof. Steven Stern, it was first implemented during the 2015 World Cup. One of the major changes made to DLS from DL method was based on a historic analysis by Prof. Stern that a team with higher run rate in their initial stages has a greater chance to get to a high score than a team with slow initial run rate, but more wickets in hand; because the game uses a white ball instead of the red one used in first-class cricket, the ball can become discoloured and hard to see as the innings progresses, so the ICC has used various rules to help keep the ball playable. Most ICC has made the use of two new balls, the same strategy, used in the 1992 and 1996 World Cu
England women's cricket team
The England women's cricket team represents England in international women's cricket. The team is administrated by Wales Cricket Board, their current captain is Heather Knight, their current coach is Mark Robinson. There is an England Women's Academy team, consisting of players just below the full England squad. In 2017, they won the BBC Sports Personality Team of the Year Award. England were a part of the first Women's Test series, as their team led by Betty Archdale touring Australia in the summer of 1934–35, three years after the Bodyline tour by the men; the team and their captain received "warm" responses from the Australian crowds. Winning both the first two Tests and drawing the third, England took the first series, beat New Zealand by an innings and 337 runs on the way home, where Betty Snowball contributed an innings of 189, to remain a women's Test record for half a century. However, their leading player, one of the best-known women cricketers of the era, was the allrounder Myrtle Maclagan.
She scored the first century in a woman's Test match on 7 January 1935. Two years England suffered their first Test defeat, at the hands of Australia at Northampton; as Australia made their inaugural tour, an England team including seven debutantes conceded 300 on the first day, despite bowling Australia out for 102 in the second innings they lost by 31 runs. England recovered to take the second Test after a first-innings 115 from Myrtle Maclagan, who took five wickets opening the bowling, the third Test was drawn to ensure a 1–1 series tie. England began playing women's Test cricket again in 1948–49, when they toured Australia for a three-Test series. An England team with seven debutantes, lost the Women's Ashes to Australia after losing the first Test and drawing the final two. Two of their eleven made half-centuries on tour: Molly Hide, who batted out the third day of the final Test to make England's only century in Australia this season to draw the game, Myrtle Maclagan, who hit 77 in the second Test.
Both had Test experience from before the War. Maclagan was England's leading wicket-taker on tour, with nine wickets, ahead of Hide and Mary Johnson who took six each. However, England still beat New Zealand in their Test one month after the conclusion of the Ashes. In 1951, Australia toured England for the first time in 14 years. After drawing the first Test at Scarborough, England gained a lead of 38 on first innings after Mary Duggan's five wickets, set a target of 159, larger than any score in the previous three innings, a record of that time. Australia were 131 for eight after Duggan took four more wickets, but England conceded 29 for the ninth wicket. Thus, they surrendered the Ashes again, despite winning the final Test by 137 runs after another Duggan nine-wicket-haul to draw the series at 1–1. England's next international series involve a visit from New Zealand in 1954. England won the first Test, despite giving up a deficit of 10 on first innings, but drew the second and third. Excluding one-offs, this was England's first series win since their inaugural series.
England went on tour of Australasia once again in 1957–58, nine years after their previous tour, but by now Mary Duggan had taken over as captain. For a change, they began against New Zealand, they moved on to Australia, where their series began with an abandoned match at North Sydney Oval in February, the second Test at St Kilda had the first day rained off. When the teams came in to bat, Duggan set a women's Test record; the record stood for 38 years. However, Betty Wilson replied with seven for seven as England were bowled out for 35, three short of Australia's total, made a second-innings hundred as Australia set a target of 206 in 64 overs. England lost eight wickets for 76, but still managed the draw, while Wilson claimed four wickets to become the first Test player to score a hundred and take ten wickets in a match. Wilson hit a hundred in the third Test at Adelaide, but Cecilia Robinson replied with a hundred of her own, lasting into the final day's play. With Ruth Westbrook and Edna Barker scoring half-centuries, England gained a first-innings lead, but Australia batted out to make 78 for two and draw the game.
The fourth Test was drawn. England only got one wicket in reply, however. After the 1950s, where England had lost two and won two Tests, England went through the 1960s without losing any of their 14 Tests, with the majority, drawn, their first series were against Test debutantes South Africa. Once again, the series had a majority of draws, but an England side captained by 23-year-old Helen Sharpe won the series 1–0 after claiming the third Test at Durban by eight wickets. South Africa gained first innings leads in the first and last Test, but followed on in the second Test, affected by rain. In 1963 England took. In the first Test, England made 91 for three in the final innings, but in the second match at the North Marine Road Ground in Scarborough England were 97 behind with nine second-innings wickets in hand by the close of the second day. Wickets fell throughout the
Clare Elizabeth Taylor, is an English sportswoman, the first woman to have played on a World Cup team in both cricket and football. She represented England at both cricket, as a member of the winning World Cup cricket team in 1993, football, she was awarded the MBE in the Queen's Birthday Honours in 2000 for her services to women's sport. Taylor still has her name on the athletics records board. Taylor began playing at age 11 and after answering a Women's Football Association advert in Shoot magazine, started playing for Bronte Ladies, her England debut came in a 2–0 defeat to Germany in Bochum on 16 December 1990. When Bronte were relegated Taylor moved to Knowsley United, who became Liverpool Ladies shortly after losing the FA Women's Cup final to Doncaster Belles in 1994. Taylor had joined Knowsley United in preference to the dominant Doncaster Belles because she wanted the challenge of playing for a developing club. Taylor's Liverpool were beaten in the following two season's FA Cup finals, by Arsenal and Croydon respectively.
In 1993 Taylor had played for Knowsley United in the FA Women's Premier League Cup final at Wembley and for England women's cricket team in the World Cup final at Lord's Cricket Ground. During her amateur sporting career, Taylor was employed by the Royal Mail. Though she noted: "The amount of time I spend away on unpaid leave has got beyond a joke." Although Taylor preferred football to cricket, she focused on cricket after being dropped from the England football team. Player profile from Cricinfo. Career highlights from webbsoc
The captain of a cricket team referred to as the skipper, is the appointed leader, having several additional roles and responsibilities over and above those of the other players. As in other sports, the captain is experienced and has good communication skills, is to be one of the most regular members of the team, as the captain has a say in team selection. Before the game the captains toss for innings. During the match the captain decides the team's batting order, who will bowl each over, where each fielder will be positioned. While the captain has the final say, decisions are collaborative. A captain's knowledge of the complexities of cricket strategy and tactics, shrewdness in the field, may contribute to the team's success. Due to the smaller coaching/management role played out by support staff, as well as the need for greater on-field decision-making, the captain of a cricket team shoulders more responsibility for results than team captains in other sports. Before the start of a match the home captain tosses a coin and the away captain calls heads or tails.
The captain who wins the toss bowl first. The decision depends on the condition of the pitch and whether it is to deteriorate, the weather conditions and the weather forecast; the decision depends on the relative strengths of the team's batting and bowling. For instance in Test Cricket, a side with only fast bowlers may choose to bowl first to try to take advantage of any early moisture in the pitch, knowing that it will be harder to take wickets in the match. A side with a weak opening batting pair may choose to bowl first in order to protect their batsmen; the captain decides where the fielders will stand, in consultation with the bowler and sometimes other senior players. The fielding positions will be dictated by the type of bowler, the batsman's batting style, the captain's assessment of the state of the match; the captain decides. If a batsman is seeking to dominate the current bowler, the captain may ask someone else to bowl. If the regular bowlers are not achieving the desired results, the captain may decide to use non-regular bowlers to attempt to unsettle the batsmen.
The captain may change the bowlers around to introduce variation, to prevent the batsmen getting "set". In limited overs cricket the captain additionally has to make certain that bowlers bowl no more than their allotted maximum number of overs, that experienced bowlers are available at the end of the batting side's innings, when the batsmen are looking to take risks to attack and score quickly. In the longer forms of cricket, when a new ball becomes available the captain decides whether to use it; when the team bats, the captain decides the batting order. In professional cricket the captain changes the established batting order only for exceptional reasons, because batsmen tend to specialise in batting at certain positions. However, in certain circumstances it may be in the team's interest to change the batting order. If quick runs are needed, a attacking batsman may be promoted up the order. A player who is'in form' may be promoted to a higher batting position, at the expense of a player who is'out of form'.
If a wicket falls near the end of a day's play if the light is failing, or if the bowlers seem confident, the captain may choose to send in a non-specialist batsman, referred to as a nightwatchman. If the nightwatchman does not get out before the end of that day's play the specialist batsman will have been protected, will not need to bat until the following day when conditions are to have improved. If the nightwatchman does get out, the cost of losing a late wicket will have been minimised, because the specialist batsman is still available to bat; the captain may declare the team's innings closed at any time, but only does so as an attacking ploy, for instance if the captain thinks the team has enough runs to win the match, or if a sudden change in conditions has made it advantageous to bowl rather than bat. In a two-innings match, if the situation arises the captain decides; the captain is consulted on whether an injured batsman from the opposing team may use a runner when batting. Permission is given if the batsman has become injured during the course of the match, but if the batsman was carrying the injury at the start of the match the captain may refuse.
As well as decisions taken either before or during a match, captains often have some responsibility for the good running of the cricket club. For instance, they may decide when the team is to practise, for how long. In professional cricket the captain has some say in who will form the squad from which teams are selected, may decide how young up-and-coming players are to be encouraged and improved, how members of the squad who are not selected for first-team matches are to gain match practice. Prior to July 2015, the captain was responsible for deciding when to take batting and bowling powerplays in limited overs matches; the captain may be assisted in some instances joint vice-captains. This is useful if the captain is forced to leave the field of play during fielding; some teams allocate the vice-captain a more or less formal role in assisting with team selection, dis
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the centre of, a 20-metre pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two bails balanced on three stumps. The batting side scores runs by striking the ball bowled at the wicket with the bat, while the bowling and fielding side tries to prevent this and dismiss each player. Means of dismissal include being bowled, when the ball hits the stumps and dislodges the bails, by the fielding side catching the ball after it is hit by the bat, but before it hits the ground; when ten players have been dismissed, the innings ends and the teams swap roles. The game is adjudicated by two umpires, aided by a third umpire and match referee in international matches, they communicate with two off-field scorers. There are various formats ranging from Twenty20, played over a few hours with each team batting for a single innings of 20 overs, to Test matches, played over five days with unlimited overs and the teams each batting for two innings of unlimited length.
Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the basic kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball, a hard, solid spheroid made of compressed leather with a raised sewn seam enclosing a cork core, layered with wound string. Cricket's origins are uncertain and the earliest definite reference is in south-east England in the middle of the 16th century, it spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the second half of the 19th century. The game's governing body is the International Cricket Council, which has over 100 members, twelve of which are full members who play Test matches; the game's rules are held in a code called the Laws of Cricket, owned and maintained by Marylebone Cricket Club in London. The sport is followed in the Indian subcontinent, the United Kingdom, southern Africa and the West Indies, its globalisation occurring during the expansion of the British Empire and remaining popular into the 21st century.
Women's cricket, organised and played separately, has achieved international standard. The most successful side playing international cricket is Australia, having won seven One Day International trophies, including five World Cups, more than any other country, having been the top-rated Test side more than any other country. Cricket is one of many games in the "club ball" sphere that involve hitting a ball with a hand-held implement. In cricket's case, a key difference is the existence of a solid target structure, the wicket, that the batsman must defend; the cricket historian Harry Altham identified three "groups" of "club ball" games: the "hockey group", in which the ball is driven to and fro between two targets. It is believed that cricket originated as a children's game in the south-eastern counties of England, sometime during the medieval period. Although there are claims for prior dates, the earliest definite reference to cricket being played comes from evidence given at a court case in Guildford on Monday, 17 January 1597.
The case concerned ownership of a certain plot of land and the court heard the testimony of a 59-year-old coroner, John Derrick, who gave witness that: "Being a scholler in the ffree schoole of Guldeford hee and diverse of his fellows did runne and play there at creckett and other plaies". Given Derrick's age, it was about half a century earlier when he was at school and so it is certain that cricket was being played c. 1550 by boys in Surrey. The view that it was a children's game is reinforced by Randle Cotgrave's 1611 English-French dictionary in which he defined the noun "crosse" as "the crooked staff wherewith boys play at cricket" and the verb form "crosser" as "to play at cricket". One possible source for the sport's name is the Old English word "cryce" meaning a staff. In Samuel Johnson's Dictionary, he derived cricket from "cryce, Saxon, a stick". In Old French, the word "criquet" seems to have meant a kind of stick. Given the strong medieval trade connections between south-east England and the County of Flanders when the latter belonged to the Duchy of Burgundy, the name may have been derived from the Middle Dutch "krick", meaning a stick.
Another possible source is the Middle Dutch word "krickstoel", meaning a long low stool used for kneeling in church and which resembled the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. According to Heiner Gillmeister, a European language expert of Bonn University, "cricket" derives from the Middle Dutch phrase for hockey, met de sen. Gillmeister has suggested that not only the name but the sport itself may be of Flemish origin. Although the main object of the game has always been to score the most runs, the early form of cricket differed from the modern game in certain key technical aspects; the ball was bowled underarm by the bowler and all along the ground towards a batsman armed with a bat that, in shape, resembled a hockey stick.
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s