Geneva, New York
Geneva is a city in Ontario and Seneca counties in the U. S. state of New York. It is at the northern end of Seneca Lake; the population was 13,261 at the 2010 census. The city is named after the city and canton of Geneva in Switzerland; the main settlement of the Seneca was spelled Zoneshio by early white settlers, was described as being 2 miles north of Seneca Lake. The city was once part of the Town of Geneva; the city identifies as the "Lake Trout Capital of the World." The area was long occupied by the Seneca tribe, which had established a major village of Kanadaseaga here by 1687. The British helped fortify the village against the French of Canada during the Seven Years' War. During the latter warfare, the punitive Sullivan Expedition of 1779 mounted by rebel forces destroyed many of the dwellings, as well as the winter stores of the people, they abandoned the ruins. Following the war and the forced removal of the Seneca from their native land, European-Americans settled here about 1793, they developed a town encouraged by the Pulteney Association, which owned the land and was selling plots.
At the end of the Revolutionary War, Lt. Col. Seth Reed, who had fought at Bunker Hill, was one of many pioneers who moved from Massachusetts into Ontario County. By trade with the Seneca, he bought a tract of land eighteen miles in extent; this occurred in 1787, while his wife Hannah stayed in Massachusetts with their family. "Seth Read moved, his wife Hannah and their family to Geneva, Ontario County, New York in the winter of 1790". The settlement at Geneva was not yet permanent. In 1795 Read and his family removed to Erie, where they became the earliest European-American settlers; the "Village of Geneva" was incorporated in 1806, 1812, 1871, formally separating it from the surrounding area of Geneva Town. The village became a city. Geneva, founded in 1871, is considered to have been named after the one in New York, rather than directly for the Swiss city; the town is at the two-mile wide northern outlet of Seneca Lake, a lake that spans 34 miles south to Watkins Glen. Geneva is in the largest wine-producing area in New York State.
The Cayuga-Seneca Canal is part of the watershed of Keuka Lake. It flows north through Geneva, connecting to the Erie Canal, completed in 1825, giving access for the region to the Great Lakes and midwestern markets for their produce, as well as to buy natural resource commodities. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.8 square miles. 4.3 square miles of it is land and 1.6 square miles of it is water. Geneva is connected via the east-west US 20, concurrent with NY 5. NY 14 is a north-south highway through the city, it is equidistant from Rochester and Syracuse, each being about 45 miles away. Geneva uses a mayor-council form of government; the mayor is elected at large. The council consists of eight members. Six are elected from one of six wards; the other two are elected at large. Ronald L. Alcock is the current Mayor of the City of Geneva, winning the seat after having served as councilor-at-large for a 4-year term preceding the November 2011 citywide election.
The Geneva City School District operates secondary schools. The district has North Street School and West Street School; the district's secondary schools are Geneva High School. Private schools include: Children's Hours School, a private school for toddlers through first grade, its enrollment is about 27 students. The current director is Ms. Mary Bohle. St. Francis-St. Stephen's School, a Roman Catholic elementary school that teaches grades PreK-8 in Geneva; the current principal is Mrs. Mary Mantelli. Rose Academy, a school of Experiential Learning for grades 1-5; the curriculum includes GLOBAL Science, Reading A-Z Program, Touch Point Math, Music, Physical Education. It was founded by Dr. Lorraine Williams. Colleges and universities include: Hobart and William Smith Colleges, the successor institution to Geneva College; the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station of Cornell University's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. Finger Lakes Community College has two campus in Geneva; as of the census of 2000, there were 13,617 people, 5,014 households, 2,933 families residing in the city.
The population density was 3,199.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,564 housing units at an average density of 1,307.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 81.52% White, 10.22% African American, 0.25% Native American, 1.23% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 3.39% from other races, 3.34% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.50% of the population. There were 5,014 households out of which 29.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.6% were married couples living together, 15.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.5% were non-families. 34.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 3.03. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.2% under the age of 18, 18.9% from 18 to 24, 24.3% from 25 to 44, 18.1% from 45 to
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Detroit is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Michigan, the largest United States city on the United States–Canada border, the seat of Wayne County. The municipality of Detroit had a 2017 estimated population of 673,104, making it the 23rd-most populous city in the United States; the metropolitan area, known as Metro Detroit, is home to 4.3 million people, making it the second-largest in the Midwest after the Chicago metropolitan area. Regarded as a major cultural center, Detroit is known for its contributions to music and as a repository for art and design. Detroit is a major port located on the Detroit River, one of the four major straits that connect the Great Lakes system to the Saint Lawrence Seaway; the Detroit Metropolitan Airport is among the most important hubs in the United States. The City of Detroit anchors the second-largest regional economy in the Midwest, behind Chicago and ahead of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 13th-largest in the United States. Detroit and its neighboring Canadian city Windsor are connected through a tunnel and the Ambassador Bridge, the busiest international crossing in North America.
Detroit is best known as the center of the U. S. automobile industry, the "Big Three" auto manufacturers General Motors and Chrysler are all headquartered in Metro Detroit. In 1701, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, the future city of Detroit. During the 19th century, it became an important industrial hub at the center of the Great Lakes region. With expansion of the auto industry in the early 20th century, the city and its suburbs experienced rapid growth, by the 1940s, the city had become the fourth-largest in the country. However, due to industrial restructuring, the loss of jobs in the auto industry, rapid suburbanization, Detroit lost considerable population from the late 20th century to the present. Since reaching a peak of 1.85 million at the 1950 census, Detroit's population has declined by more than 60 percent. In 2013, Detroit became the largest U. S. city to file for bankruptcy, which it exited in December 2014, when the city government regained control of Detroit's finances.
Detroit's diverse culture has had both local and international influence in music, with the city giving rise to the genres of Motown and techno, playing an important role in the development of jazz, hip-hop and punk music. The erstwhile rapid growth of Detroit left a globally unique stock of architectural monuments and historic places, since the 2000s conservation efforts managed to save many architectural pieces and allowed several large-scale revitalizations, including the restoration of several historic theatres and entertainment venues, high-rise renovations, new sports stadiums, a riverfront revitalization project. More the population of Downtown Detroit, Midtown Detroit, various other neighborhoods has increased. An popular tourist destination, Detroit receives 19 million visitors per year. In 2015, Detroit was named a "City of Design" by UNESCO, the first U. S. city to receive that designation. Paleo-Indian people inhabited areas near Detroit as early as 11,000 years ago including the culture referred to as the Mound-builders.
In the 17th century, the region was inhabited by Huron, Odawa and Iroquois peoples. The first Europeans did not penetrate into the region and reach the straits of Detroit until French missionaries and traders worked their way around the League of the Iroquois, with whom they were at war, other Iroquoian tribes in the 1630s; the north side of Lake Erie was held by the Huron and Neutral peoples until the 1650s, when the Iroquois pushed both and the Erie people away from the lake and its beaver-rich feeder streams in the Beaver Wars of 1649–1655. By the 1670s, the war-weakened Iroquois laid claim to as far south as the Ohio River valley in northern Kentucky as hunting grounds, had absorbed many other Iroquoian peoples after defeating them in war. For the next hundred years no British, colonist, or French action was contemplated without consultation with, or consideration of the Iroquois' response; when the French and Indian War evicted the Kingdom of France from Canada, it removed one barrier to British colonists migrating west.
British negotiations with the Iroquois would both prove critical and lead to a Crown policy limiting the west of the Alleghenies settlements below the Great Lakes, which gave many American would-be migrants a casus belli for supporting the American Revolution. The 1778 raids and resultant 1779 decisive Sullivan Expedition reopened the Ohio Country to westward emigration, which began immediately, by 1800 white settlers were pouring westwards; the city was named by French colonists, referring to the Detroit River, linking Lake Huron and Lake Erie. On July 24, 1701, the French explorer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, along with more than a hundred other settlers began constructing a small fort on the north bank of the Detroit River. Cadillac would name the settlement Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, after Louis Phélypeaux, comte de Pontchartrain, Minister of Marine under Louis XIV. France offered free land to colonists to attract families to Detroit. By 1773, the population of Detroit was 1,400. By 1778, its population was up to 2,144 and it was the third-largest city in the Province of Quebec.
The region's economy was based on the lucrative fur trade, in which nume
Robert Browning was an English poet and playwright whose mastery of the dramatic monologue made him one of the foremost Victorian poets. His poems are known for their irony, dark humour, social commentary, historical settings, challenging vocabulary and syntax. Browning's early career collapsed; the long poems Pauline and Paracelsus received some acclaim, but in 1840 the difficult Sordello, seen as wilfully obscure, brought his poetry into disrepute. His reputation took more than a decade to recover, during which time he moved away from the Shelleyan forms of his early period and developed a more personal style. In 1846, Browning married the older poet Elizabeth Barrett, went to live in Italy. By the time of her death in 1861, he had published Women; the collection Dramatis Personae and the book-length epic poem The Ring and the Book followed, made him a leading British poet. He continued to write prolifically, but his reputation today rests on the poetry he wrote in this middle period; when Browning died in 1889, he was regarded as a sage and philosopher-poet who through his writing had made contributions to Victorian social and political discourse.
Unusually for a poet, societies for the study of his work were founded. Such Browning Societies remained common in Britain and the United States until the early 20th century. Robert Browning was born in Walworth in the parish of Camberwell, which now forms part of the Borough of Southwark in south London, he was baptized on 14 June 1812, at Lock's Fields Independent Chapel, York Street, the only son of Sarah Anna and Robert Browning. His father was a well-paid clerk for the Bank of England, earning about £150 per year. Browning's paternal grandfather was a slave owner in Saint Kitts, West Indies, but Browning's father was an abolitionist. Browning's father had been sent to the West Indies to work on a sugar plantation, due to a slave revolt there, had returned to England. Browning's mother was the daughter of a German shipowner who had settled in Dundee in Scotland, his Scottish wife. Browning had Sarianna. Browning's paternal grandmother, Margaret Tittle, who had inherited a plantation in St Kitts, was rumored to have a mixed race ancestry, including some Jamaican blood, but author Julia Markus suggests she was Kittitian rather than Jamaican.
The evidence, however, is inconclusive. Robert's father, a literary collector, amassed a library of many of them rare; as such, Robert was raised in a household of significant literary resources. His mother, to whom he was close, was a devout nonconformist and a talented musician, his younger sister, Sarianna gifted, became her brother's companion in his years, after the death of his wife in 1861. His father encouraged his children's interest in the arts. By 12, Browning had written a book of poetry which he destroyed when no publisher could be found. After being at one or two private schools, showing an insuperable dislike of school life, he was educated at home by a tutor via the resources of his father's extensive library. By 14 he was fluent in French, Greek and Latin, he became a great admirer of the Romantic poets Shelley. Following the precedent of Shelley, Browning became an vegetarian. At 16, he left after his first year, his parents' staunch evangelical faith prevented his studying at either Oxford or Cambridge University, both open only to members of the Church of England.
He had inherited substantial musical ability through his mother, composed arrangements of various songs. He ignored his parents' remonstrations, dedicating himself to poetry, he stayed at home until the age of 34, financially dependent on his family until his marriage. His father sponsored the publication of his son's poems. In March 1833, "Pauline, a Fragment of a Confession" was published anonymously by Saunders and Otley at the expense of the author, Robert Browning, who received the money from his aunt, Mrs Silverthorne, it is a long poem composed in homage to Shelley and somewhat in his style. Browning considered Pauline as the first of a series written by different aspects of himself, but he soon abandoned this idea; the press noticed the publication. W. J. Fox writing in The Monthly Repository of April 1833 discerned merit in the work. Allan Cunningham praised it in the Athenaeum. However, it sold no copies; some years probably in 1850, Dante Gabriel Rossetti came across it in the Reading Room of the British Museum and wrote to Browning in Florence to ask if he was the author.
John Stuart Mill, wrote that the author suffered from an "intense and morbid self-consciousness". Browning was rather embarrassed by the work, only included it in his collected poems of 1868 after making substantial changes and adding a preface in which he asked for indulgence for a boyish work. In 1834, he accompanied the Chevalier George de Benkhausen, the Russian consul-general, on a brief visit to St Petersburg and began Paracelsus, published in 1835; the subject of the 16th century savant and alchemist was suggested to him by the Comte Amédée de Ripart-Monclar, to whom it was dedicated. The publication had some commercial and critical success, being noticed by Wordsworth, Landor, J. S. Mill and the famous Tennyson, it is a monodrama without action, dealing with the problems confronting an intellectual trying to find his role in society. It gained him access to the London literary world; as a result of his new contacts he met Macready, who invited him to wr
Joseph Kirkland was an American novelist. Born in Geneva, New York, to educator William Kirkland and author Caroline Kirkland, he was a businessman in Chicago served in the Union Army during the Civil War, reaching the rank of major, he resigned his Union Army commission and moved to Tilton, where he married Theodosia B. Wilkinson in 1863. In 1864 he founded the Midwestern literary periodical Prairie Chicken. After the war he became a lawyer while pursuing writing, he is best remembered as the author of two realistic novels of pioneer life in the Far West, Zury: The Meanest Man in Spring County and The McVeys. Other works are The Story of Chicago, he was the literary editor of the Chicago Tribune. Kirkland died in Chicago at the age of 64; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: John William. A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. London: J. M. Dent & Sons – via Wikisource. Works by or about Joseph Kirkland at Internet Archive Joseph Kirkland - bibliographical overview, links to works online Joseph Kirkland Papers at the Newberry Library
William Cullen Bryant
William Cullen Bryant was an American romantic poet and long-time editor of the New York Evening Post. Bryant was born on November 1794, in a log cabin near Cummington, Massachusetts, he was the second son of Peter Bryant, a doctor and a state legislator, Sarah Snell. The genealogy of his mother traces back to passengers on the Mayflower: John Alden, his wife Priscilla Mullins and her parents William and Alice Mullins; the story of the romance between John and Priscilla is the subject of a famous narrative poem by Longfellow "The Courtship of Miles Standish". He was a nephew of Charity Bryant, a Vermont seamstress, the subject of Rachel Hope Cleves's 2014 book Charity and Sylvia: A Same-Sex Marriage in Early America. William Cullen Bryant described their relationship: "If I were permitted to draw the veil of private life, I would give you the singular, to me interesting, story of two maiden ladies who dwell in this valley. I would tell you how, in their youthful days, they took each other as companions for life, how this union, no less sacred to them than the tie of marriage, has subsisted, in uninterrupted harmony, for more than forty years."
Charity and Sylvia Drake are buried together at Weybridge Hill Cemetery, Vermont. Bryant and his family moved to a new home; the William Cullen Bryant Homestead, his boyhood home, is now a museum. After just one year at Williams College, he hoped to transfer to Yale, but a talk with his father led to the realization that family finances would not support it, his father counseled a legal career as his best available choice, the disappointed poet began to study law in Worthington and Bridgewater in Massachusetts. He was admitted to the bar in 1815 and began practicing law in nearby Plainfield, walking the seven miles from Cummington every day. On one of these walks, in December 1815, he noticed a single bird flying on the horizon. Bryant developed an interest in poetry early in life. Under his father's tutelage, he emulated other Neo-Classic British poets. "The Embargo", a savage attack on President Thomas Jefferson published in 1808, reflected Dr. Bryant's Federalist political views; the first edition sold out — because of publicity attached to the poet's young age.
A second, expanded edition included Bryant's translation of classical verse. During his collegiate studies and his reading for the law, he wrote little poetry, but encounters with the Graveyard Poets and Wordsworth regenerated his passion for "the witchery of song." "Thanatopsis" is Bryant's most famous poem, which Bryant may have been working on as early as 1811. In 1817 his father took some pages of verse from his son's desk, at the invitation of Willard Phillips, an editor of the North American Review, tutored in the classics by Dr. Bryant, he submitted them along with his own work; the editor of the Review, Edward Tyrrel Channing, read the poem to his assistant, Richard Henry Dana, who exclaimed, "That was never written on this side of the water!" Someone at the North American joined two of the son's discrete fragments, gave the result the Greek-derived title Thanatopsis, mistakenly attributed it to the father, published it. After clarification of the authorship, the son's poems began appearing with some regularity in the Review.
"To a Waterfowl", published in 1821, was the most popular. On January 11, 1821, still striving to build a legal career, married Frances Fairchild. Soon after, having received an invitation to address the Harvard University Phi Beta Kappa Society at the school's August commencement, Bryant spent months working on "The Ages", a panorama in verse of the history of civilization, culminating in the establishment of the United States; as it would in all collections he subsequently issued, "The Ages" led the volume entitled Poems, which he arranged to publish on the same trip to Cambridge. For that book, he added sets of lines at the beginning and end of "Thanatopsis" that changed the poem, his career as a poet was now established, though recognition as America's leading poet waited until 1832, when an expanded Poems was published in the U. S. and, with the assistance of Washington Irving, in Britain. His poetry has been described as being "of a thoughtful, meditative character, makes but slight appeal to the mass of readers."
From 1816 to 1825, Bryant depended on his law practice in Great Barrington, Massachusetts to sustain his family financially, but the strain of dealing with unsophisticated neighbors and juridical pettifoggery pushed him to trade his unrewarding profession for New York City and the promise of a literary career. With the encouragement of a distinguished and well-connected literary family, the Sedgwicks, he gained a foothold in New York City's vibrant cultural life, his first employment, in 1825, was as editor of the New-York Review, which within the next year merged with the United States Review and Literary Gazette. But in the throes of the failing struggle to raise subscriptions, he accepted part-time duties with the New-York Evening Post under William Coleman. From assistant editor he rose to editor-in-chief and co-owner of the newspaper, founded by Alexander Hamilton. Over the next half century, the Post would become the most respected paper in the city and, from the election of Andrew Jackson