Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
The Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority is a regional public transportation authority that operates bus, rapid transit, commuter rail, light rail, electric trolleybus services for nearly 4 million people in five counties in and around Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It manages projects that maintain and expand its infrastructure and vehicles. SEPTA is the major transit provider for Philadelphia and the counties of Delaware, Montgomery and Chester, it is a state-created authority, with the majority of its board appointed by the five Pennsylvania counties it serves. While several SEPTA commuter rail lines terminate in the nearby states of Delaware and New Jersey, additional service to Philadelphia from those states is provided by other agencies: the PATCO Speedline from Camden County, New Jersey is run by the Delaware River Port Authority, a bi-state agency. SEPTA has the 6th-largest U. S. rapid transit system by ridership, the 5th largest overall transit system, with about 306.9 million annual unlinked trips.
It controls 290 active stations, over 450 miles of track, 2,295 revenue vehicles, 196 routes. It oversees shared-ride services in Philadelphia and ADA services across the region, which are operated by third-party contractors. SEPTA is one of only two U. S. transit authorities that operates all of the five major types of terrestrial transit vehicles: regional rail trains, "heavy" rapid transit trains, light rail vehicles and motorbuses. SEPTA's headquarters are at 1234 Market Street in Philadelphia. SEPTA was created by the Pennsylvania legislature on August 17, 1963, to coordinate government subsidies to various transit and railroad companies in southeastern Pennsylvania, it commenced on February 18, 1964. On November 1, 1965, SEPTA absorbed two predecessor agencies: The Passenger Service Improvement Corporation, created January 20, 1960 to work with the Reading Company and Pennsylvania Railroad to improve commuter rail service and help the railroads maintain otherwise unprofitable passenger rail service.
The Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Compact, created September 8, 1961 by the City of Philadelphia and the Counties of Montgomery and Chester to coordinate regional transport issues. By 1966, the Reading Company and Pennsylvania Railroad commuter railroad lines were operated under contract to SEPTA. On February 1, 1968, the Pennsylvania Railroad merged with the New York Central railroad to become Penn Central, only to file for bankruptcy on June 21, 1970. Penn Central continued to operate in bankruptcy until 1976, when Conrail took over its assets along with those of several other bankrupt railroads, including the Reading Company. Conrail operated commuter services under contract to SEPTA until January 1, 1983, when SEPTA took over operations and acquired track, rolling stock, other assets to form the Railroad Division. Like New York's Second Avenue Subway, the original proposal for the Roosevelt Boulevard Subway dates to 1913, but construction has remained elusive. Instead, after completing the Frankford Elevated, transit service in and around the city stagnated until the early 2000s.
On September 30, 1968, SEPTA acquired the Philadelphia Transportation Company, which operated a citywide system of bus and trackless trolley routes, the Market–Frankford Line, the Broad Street Line and the Delaware River Bridge Line which became SEPTA's City Transit Division. The PTC had been created in 1940 with the merger of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company and a group of smaller independent transit companies operating within the city and its environs. On January 30, 1970, SEPTA acquired the Philadelphia Suburban Transportation Company known as the Red Arrow Lines, which included the Philadelphia and Western Railroad route now called the Norristown High Speed Line, the Media and Sharon Hill Lines and several suburban bus routes in Delaware County. Today, this is the Victory Division. On March 1, 1976, SEPTA acquired the transit operations of Schuylkill Valley Lines, today the Frontier Division. Meanwhile, SEPTA began to take over the Pennsylvania Railroad and Reading Company commuter trains.
SEPTA sought to consolidate the formerly-competing services, leading to severe cutbacks in the mid-1980s. Subsequent proposals have been made to restore service to Allentown, West Chester and Newtown, with support from commuters, local officials and pro-train advocates. SEPTA's planning department focused on the Schuylkill Valley Metro, a "cross-county metro" that would re-establish service to Phoenixville and Reading without requiring the rider to go into Philadelphia. However, ridership projections were dubious, the FRA refused to fund the project. Many derelict lines under SEPTA ownership have been converted to rail trails, postponing any restoration proposals for the foreseeable future. Proposals have been made for increased service on existing lines, including evenings and Sundays to Wilmington and Newark in Delaware. Maryland's MARC commuter rail system is considering extending its service as far as Newark, which would allow passengers to connect directly between SEPTA and MARC. Other recent proposals have focused on extending and enhancing SEPTA's other tra
Pennsylvania Station (Baltimore)
Baltimore Pennsylvania Station is the main transportation hub in Baltimore, Maryland. Designed by New York architect Kenneth MacKenzie Murchison, it was constructed in 1911 in the Beaux-Arts style of architecture for the Pennsylvania Railroad, it is located at 1515 N. Charles Street, about a mile and a half north of downtown and the Inner Harbor, between the Mount Vernon neighborhood to the south, Station North to the north. Called Union Station because it served the Pennsylvania Railroad and Western Maryland Railway, it was renamed to match other Pennsylvania Stations in 1928; the building sits on a raised "island" of sorts between two open trenches, one for the Jones Falls Expressway and the other the tracks of the Northeast Corridor. The NEC approaches from the south through the two-track, 7,660-foot Baltimore and Potomac Tunnel, which opened in 1873 and whose 30 mph limit, sharp curves, steep grades make it one of the NEC's worst bottlenecks; the NEC's northern approach is the 1873 Union Tunnel, which has one single-track bore and one double-track bore.
Penn Station is the eighth-busiest rail station in the United States by number of passengers served each year. Penn Station is served by Amtrak, MARC, the Maryland Transit Administration's light rail system; the station is the northern terminus of the Light Rail's Penn-Camden shuttle, connecting the Mount Vernon neighborhood with downtown. MARC offers service between Washington, D. C. and Perryville. Amtrak Acela Express and Northeast Regional trains from Penn Station serve destinations along the Northeast Corridor between Boston and Washington, D. C; some Regional trains from the station continue into Virginia and serve Alexandria, Newport News, Norfolk and points in between. Other long-distance trains from the station serve: St. Albans, Vermont Charlottesville, Virginia Raleigh and Charlotte, North Carolina Atlanta, Georgia New Orleans, Louisiana Jacksonville, Orlando and Miami, Florida Huntington, West Virginia Cincinnati, Ohio Indianapolis, Indiana Chicago, IllinoisIn the 1970s and 1980s, Amtrak offered service to Harrisburg and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, St. Louis and Atlantic City, New Jersey.
Before Amtrak's creation on May 1, 1971, Penn Station served as the main Baltimore station for its original owner, the Pennsylvania Railroad, though passenger trains of the Western Maryland Railway used Penn Station as well. Until the late 1960s, the PRR operated long-distance trains over its historic Northern Central Railway line from Penn Station to Harrisburg and beyond, such as "The General" to Chicago, the "Spirit of St. Louis" to its Missouri namesake, the "Buffalo Day Express" and overnight "Northern Express" between Washington, DC, Buffalo, New York; as late as 1956, this route hosted the "Liberty Limited" to Chicago and the "Dominion Limited" to Toronto, Canada. The Baltimore Light Rail now operates over much of the Northern Central Railway's right of way in Baltimore and Baltimore County. Baltimore Light Rail service began in 1997; as part of the Northeast Corridor Improvement Project, the station was restored to its 1911 appearance in 1984. The station's use as a Western Maryland station stop allowed passengers from Penn Station to ride directly to various Maryland towns such as Westminster and Cumberland.
Passenger service on the Western Maryland ended in 1958. Baltimore Penn Station is used for MARC train storage during the weekends and overnight via off-peak service times on tracks 1, 3, 5, F. Pennsylvania Station opened on September 15, 1911, it is the third railroad depot on its North Charles Street site. The first one was a wooden structure built by the Northern Central Railway that began operating in 1873; this was replaced in 1886 by the Charles Street Union Station, which featured a three-story brick building situated below street level with a sloping driveway that led to its entrance and a train shed that measured 76 by 360 feet. The old station was demolished in January 1910. During what became known as the Checkers speech, on September 23, 1952, Richard Nixon a U. S. Senator from California and the Republican Party's nominee for Vice President, cited Penn Station as the place where a package was waiting for him, containing a cocker spaniel dog his daughter Tricia would name "Checkers."
Nixon referred to the station by its former name, "Union Station in Baltimore." In 2004, the City of Baltimore, through its public arts program, commissioned sculptor Jonathan Borofsky to create a sculpture as the centerpiece of a re-designed plaza in front of Penn Station. His work, a 51-foot -tall aluminum statue entitled Male/Female, has generated considerable controversy since, its defenders cite the contemporary imagery and artistic expression as complementing an urban landscape, while opponents criticize what they decry as a clash with Penn Station's Beaux-Arts architecture, detracting from its classic lines. Penn Station offers a magazine store that sells quick necessities, two restaurants, including Dunkin' Donuts, Java Moon Cafe. Parking is available at the station through a garage with 550 parking spaces, owned by the Baltimore Parking Authority. ZipCar has three vehicles based at the station. Several proposals have been made to convert the upper floors of the station into a hotel. Proposals from 2001 and 2006 were never completed.
In 2009, Amtrak reached an agreement with a developer for a 77-room hotel to be called The Inn at Penn Station. This project stalled along with many other hotel proposals in Baltimore. An agreement
PATH (rail system)
Port Authority Trans-Hudson is a rapid transit system connecting the cities of Newark, Harrison and Jersey City, in metropolitan northern New Jersey, with the lower and midtown sections of Manhattan in New York City. The PATH is operated by the Port Authority Trans-Hudson Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. PATH trains run 7 days a week; the system contains 13 stations and has a total route length of 13.8 miles, not double-counting route overlaps. PATH trains use tunnels in Manhattan and Downtown Jersey City; the tracks cross the Hudson River through century-old cast iron tubes that rest on the river bottom under a thin layer of silt. The PATH tracks from Grove Street in Jersey City west to Newark Penn Station run in open cuts, at grade level, on elevated track; the routes of the PATH system were operated by the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad. The railroad's Uptown Hudson Tubes first opened in 1908, followed by the Downtown Hudson Tubes in 1909, the system was completed by 1911, with 16 stations.
The H&M system had reached its peak in 1927, with 113 million passengers, soon started to decline with the advent of vehicular travel. In 1937, two new stations in Harrison and Newark were built. Two other stations in Manhattan were closed in the mid-20th century; the H&M went into bankruptcy in 1954. It operated under bankruptcy protection until 1962, when the Port Authority took it over and renamed it PATH. In 1971, as part of the construction of the World Trade Center, the Hudson Terminal in Lower Manhattan was replaced by the World Trade Center station; the PATH system was disrupted for several years after the World Trade Center was destroyed on September 11, 2001, a new transport hub was built at the site of the World Trade Center station. There have been several unfulfilled proposals to extend the H&M and the PATH, including to Grand Central Terminal and Astor Place in New York City and to Plainfield, New Jersey. A PATH extension to Newark Airport, first proposed in the 1970s, was reconsidered in the 2000s and is projected to start construction in 2020.
The PATH's primary method of payment is SmartLink, a smart card, not presently compatible with any other transit system, though PATH has plans to expand its usage. PATH accepts the same pay-per-ride MetroCard used by the New York City Transit system, but it does not accept unlimited ride, reduced fare, or EasyPay MetroCards. In 2017, PATH had an annual ridership of 82.8 million passengers, with an average daily ridership of 283,719. The PATH system is technically a commuter railroad under the jurisdiction of the Federal Railroad Administration though it operates as a rapid transit system; this is because its predecessor, the H&M, used to share its route to Newark with the Pennsylvania Railroad. The PATH uses one class of rolling stock, the PA5, delivered in 2009–2011; the PATH predates the New York City Subway's first underground line, operated by the Interborough Rapid Transit Company. It was known as the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad. Although the railroad was first planned in 1874, existing technologies could not safely tunnel under the Hudson River.
Construction began on the existing tunnels in 1890, but stopped shortly thereafter when funding ran out. Construction resumed in 1900 under the direction of William Gibbs McAdoo, an ambitious young lawyer who had moved to New York from Chattanooga, Tennessee. McAdoo became president of the H&M; the H&M became so associated with McAdoo that, in its early years, they became known as the McAdoo Tubes or McAdoo Tunnels. The first tunnel, now called the Uptown Hudson Tubes, started construction in 1873; the chief engineer of the time, Dewitt Haskin, tried to construct the tunnel using compressed air and line it with brick. The workers succeeded in building the tunnel out by 1,200 feet from Jersey City. However, construction was disrupted by a lawsuit, as well as a series of blowouts, including a serious one in 1880 that killed 20 workers; the project was abandoned in 1883 due to a lack of funds. Another effort by a British company, between 1888 and 1892 proved to be unsuccessful; when the New York and Jersey Tunnel Company resumed construction on the uptown tubes in 1902, chief engineer Charles M. Jacobs employed a different method of tunneling.
He pushed a shield through the mud and placed tubular cast iron plating around the tube. As the northern tube of the uptown tunnel was completed shortly after the resumption of construction, the southern tube was constructed using the tubular cast iron method. Construction of the uptown tunnel was completed in 1906. By the end of 1904, the New York and Jersey Railroad Company had received permission from the New York City Board of Rapid Transit Commissioners to build a new subway line through Midtown Manhattan, which would connect with the Uptown Hudson Tubes; the Midtown Manhattan line would travel eastward under Christopher Street before turning northeastward under Sixth Avenue continue underneath Sixth Avenue to a terminus at 33rd Street. In January 1905, the Hudson Companies was incorporated for the purpose of completing the Uptown Hudson Tubes and constructing the Sixth Avenue line; the company, contracted to construct the Uptown Hudson Tubes' subway tunnel connections on each side of the river had a capital of $21 million.
The H&M was incorporated in December 1906 to operate a passenger railroad system between New York and New Jer
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak, is a passenger railroad service that provides medium- and long-distance intercity service in the contiguous United States and to nine Canadian cities. Founded in 1971 as a quasi-public corporation to operate many U. S. passenger rail services, it receives a combination of state and federal subsidies but is managed as a for-profit organization. Amtrak's headquarters is located one block west of Union Station in Washington, D. C. Amtrak serves more than 500 destinations in 46 states and three Canadian provinces, operating more than 300 trains daily over 21,400 miles of track. Amtrak owns 623 miles of this track and operates an additional 132 miles of track; some track sections allow trains to run as fast as 150 mph. In fiscal year 2018, Amtrak served 31.7 million passengers and had $3.4 billion in revenue, while employing more than 20,000 people. Nearly 87,000 passengers ride more than 300 Amtrak trains on a daily basis. Nearly two-thirds of passengers come from the 10 largest metropolitan areas.
The name Amtrak is a portmanteau of the words America and trak, the latter itself a sensational spelling of track. In 1916, 98% of all commercial intercity travelers in the United States moved by rail, the remaining 2% moved by inland waterways. Nearly 42 million passengers used railways as primary transportation. Passenger trains were owned and operated by the same owned companies that operated freight trains; as the 20th century progressed, patronage declined in the face of competition from buses, air travel, the automobile. New streamlined diesel-powered trains such as the Pioneer Zephyr were popular with the traveling public but could not reverse the trend. By 1940, railroads held just 67 percent of commercial passenger-miles in the United States. In real terms, passenger-miles had fallen by 40 % from 42 billion to 25 billion. Traffic surged during World War II, aided by troop movement and gasoline rationing; the railroad's market share surged with a massive 94 billion passenger-miles. After the war, railroads rejuvenated their overworked and neglected passenger fleets with fast and luxurious streamliners.
These new trains brought only temporary relief to the overall decline. As postwar travel exploded, passenger travel percentages of the overall market share fell to 46% by 1950, 32% by 1957; the railroads had lost money on passenger service since the Great Depression, but deficits reached $723 million in 1957. For many railroads, these losses threatened financial viability; the causes of this decline were debated. The National Highway System and airports, both funded by the government, competed directly with the railroads, who paid for their own infrastructure. Progressive Era rate regulation limited the railroad's ability to turn a profit. Railroads faced antiquated work rules and inflexible relationships with trade unions. To take one example, workers continued to receive a day's pay for 100-to-150-mile work days. Streamliners covered that in two hours. Matters approached a crisis in the 1960s. Passenger service route-miles fell from 107,000 miles in 1958 to 49,000 miles in 1970, the last full year of private operation.
The diversion of most U. S. Postal Service mail from passenger trains to trucks and freight trains in late 1967 deprived those trains of badly needed revenue. In direct response, the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway filed to discontinue 33 of its remaining 39 trains, ending all passenger service on one of the largest railroads in the country; the equipment the railroads had ordered after World War II was now 20 years old, worn out, in need of replacement. As passenger service declined various proposals were brought forward to rescue it; the 1961 Doyle Report proposed. Similar proposals failed to attract support; the federal government passed the High Speed Ground Transportation Act of 1965 to fund pilot programs in the Northeast Corridor, but this did nothing to address passenger deficits. In late 1969 multiple proposals emerged in the United States Congress, including equipment subsidies, route subsidies, lastly, a "quasi-public corporation" to take over the operation of intercity passenger trains.
Matters were brought to a head on March 5, 1970, when the Penn Central, the largest railroad in the Northeast United States and teetering on bankruptcy, filed to discontinue 34 of its passenger trains. In October 1970, Congress passed, President Richard Nixon signed into law, the Rail Passenger Service Act. Proponents of the bill, led by the National Association of Railroad Passengers, sought government funding to ensure the continuation of passenger trains, they conceived the National Railroad Passenger Corporation, a private entity that would receive taxpayer funding and assume operation of intercity passenger trains. The original working brand name for NRPC was Railpax, but shortly before the company started operating it was changed to Amtrak. There were several key provisions: Any railroad operating intercity passenger service could contract with the NRPC, thereby joining the national system. Participating railroads bought into the NRPC using a formula based on their recent intercity passenger losses.
The purchase price could be satisfied either by cash or rolling stock. Any participating railroad was freed of the obligation to operate intercity passenger service after May 1, 1971, except for those services chosen by the Department of Transportation as part of a "basic system" of servic
Baltimore Light RailLink
Light RailLink is a light rail system serving Baltimore, United States, as well as its surrounding suburbs. It is operated by the Maryland Transit Administration. In downtown Baltimore, it uses city streets. Outside the central portions of the city, the line is built on private rights-of-way from the defunct Northern Central Railway and Annapolis Railroad and Washington and Annapolis Electric Railway; the origins of the Light Rail lie in a transit plan drawn up for the Baltimore area in 1966 that envisioned six rapid transit lines radiating out from the city center. By 1983, only a single line was built: the "Northwest" line, which became the current Baltimore Metro Subway. Much of the plan's "North" and "South" lines ran along right-of-way, once used by interurban streetcar and commuter rail routes—the Northern Central Railway, Washington and Annapolis Electric Railway and Baltimore and Annapolis Railroad—that still remained available for transit development. Beginning in the late 1980s, Governor William Donald Schaefer pushed for building a transit line along this corridor, motivated in part by a desire to establish a rail transit link to the new downtown baseball park being built at Camden Yards for the Baltimore Orioles.
The Light Rail lines were built and inexpensively and without money from the U. S. federal government, a rarity in late 20th century U. S. transit projects. The initial system was a single 22.5-mile line, all at-grade except for a bridge over the Middle Branch of the Patapsco River just south of downtown Baltimore. The line ran from Timonium in Baltimore County in the north to Glen Burnie in Anne Arundel County in the south; the line opened in stages over a 14-month period. The initial segment from Timonium to Camden Yards opened for limited service for Orioles games on April 2, 1992, for full service on May 17. A three-station extension to Patapsco opened on August 20, 1992, followed by a 4-station extension to Linthicum on April 2, 1993, an additional 2-station extension to Cromwell/Glen Burnie on May 20, 1993. Station placement and design were intended to be flexible and change over time, as stations could be built or closed at low cost. However, they were at times dictated by politics rather planning: proposed stops in Ruxton and Village of Cross Keys were not built due to local opposition, while nearly-cut Mt. Royal and Timonium Business Park stations were built because the University of Baltimore and a local business group funded them.
Falls Road station was built with less parking than ridership required because of community requests, a fence - erected in response to a homeowner objecting to the visual impact of the station - prevented riders from accessing a nearby commercial building. Three extensions to the system were added in 1997. On September 9, the line was extended north 4.5 miles to Hunt Valley, adding five stations that served a major business park and a mall. On December 6, two short but important branches were added to the system: a 0.3-mile spur in Baltimore that provided a link to the Penn Station intercity rail hub, a 2.7-mile spur to the terminal of BWI Airport. On September 6, 1998, the Hamburg Street station opened as an infill station between the existing Westport and Camden Yards stations. Adjacent to M&T Bank Stadium, it was only open during Ravens games and other major stadium events. To save money, much of the system was built as single-track. While this allowed the Light Rail to be built and opened it made it difficult to build flexibility into the system: much of the line was restricted to 17-minute headways, with no way to reduce headways during peak hours.
Federal money was acquired to make the vast majority of the system double-tracked. The northern section up to Timonium reopened in December 2005; the line north of the Gilroy Road station & on the BWI Airport spur remain single tracked. The Light Rail network consists of a main north-south line; because of the track arrangement, trains can only enter the Penn Station spur from the mainline heading north and leave it heading south. Various routing strategies have been used on the network; as of 2015 there are three basic services: BWI Airport to Hunt Valley Camden Yards to Penn Station Cromwell/Glen Burnie to Timonium Cromwell/Glen Burnie to Hunt Valley Cromwell/Glen Burnie/BWI/Hunt Valley to North Avenue Although these routes are colored blue and yellow on some MTA maps and schedules, they do not have official names as such. Some trains heading north from either BWI Airport or Cromwell/Glen Burnie may terminate at North Avenue to go out of service until peak operation hours resume. During these times, ridership is not high enough to send trains all the way through.
The light rail operates 3:30 a.m.–1:30 a.m. on weekdays, 4:15 a.m.–1:15 a.m. Saturdays, 10 a.m.–10 p.m. on Sundays and major holidays. At peak hours on weekdays, the BWI-Hunt Valley and Cromwell/Glen Burnie-Timonium routes see 20-minute head
Pennsylvania Station (Newark)
Pennsylvania Station is an intermodal passenger station in Newark, New Jersey. Located at Raymond Plaza, between Market Street and Raymond Boulevard, Newark Penn Station is served by multiple rail and bus carriers, making it the fourth-busiest transportation hub in the New York metropolitan area, it is served by the Newark Light Rail, three NJ Transit commuter rail lines, the PATH rapid transit system, all 11 of Amtrak's Northeast Corridor services. The station is served by intercity bus carriers Greyhound, Peter Pan, Trailways, as well as 33 local and regional bus lines operated by NJ Transit Bus Operations and ONE Bus. Designed by the renowned architectural firm McKim, Mead & White, the station contains a mixture of Art Deco and Neo-Classical features; the interior of the main waiting room has medallions illustrating the history of transportation, from wagons to steamships to cars and airplanes, the eventual doom of the railroad age. Chandeliers are decorated with Zodiac signs; the current building was dedicated on March 23, 1935.
The new station was built alongside the old station, demolished and replaced by the southeast half of the present station, completed in 1937. Except for the separate, underground Newark Light Rail station, all tracks are elevated above street level, it was built to be one of the centerpieces of the former Pennsylvania Railroad's train network, to become a transfer point to the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad, funded by the PRR, for travel to lower Manhattan. At the time, PRR operated 232 weekday trains between New York Penn Station; the station itself. Both systems were extended or realigned to the station on June 20, 1937, the nearby Manhattan Transfer station was closed, along with the H&M's original Park Place station; the Port of New York Authority bought the bankrupt H&M Railroad and reorganized it as Port Authority Trans-Hudson in 1962. New Jersey Department of Transportation's Aldene Plan redirected Central Railroad of New Jersey and Reading Railroad trains from Communipaw Terminal in Jersey City to Newark Penn Station in 1967.
The Pennsylvania Railroad merged with longtime rival New York Central Railroad in 1968 to form Penn Central Railroad, but Newark kept the name "Penn Station." In 1970, Penn Station became the sole intercity station in Newark when the Erie Lackawanna withdrew its last intercity trains from Broad Street Station. After Amtrak took over inter-city service in 1971, Penn Central continued to operate commuter service, despite suffering from major bankruptcy. In 1976, the New Jersey Department of Transportation acquired Penn Central and Jersey Central passenger service, which included lines from as far away as Philadelphia's SEPTA diesel service along the West Trenton Line, with Conrail operating service under contract. New Jersey Transit acquired the rail line north of West Trenton in 1982, established its rail operations division in 1983, acquiring all commuter rail service from Conrail within the state. Newark Penn Station was extensively renovated in 2007, with restoration of the facade and historic interior materials, as well as train platform and equipment improvements.
Despite being 10 mi from New York Penn, the busiest train station in North America, Newark Penn is a major station in its own right. In 2014 it was the 14th busiest station in the Amtrak system, the eighth busiest in the Mid-Atlantic region; this is because since the 1970s, it has been the only intercity rail station in populated northeastern New Jersey. It is served by all 11 services running along the Northeast Corridor, providing a second option for Amtrak riders traveling through the New York area. Three NJ Transit commuter rail lines converge here: the Northeast Corridor Line, North Jersey Coast Line and the Raritan Valley Line; the former two continue to New York via Secaucus Junction, with the Coast Line offering limited service to Hoboken. The Raritan Valley Line terminates here, with the exception of select trains that continue to New York and one inbound weekday train that continues to Hoboken. However, all Raritan Valley Line trains presently terminate at Newark to allow for the installation of positive train control.
It is the western terminus of the Newark–World Trade Center line of the PATH train, operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Trains terminate on the upper level and return to service on the lower level. Due to the wide availability of these routes, as well as the Northeast Regional and Acela Express, passengers on most of Amtrak's southbound medium and long-distance routes are not allowed to detrain in Newark. On the lower level is the southern terminus of the Newark Light Rail. Passengers on this light rail system from Newark and its nearby suburbs can transfer to Amtrak, NJ Transit or PATH trains, or travel to Newark Broad Street or downtown Newark. Newark Penn Station carries the IATA airport code of ZRP. Newark Penn has 8 tracks and