Princess Louise Eleonore of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
Princess Luise Eleonore of Hohenlohe-Langenburg was a German regent. She was duchess of Saxe-Meiningen by marriage to George I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen, Regent of Saxe-Meiningen during the minority of her son from 1803 to 1821. Louise Eleonore was a daughter of Prince Christian Albert Louis of Hohenlohe-Langenburg and his wife Princess Caroline of Stolberg-Gedern. On 27 November 1782, in Langenburg, she married George Duke of Saxe-Meiningen; when her husband died on 24 December 1803, she took over as regent of the duchy for their son Bernhard II. She ruled with energy and good sense during the Napoleonic Wars, which for the next decade ravaged the Saxon states; the duchy was forced to join the Confederation of the Rhine during these Wars and provide it with troops. Despite the fact that French and Russian armies marched back and forth across the country, Luise refused to flee, she used every strategy to preserve the autonomy of her regency, so that when she joined the Allies in 1813, she had saved the duchy for her son.
He became the ruling Duke of Meiningen eight years later. By adjustments in the duchy's administration she ensured the duchy was better managed and in 1821 opened the Gymnasium Bernhardinum in Meiningen, her children were educated, with a grand tour to Italy under their tutor Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi. After her son came of age, Luise retired as regent and went on several foreign trips, including one to England to visit her daughter Adelaide. Adelheid, with whom Luise had a close relationship. Ida, married Prince Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. Stillborn daughter. Bernhard II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen, married Princess Marie Fredericka of Hesse-Kassel. L. Hertel, Schriften des Vereins für Sachsen-Meiningische Geschichte und Landeskunde, Hildburghausen 1903 Koller, Ann Marie; the Theater Duke: George II of Saxe-Meiningen and the German Stage. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-1196-8
Gedern is a town in the Wetteraukreis district in Hesse and belongs to Oberhessen. It is located 38 kilometres northeast of Hanau at the foot of the Vogelsberg, once one of the largest inactive volcanoes in Europe. Gedern is bordered by Schotten in the north, by Grebenhain in the northeast, by Birstein in the east, by Kefenrod in the south, by Ortenberg in the southwest, Hirzenhain in the west. Gedern is divided into the districts of Gedern, Mittel-Seemen, Nieder-Seemen, Ober-Seemen and Wenings; the first records of Gedern come from the year 730 AD. City rights were given to Gedern on January 10, 1356, by Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, 20 years after Wenings, a current district of Gedern, received its city rights from Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor. After the Congress of Vienna, command of Gedern passed to the Grand Duchy of Hesse. Many zoning reforms have taken place in Gedern since then. In 1852 Gedern was placed into the Kreis Nidda district; when this district was removed in 1874, Gedern was placed into the Schotten district.
There was yet another reform in 1936, Gedern was placed into Landkreis Büdingen. After the last reorganization in 1972, along with five other towns, was incorporated into Wetteraukreis; the town council consists of the mayor, Stefan Betz, the aldermen Klaus Hein, Walter Lutz and Barbara Gundlach, Klaus Bechthold and Andreas Steder, Reinhold Landmann and Irmtraud Köhler and Willi Herbst. The last election for mayor was held in 2015 in which Guido Kempel was elected to replace Klaus Bechthold who retired for health reasons; the city coat of arms shows two trout on a silver striped background. These represent the copious amounts of fish that were caught in and around Gedern throughout its history; the silver stripes stand for the two creeks that run through Gedern "Mühlbach" and "Gänsbach". Gedern is twinned with Columbia and Polanów, through the Sister Cities Program; the village of Wenings is partnered with Nucourt, France. The sister city arrangement with Columbia roots in an initiative of some inhabitants of Columbia in 1990.
During a genealogical research, they figured out that most of the 156 people who emigrated from Gedern in the 19th century, found a new home in the area of Columbia. In April 1992 the representatives of both cities signed a treaty of friendship during a visit of a Columbian delegation in Gedern; the official partnership ceremony was held in May 1993 in Illinois. Measured by its size, Gedern was an important industrial hub during the 1980s in the industrially weak area around the Vogelsberg. There were several textile, wood and metal refining factories. Today only a large metal-refining company is still active. Today Gedern is economically unimportant. Retail, manual labor, trade work that make up the core of the economic activities are done on a small scale; the vast majority of the inhabitants of Gedern commute to other areas in the Rhein-Main and Gießen regions. Gedern has a comprehensive school with the levels Hauptschule and Gymnasium up to tenth grade. Several elementary schools are found in Gedern and the surrounding area.
The Gederner See attracts many swimmers every summer. Gedern has a heated indoor pool in the recreation center on Schmitterberg—the hill that separates the village from the lake area. Around the lake, there is a glider runway. On weekends with nice weather one can see the gliders in the sky all around Gedern; the Volcano Bike Path runs from Stockheim to Lauterbach along the old train tracks. Ober-Seemen is home to the county youth summer camp Groß-Gerau. Christian Ernest of Stolberg-Wernigerode, reigning Count of the County of Wernigerode Frederick Charles of Stolberg-Gedern, owner of the Stolbergian domination of Gedern Princess Louise of Stolberg-Gedern, Countess of Albany Eduard von Fransecky, Prussian General of the Infantry Otto of Stolberg-Wernigerode and Vice Chancellor with Otto von Bismarck Edgar Itt, athlete Sandra Minnert, football player and manager Official website
Georg I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen
Georg I Frederick Karl, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen, was Duke of Saxe-Meiningen from 1782 to 1803. He was considered a model prince by many of his peers. Georg was born on 4 February 1761 at Frankfurt as the fourth but second surviving son of Anton Ulrich, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen and Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Philippsthal, his father was 73 years old at the time and died two years in 1763. Georg succeeded his older and childless brother, Karl Wilhelm in the Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen in 1782, he ruled based on the principles of "enlightened absolutism" emphasizing in particular the importance of education. He initiated the building of the Gymnasium named Bernhardinum after his son. Georg I opened the ducal library to the public, reformed the church practices in his princedom and initiated new social policies. Under a nom-de-plume he published philosophical treatises; as a result, many of his fellow princes considered him a model ruler and his duchy as the German state where enlightened absolutism reached its apogee.
In Langenburg on 27 November 1782, Georg married Luise Eleonore of Hohenlohe-Langenburg. After ten years they began to have children having four: Adelaide Luise Therese Karoline Amalie, married on 11 July 1818 to the Duke of Clarence King William IV of the United Kingdom. Ida, married on 30 May 1816 to Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. Stillborn daughter. Bernhard II Erich Freund, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen. Georg I died of a fever on 24 December 1803 at Meiningen. Schloss and park Altenstein Andrea Jakob, Meininger Museen: Herzog Georg I. von Sachsen-Meiningen - Ein Präzedenzfall für den aufgeklärten Absolutismus 2005, Südthüringer Forschungen Heft 33, ISBN 3-910114-06-7
House of Stolberg
The princes and counts of Stolberg are members of a large German family of the former Holy Roman Empire's higher aristocracy. They played a significant role in feudal Germany's history and, as a mediatized dynasty, enjoyed princely privileges until the collapse of the German Empire in 1918; the house has numerous branches. There are over ten different theories about the origin of the counts of Stolberg, but none has been become accepted. However, it is most that they are descended from the counts of Hohnstein; the first representative of this family, Count Henry of Stolberg, appears in a 1210 document, having been mentioned in 1200 as Count Henry of Voigtstedt. Although Voigtstedt near Artern was the initial seat of this comital family, it had moved to Stolberg no than the beginning of the 13th century; the castle there remained in the hands of the family until they were dispossessed as part of the 1945 land reform in the Soviet Zone of occupation in Germany created after the Second World War.
In 1429 the counts of Stolberg succeeded in purchasing the County of Wernigerode in the Northern Harz as part of a contract of inheritance and thereby extended their area of influence considerably. In 1645 the house was permanently divided into the Older Main Line of Stolberg-Wernigerode and the Younger Main Line of Stolberg-Stolberg. At the beginning of the 18th century, the lines of Stolberg-Gedern and Stolberg-Schwarza branched off from Stolberg-Wernigerode. In 1706, Stolberg-Stolberg was divided into the two lines of Stolberg-Rossla. In 1742 representatives of the line of Stolberg-Gedern were elevated to the Estate of Imperial Princes by Emperor Charles VII. In the 18th century, as a result of mediatisation, the imperially immediate counts of Stolberg-Wernigerode were forced to subordinate themselves to the Kingdom of Prussia and the counts of Stolberg-Stolberg and Stolberg-Roßla to the Electorate of Saxony. On the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire's German nation in 1806 the Stolbergs lost their imperial comital status and, in 1815 became mediatized Prussian princes.
However, the families retained certain privileges as to the Lutheran state churches of their mediatised state countries and had heritable seats in the Prussian House of Lords. The head of each comital branch and his first-born son or heir presumptive in the Houses of Stolberg-Wernigerode, Stolberg-Stolberg and Stolberg-Roßla were granted permission on 22 October 1890 and 1893 by Emperor Wilhelm II to bear princely titles. In 1980 a branch of the line of Stolberg-Stolberg was incorporated into the Dutch nobility as counts without, acknowledgement of their princely title. County of Stolberg County of Wernigerode County of Stolberg-Rossla Barony of Gedern Barony of Schwarza, Thuringia Hohnstein Castle Elbingerode Kelbra Heringen, Thuringia Allstedt Ebersburg Erichsberg Castle Ernstburg Grasburg Heinrichsberg Castle Hirzenhain, Hesse Ilsenburg Abbey and Ilsenburg House, Thuringia Jannowitz, Silesia Königstein Castle Kreppelhof, Silesia Morungen Oberröblingen Ortenberg, Hesse Peterswaldau, Silesia Hofgut Ranstadt, Hesse The counts of Stolberg had claims to the Belgian Agimont and bore this name in their title.
However, an orthographic error crept in and it was not until an edict of 6 December 1780 that Count Christian Frederick of Stolberg-Wernigerode corrected the hitherto erroneous name of Aigmont to Agimont. Count Henry of Stolberg, Bishop of Merseburg Count Botho of Stolberg the Elder Countess Katharina of Stolberg, Abbess of Drübeck Abbey Count Henry the Younger of Stolberg, Governor of Frisia Count Botho of Stolberg Count Wolfgang of Stolberg Anna II of Stolberg, imperial abbess of Quedlinburg Anna III of Stolberg, imperial abbess of Quedlinburg Count Louis of Stolberg Countess Juliana of Stolberg Count Henry of Stolberg Count Wolf Ernest of Stolberg Count Henry Ernest of Stolberg, founder of the Elder Main Line of the House of Stolberg Count John Martin of Stolberg, founder of the Younger Main Line of the House of Stolberg Count Ernest of Stolberg Count Christian Ernest of Stolberg-Wernigerode Count Henry Ernest of Stolberg-Wernigerode Count Christian Frederick of Stolberg-Wernigerode Countess Louise of Stolberg-Wernigerode, Abbess of Drübeck Abbey Count Henry of Stolberg-Wernigerode Count Anthony of Stolberg-Wernigerode Count William of Stolberg-Wernigerode, Prussian politician and general Count Eberhard of Stolberg-Wernigerode Countess Anna of Stolberg-Wernigerode, Matron of Bethany Count Bolko of Stolberg-Wernigerode, Landrat of the district of Franzburg Count Theodore of Stolberg-Wernigerode, member of the German Reichstag Countess Eleonora of Stolberg-Wernigerode Prince Otto of Stolberg-Wernigerode, Governor of the Prince of Hanover, German Vice-Chancellor under Bismarck Princess Anna of Stolberg-Wernigerode, wife of Prince Otto Count Udo of Stolberg-Wernigerode Count Constantine of Stolberg-Wernigerode, Governor of the Province of Hanover Magdalene, Countess of Stolberg-Wernigerode, Abbess of Drübeck Abbey Albert, Count of Stolberg-Wernigerode Otto Count of Stolber
Nobility is a social class ranked under royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy. Nobility possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in society; the privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be honorary, vary by country and era. As referred to in the Medieval chivalric motto "noblesse oblige", nobles can carry a lifelong duty to uphold various social responsibilities, such as honorable behavior, customary service, or leadership positions. Membership in the nobility, including rights and responsibilities, is hereditary. Membership in the nobility has been granted by a monarch or government, unlike other social classes where membership is determined by wealth, lifestyle, or affiliation. Nonetheless, acquisition of sufficient power, military prowess, or royal favour has enabled commoners to ascend into the nobility. There are a variety of ranks within the noble class.
Legal recognition of nobility has been more common in monarchies, but nobility existed in such regimes as the Dutch Republic, the Republic of Genoa, the Republic of Venice, the Old Swiss Confederacy, remains part of the legal social structure of some non-hereditary regimes, e.g. Channel Islands, San Marino, the Vatican City in Europe. Hereditary titles and styles added to names, as well as honorifics distinguish nobles from non-nobles in conversation and written speech. In many nations most of the nobility have been un-titled, some hereditary titles do not indicate nobility; some countries have had non-hereditary nobility, such as the Empire of Brazil or life peers in the United Kingdom. The term derives from the abstract noun of the adjective nobilis. In ancient Roman society, nobiles originated as an informal designation for the political governing class who had allied interests, including both patricians and plebeian families with an ancestor who had risen to the consulship through his own merit.
In modern usage, "nobility" is applied to the highest social class in pre-modern societies, excepting the ruling dynasty. In the feudal system, the nobility were those who held a fief land or office, under vassalage, i.e. in exchange for allegiance and various military, services to a suzerain, who might be a higher-ranking nobleman or a monarch. It came to be seen as a hereditary caste, sometimes associated with a right to bear a hereditary title and, for example in pre-revolutionary France, enjoying fiscal and other privileges. While noble status conferred significant privileges in most jurisdictions, by the 21st century it had become a honorary dignity in most societies, although a few, residual privileges may still be preserved and some Asian and African cultures continue to attach considerable significance to formal hereditary rank or titles. Nobility is a historical and legal notion, differing from high socio-economic status in that the latter is based on income, possessions or lifestyle.
Being wealthy or influential cannot ipso facto make one noble, nor are all nobles wealthy or influential. Various republics, including former Iron Curtain countries, Greece and Austria have expressly abolished the conferral and use of titles of nobility for their citizens; this is distinct from countries which have not abolished the right to inherit titles, but which do not grant legal recognition or protection to them, such as Germany and Italy, although Germany recognizes their use as part of the legal surname. Still other countries and authorities allow their use, but forbid attachment of any privilege thereto, e.g. Finland and the European Union, while French law protects lawful titles against usurpation. Although many societies have a privileged upper class with substantial wealth and power, the status is not hereditary and does not entail a distinct legal status, nor differentiated forms of address. Not all of the benefits of nobility derived from noble status per se. Privileges were granted or recognised by the monarch in association with possession of a specific title, office or estate.
Most nobles' wealth derived from one or more estates, large or small, that might include fields, orchards, hunting grounds, etc. It included infrastructure such as castle and mill to which local peasants were allowed some access, although at a price. Nobles were expected to live "nobly", that is, from the proceeds of these possessions. Work involving manual labour or subordination to those of lower rank was either forbidden or frowned upon socially. On the other hand, membership in the nobility was a prerequisite for holding offices of trust in the realm and for career promotion in the military, at court and the higher functions in the government and church. Prior to the French Revolution, European nobles commanded tribute in the form of entitlement to cash rents or usage taxes, labour or a portion of the annual crop yield from commoners or no
Hohenlohe-Langenburg was a German county of northeastern Baden-Württemberg, located around Langenburg. Hohenlohe-Neuenstein was partitioned into it, Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen and Hohenlohe-Kirchberg in 1701. Hohenlohe-Langenburg was raised from a county to a principality in 1701, was mediatised to Württemberg in 1806; the House of Hohenlohe-Langenburg remained Protestant, has remained related to Europe's Protestant ruling dynasties. Queen Adelaide of the United Kingdom was a Hohenlohe-Langenburg on her mother's side and her cousin, Prince Ernst, married in 1828 Feodora of Leiningen, the half-sister of the future Queen Victoria. In 1896, Feodora's grandson, another Prince Ernst, married Victoria's granddaughter, Princess Alexandra of Edinburgh and Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. Prince Gottfried was married in 1931 to his second cousin once removed, Princess Margarita of Greece and Denmark, she was the eldest daughter of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark and his wife Princess Alice of Battenberg, sister of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Karl Ludwig, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
Karl Ludwig, 3rd Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg was the third Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg. He was the first child of Prince Christian Albert of Hohenlohe-Langenburg and his wife, Princess Caroline of Stolberg-Gedern, he was an avid musician. From 1815 to 1825, he held a seat in the Estates Assembly and since 1820 the First Chamber of the reorganized Estates, but after 1819, he let himself be represented by his son Ernst. On 30 January 1789 at Kliczków Castle, he married Countess Amalie Henriette of Solms-Baruth, daughter of Count John Christian II of Solms-Baruth; the marriage produced the following thirteen children: Princess Louise of Hohenlohe-Langenburg Princess Elisabeth of Hohenlohe-Langenburg. Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg is a descendant of Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg through her daughter, Infanta Marie Anne of Portugal. King Philippe of Belgium is a descendant of Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg through her daughter, Infanta Marie Jose of Portugal, mother of Elisabeth of Bavaria, Queen of Belgium.
Queen Sofía of Spain, mother of King Felipe VI of Spain, Constantine II of Greece are children of Frederica of Hanover, whose grandmother, Augusta Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein, was a granddaughter of Charles Louis's son, Ernst I, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg. King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden is a son of Sibylla of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the great-great-granddaughter of Charles Louis's son, Ernst I. King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands is a grandson of Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld, a great-great-grandson of Charles Louis's daughter, Emilie. Franz Josef Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst: Monarchen – Edelleute – Bürger. Die Nachkommen des Fürsten Carl Ludwig zu Hohenlohe-Langenburg 1762–1825, 2nd edition, Degener & Co. Neustadt a. d. Aisch, 1963 Genealogy of the Hohenlohe family