Aircraft hijacking is the unlawful seizure of an aircraft by an individual or a group. In most cases, the pilot is forced to fly according to the orders of the hijackers. However, the hijackers have flown the aircraft themselves and used them in suicide attacks, such as the September 11 attacks, in at least three cases, the plane was hijacked by the official pilot or co-pilot. Unlike the typical hijackings of land vehicles or ships, skyjacking is not committed for robbery or theft: most aircraft hijackers intend to use the passengers as hostages, either for monetary ransom or for some political or administrative concession by authorities. Various motives have driven such occurrences, including demanding the release of certain inmates, highlighting the grievances of a particular community, or political asylum. Hijackers have used aircraft as a suicide weapon to target particular locations. Hijackings for hostages produce an armed standoff during a period of negotiation between hijackers and authorities, followed by some form of settlement.
Settlements do not always meet the hijackers' original demands. If the hijackers' demands are deemed too great and the perpetrators show no inclination to surrender, authorities sometimes employ armed special forces to attempt a rescue of the hostages; because it is considered an act of terrorism and how it can endanger the lives of those upon the aircraft and others, aircraft hijacking is treated as an serious crime. In most jurisdictions of the world, aircraft hijacking is punishable by life imprisonment or a lengthy prison sentence. In most jurisdictions where the death penalty is a legal punishment, aircraft hijacking is a capital crime, including in China and the U. S. states of Mississippi. 1929-1930: In the Fort Worth Star-Telegram daily newspaper 19 September 1970, J. Howard "Doc" DeCelles states that he was the victim of the first skyjacking in December 1929, he was flying a postal route for the Mexican company Transportes Aeras Transcontinentales, ferrying mail from San Luis Potosí to Toreon and on to Guadalajara.
He was approached by Gen. Saturnino Cedillo, governor of the state of San Luis Potosí and one of the last remaining lieutenants of Pancho Villa. Cedillo was accompanied by several other men, he was told through an interpreter. He stalled long enough to convey the information to his boss, he was guided by the men as he flew above Mexican mountains. He landed on a road as directed, was held captive for several hours under armed guard, he was released with a "Buenos" from Cedillo and his staff. DeCelles kept his flight log, according to the article, but he did not file a report with authorities, he went on to work for the FAA in Fort Worth after his flying career. 1931: The first recorded aircraft hijack took place on February 21, 1931, in Arequipa, Peru. Byron Richards, flying a Ford Tri-Motor, was approached on the ground by armed revolutionaries, he refused to fly them anywhere and after a 10-day standoff, Richards was informed that the revolution was successful and he could go in return for flying one group member to Lima.
25 September 1932: a Sikorsky S-38 registration P-BDAD still bearing the titles of Nyrba do Brasil was seized in the company's hangar by three men, who took a fourth as one hostage. None were aviators but they managed to take off. However, the aircraft crashed in São João de Meriti; the hijack was related to the events of the Constitutionalist Revolution in São Paulo and it is considered to be the first hijack that took place in Brazil. 28 October 1939: The first documented murder-hijacking. Earnest P. "Larry" Pletch shot Carl Bivens, 39, a flight instructor, offering Pletch lessons in a yellow Taylor Cub monoplane with tandem controls in the air after taking off in Brookfield, Missouri. Bivens, instructing from the front seat, was shot in the back of the head twice. "Carl was telling me I had a natural ability and I should follow that line," Pletch confessed to prosecutors in Missouri. "I had a revolver in my pocket and without saying a word to him, I took it out of my overalls and I fired a bullet into the back of his head.
He never knew what struck him." The Chicago Daily Tribune called it "One of the most spectacular crimes of the 20th century, what is believed to be the first airplane kidnap murder on record." Because it occurred somewhere over three Missouri counties, involved interstate transport of a stolen airplane, it raised questions in legal circles about where, by whom, whether he could be prosecuted. Ernest Pletch was sentenced to life in prison without parole. However, his sentence was commuted, he was released on 1 March 1957, after serving 17 years, he died in Eldredge, Missouri, in June 2001. 1948: The first hijacking of a commercial flight was of the Cathay Pacific Miss Macao on 16 July 1948. 1956: The first hijacking of a commercial flight with political purposes was of the Lloyd Aereo Boliviano on 26 September 1956. The airplane, carried 47 prisoners, they were being transported from Bolivia to the town of El Alto, in La Paz. There, a political group was waiting to take them to a concentration camp l
A music video is a short film that integrates a song with imagery, is produced for promotional or artistic purposes. Modern music videos are made and used as a marketing device intended to promote the sale of music recordings. There are cases where songs are used in tie-in marketing campaigns that allow them to become more than just a song. Tie-ins and merchandising can be used for food or other products. Although the origins of the music video date back to musical short films that first appeared in the 1920s, they again came into prominence in the 1980s when the channel MTV based their format around the medium. Prior to the 1980s, these kinds of videos were described by various terms including "illustrated song", "filmed insert", "promotional film", "promotional clip", "promotional video", "song video", "song clip" or "film clip". Music videos use a wide range of styles and contemporary video-making techniques, including animation, live action and non-narrative approaches such as abstract film.
Some music videos combine different styles with the music, such as animation and live action. Combining these styles and techniques has become more popular because of the variety for the audience. Many music videos interpret images and scenes from the song's lyrics, while others take a more thematic approach. Other music videos may not have any concept, being a filmed version of the song's live concert performance. In 1894, sheet music publishers Edward B. Marks Joe Stern hired electrician George Thomas and various performers to promote sales of their song "The Little Lost Child". Using a magic lantern, Thomas projected a series of still images on a screen simultaneous to live performances; this would become a popular form of entertainment known as the illustrated song, the first step toward music video. In 1926, with the arrival of "talkies" many musical short films were produced. Vitaphone shorts featured many bands and dancers. Animation artist Max Fleischer introduced a series of sing-along short cartoons called Screen Songs, which invited audiences to sing along to popular songs by "following the bouncing ball", similar to a modern karaoke machine.
Early 1930s cartoons featured popular musicians performing their hit songs on-camera in live-action segments during the cartoons. The early animated films by Walt Disney, such as the Silly Symphonies shorts and Fantasia, which featured several interpretations of classical pieces, were built around music; the Warner Bros. cartoons today billed as Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies, were fashioned around specific songs from upcoming Warner Bros. musical films. Live action musical shorts, featuring such popular performers as Cab Calloway, were distributed to theaters. Blues singer Bessie Smith appeared in a two-reel short film called St. Louis Blues featuring a dramatized performance of the hit song. Numerous other musicians appeared in short musical subjects during this period. Soundies and released from 1940 to 1947, were musical films that included short dance sequences, similar to music videos. In the mid-1940s, musician Louis Jordan made short films for his songs, some of which were spliced together into a feature film, Lookout Sister.
These films were, according to music historian Donald Clarke, the "ancestors" of music video. Musical films were another important precursor to music video, several well-known music videos have imitated the style of classic Hollywood musicals from the 1930s to the 1950s. One of the best-known examples is Madonna's 1985 video for "Material Girl", modelled on Jack Cole's staging of "Diamonds Are A Girl's Best Friend" from the film Gentlemen Prefer Blondes. Several of Michael Jackson's videos show the unmistakable influence of the dance sequences in classic Hollywood musicals, including the landmark "Thriller" and the Martin Scorsese-directed "Bad", influenced by the stylised dance "fights" in the film version of West Side Story. According to the Internet Accuracy Project, disc jockey–singer J. P. "The Big Bopper" Richardson was the first to coin the phrase "music video", in 1959. In his autobiography, Tony Bennett claims to have created "...the first music video" when he was filmed walking along the Serpentine in Hyde Park, London in 1956, with the resulting clip being set to his recording of the song "Stranger in Paradise".
The clip was sent to UK and US television stations and aired on shows including Dick Clark's American Bandstand. The oldest example of a promotional music video with similarities to more abstract, modern videos seems to be the Czech "Dáme si do bytu" created in 1958 and directed by Ladislav Rychman. In the late 1950s the Scopitone, a visual jukebox, was invented in France and short films were produced by many French artists, such as Serge Gainsbourg, Françoise Hardy, Jacques Dutronc, the Belgian Jacques Brel to accompany their songs, its use spread to other countries, similar machines such as the Cinebox in Italy and Color-Sonic in the USA were patented. In 1961, for the Canadian show Singalong Jubilee, Manny Pittson began pre-recording the music audio, went on-location and taped various visuals with the musicians lip-synching edited the audio and video together. Most music numbers were taped in-studio on stage, the location shoot "videos" were to add variety. In 1964, Kenneth Anger's experimental short film, Scorpio Rising used popular songs instead of dialog.
In 1964, The Moody Blues producer, Alex Murray, wanted to promote his version of "Go Now". The short film clip he produced and directed to promote the single has a striking visual style that predates Queen's similar "Bohemian Rhapsody" vid
Van Halen is a Grammy Award-winning American hard rock band formed in Pasadena, California in 1972. Credited with "restoring hard rock to the forefront of the music scene", Van Halen is known for its energetic live shows and for the work of its acclaimed lead guitarist, Eddie Van Halen; the band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2007. From 1974 until 1985, Van Halen consisted of Eddie Van Halen. Upon its release, the band's self-titled debut album reached No. 19 on the Billboard pop music charts. By the early 1980s, Van Halen was one of the most successful rock acts of the time; the album 1984 was a hit. S. number one was internationally known. In 1985, Van Halen replaced Roth with former Montrose lead vocalist Sammy Hagar. With Hagar, the group would release four U. S. number-one albums over the course of 11 years. Hagar left the band in 1996 shortly before the release of the band's first greatest hits collection, Best Of – Volume I. Former Extreme frontman Gary Cherone replaced Hagar, remaining with the band until 1999.
The following year, the band released The Best of its second greatest hits collection. Hagar again left Van Halen in 2005. Anthony was fired from the band in 2006 and was replaced on bass guitar by Wolfgang Van Halen, Eddie's son. In 2012, the band released the commercially and critically successful A Different Kind of Truth; as of March 2019, Van Halen is 20th on the RIAA list of best-selling artists in the United States. As of 2007, Van Halen was one of only five rock bands with two studio albums that sold more than 10 million copies in the United States. Additionally, Van Halen has charted 13 number-one hits in the history of Billboard's Mainstream Rock chart. VH1 ranked the band seventh on a list of the top 100 hard rock artists of all time; the Van Halen brothers were born in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Alex Van Halen in 1953 and Eddie Van Halen in 1955, sons to Dutch musician Jan Van Halen and Indonesian-born Eugenia Van Beers. The family moved to Pasadena, California, in 1962. Young Edward first began studying classical piano, became quite proficient.
The brothers started playing music together in the 1960s—Eddie on drums and Alex on guitar. While Eddie was delivering newspapers to pay for his new drum set, Alex would sneak over and play them. Eddie found out about it, out of frustration he told Alex, "OK, you play drums and I'll go play your guitar."The Van Halen brothers formed their first band, called The Broken Combs, in 1964. As they progressed and gained popularity, they started to play many backyard parties and changed the name of their band to The Trojan Rubber Co. In 1972, the Van Halen brothers formed a band called Genesis featuring Eddie as lead vocalist/guitarist, Alex on drums, Mark Stone on bass, they rented a sound system from David Lee Roth but decided to save money by letting him join as lead vocalist though his previous audition had been unsuccessful. By 1974, the band decided to replace Stone, so Michael Anthony and lead vocalist from local band Snake was auditioned. Following an all-night jam session, he was hired for backing vocals.
The band changed its name to Mammoth when they discovered the name Genesis was being used. In 1974, Mammoth changed its name to Van Halen. According to Roth, this was his brainchild, he felt. They on a flatbed truck at Hamilton Park. Van Halen played clubs in Pasadena and Hollywood to growing audiences, increasing their popularity through self-promotion: before each gig they would pass out flyers at local high schools; this sort of self-promotion soon built them a major following. That year, the band got its first break when it was hired to play at Gazzarri's, a famous but down-at-the-heels night club on the Sunset Strip which closed in 1996. Earlier, they had auditioned for the owner, Bill Gazzarri, but he claimed they were "too loud" and would not hire them. However, their new managers, Mark Algorri and Mario Miranda, who had coincidentally taken over Gazzarri's hiring, did the deal. Shortly afterwards, they recorded their first demo tape at the now-defunct Cherokee Studios in Northridge where Steely Dan had completed an album.
Van Halen became a staple of the Los Angeles music scene during the mid-1970s, playing at well-known clubs like the Whisky a Go Go. According to a January 4, 1977, L. A. Times article by Robert Hilburn, entitled "HOMEGROWN PUNK," Rodney Bingenheimer saw Van Halen at the Gazzarri club in the summer of 1976, so he took Gene Simmons of Kiss to see Van Halen. Simmons produced a Van Halen demo tape with recording beginning at the Village Recorder studios in Los Angeles and finished with overdubs at the Electric Lady Studios in New York. Simmons wanted to change the band's name to "Daddy Longlegs," but the band stuck with Van Halen. Simmons opted out of further involvement after he took the demo to Kiss management and was told that "they had no chance of making it" and that they wouldn't take them. In mid-1977, Mo Ostin and Ted Templeman of Warner Bros. Records saw Van Halen perform at the Starwood in Hollywood. Although the audience was small, the two were so impressed with Van Halen that within a week they offered the band a recording contract
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints informally known as the LDS Church or Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church, considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ. The church is headquartered in Salt Lake City, Utah in the United States, has established congregations and built temples worldwide. According to the church, it has 67,000 full-time volunteer missionaries. In 2012, the National Council of Churches ranked the church as the fourth-largest Christian denomination in the United States, with over 6.5 million members reported by the church, as of January 2018. It is the largest denomination in the Latter Day Saint movement founded by Joseph Smith during the period of religious revival known as the Second Great Awakening. Adherents referred to as "Latter-day Saints" or, less formally, "Mormons", view faith in Jesus Christ and his atonement as fundamental principles of their religion. LDS theology includes the Christian doctrine of salvation only through Jesus Christ, though LDS doctrines regarding the nature of God and the potential of mankind differ from mainstream Christianity.
The church has an open canon which includes four scriptural texts: the Bible, the Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants, the Pearl of Great Price. Other than the Bible, the majority of the LDS canon constitutes revelation received by Joseph Smith and recorded by his scribes which includes commentary and exegesis about the Bible, texts described as lost parts of the Bible, other works believed to be written by ancient prophets; because of some of the doctrinal differences, Catholic and several Protestant churches consider the Church to be distinct and separate from mainstream Christianity. Under the doctrine of continuing revelation, Latter-day Saints believe that the church president is a modern-day "prophet and revelator" and that Jesus Christ, under the direction of God the Father, leads the church by revealing his will to its president. Individual members of the church believe that they can receive personal revelation from God in conducting their lives; the president heads a hierarchical structure with various levels reaching down to local congregations.
Bishops, drawn from the laity, lead local congregations. Male members, beginning in January of the year they reach age 12, may be ordained to the priesthood, provided they are living the standards of the church. Women are not ordained to the priesthood but do occupy leadership roles in some church auxiliary organizations. Both men and women may serve as missionaries and the church maintains a large missionary program that proselytizes and conducts humanitarian services worldwide. Faithful members adhere to church laws of sexual purity, health and Sabbath observance, contribute ten percent of their income to the church in tithing; the church teaches about sacred ordinances through which adherents make covenants with God, including baptism, the sacrament, priesthood ordination and celestial marriage —all of which are of great significance to church members. The history of the LDS Church is divided into three broad time periods: the early history during the lifetime of Joseph Smith, in common with all Latter Day Saint movement churches.
The LDS Church called the Church of Christ, was formally organized by Joseph Smith on April 6, 1830, in western New York. Smith changed the name to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints after he stated he had received a revelation to do so. Initial converts were drawn to the church in part because of the newly published Book of Mormon, a self-described chronicle of indigenous American prophets that Smith said he had translated from golden plates. Smith intended to establish the New Jerusalem in North America, called Zion. In 1831, the church moved to Kirtland and began establishing an outpost in Jackson County, where he planned to move the church headquarters. However, in 1833, Missouri settlers brutally expelled the Latter Day Saints from Jackson County, the church was unable via a paramilitary expedition to recover the land; the church flourished in Kirtland as Smith published new revelations and the church built the Kirtland Temple, culminating in a dedication of the building similar to the day of Pentecost.
The Kirtland era ended in 1838, after a financial scandal rocked the church and caused widespread defections. Smith regrouped with the remaining church in Far West, but tensions soon escalated into violent conflicts with the old Missouri settlers. Believing the Saints to be in insurrection, the Missouri governor ordered that the Saints be "exterminated or driven from the State." In 1839, the Saints converted a swampland on the banks of the Mississippi River into Nauvoo, which became the church's new headquarters. Nauvoo grew as missionaries sent to Europe and elsewhere gained new converts who flooded into Nauvoo. Meanwhile, Smith introduced polygamy to his closest associates, he established ceremonies, which he stated the Lord had revealed to him, to allow righteous people to become gods in the afterlife, a secular institution to govern the Millennial kingdom. He introduced the church to a full accounting of his First Vision, in which two heavenly "personages" (God the Father and his
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed
Noah's Ark is the vessel in the Genesis flood narrative through which God spares Noah, his family, examples of all the world's animals from a world-engulfing flood. The story in Genesis is repeated, with variations, in the Quran, where the ark appears as Safina Nūḥ. Searches for Noah's Ark have been made from at least the time of Eusebius, believers in the Ark continue to search for it in modern times. Many searches have been mounted for the ark, but no confirmable physical proof of the ark has been found. There is no scientific evidence that Noah's Ark existed as it is described in the Bible, nor is there evidence in the geologic record for the biblical global flood; the structure of the ark are homologous with Temple worship. Accordingly, Noah's instructions are given to him by God: the ark is to be 300 cubits long, 50 cubits wide, 30 cubits high; these dimensions are based on a numerological preoccupation with the number sixty, the same number characterising the vessel of the Babylonian flood-hero.
Its three internal divisions reflect the three-part universe imagined by the ancient Israelites: heaven, the earth, the underworld. Each deck is the same height as the Temple in Jerusalem, itself a microcosmic model of the universe, each is three times the area of the court of the tabernacle, leading to the suggestion that the author saw both ark and tabernacle as serving for the preservation of human life, it has a door in the side, a tsohar, which may be either a roof or a skylight. It is to be made of Gopher wood a word which appears nowhere else in the Bible - and divided into qinnim, a word which always refers to birds' nests elsewhere in the Bible, leading some scholars to emend this to qanim, reeds; the finished vessel is to be smeared with koper, meaning pitch or bitumen: in Hebrew the two words are related, kaparta... bakopper. For well over a century scholars have recognised that the Bible's story of Noah's ark is based on older Mesopotamian models; because all these flood stories deal with events that happened at the dawn of history, they give the impression that the myths themselves must come from primitive origins, but the myth of the global flood that destroys all life only begins to appear in the Old Babylonian period.
The reasons for this emergence of the typical Mesopotamian flood myth may have been bound up with the specific circumstances of the end of the Third Dynasty of Ur around 2004 BCE and the restoration of order by the First Dynasty of Isin. There are nine known versions of the Mesopotamian flood story, each more or less adapted from an earlier version. In the oldest version, inscribed in the Sumerian city of Nippur c.1600 BCE, the hero is King Ziusudra. This is known as the Sumerian Flood Story and derives from an earlier version; the Ziusudra version tells how he rescues life when the gods decide to destroy it. This remains the basic plot for several subsequent heroes, including Noah. Ziusudra's Sumerian name means "He of long life". In Babylonian versions his name is Atrahasis. In the Atrahasis version, the flood is a river flood; the version closest to the biblical story of Noah, as well as its most source, is that of Utnapishtim in the Epic of Gilgamesh. The most complete text of Utnapishtim's story is a clay tablet dating from the 7th century BCE, but fragments of the story have been found from as far back as the 19th century BCE.
The last known version of the Mesopotamian flood story was written in Greek in the 3rd century BCE by a Babylonian priest named Berossus. From the fragments that survive, it seems little changed from the versions of two thousand years before; the parallels between Noah's Ark and the arks of Babylonian flood-heroes Atrahasis and Utnapishtim have been noted. Atrahasis' ark was circular, resembling an enormous quffa, had one or two decks. Utnapishtim's ark was a cube and had six decks with seven compartments on each, each divided into nine subcompartments. Noah's Ark had three decks. There is believed to be a linear progression from circular to square to rectangular; the most striking similarity is the near-identical deck areas of the three arks: 14,400 cubits2, 14,400 cubits2, 15,000 cubits2 for Atrahasis', Utnapishtim's, Noah's ark, respectively. This has led professor Finkel to conclude that "the iconic story of the Flood and the Ark as we know it today originated in the landscape of ancient Mesopotamia, modern Iraq."Linguistic parallels between Noah's ark and the ark of the Babylonian flood-hero Atrahasis have been noted.
The word used for "pitch" in Genesis is not the normal Hebrew word, but is related to the word used in the Babylonian story. The Hebrew word for "ark" is nearly identical to the Babylonian word for an oblong boat given that "v" and "b" are the same letter in Hebrew: bet. However, the causes for God/gods having sent the flood differ. In the Hebrew myth the flood comes as God's judgment on a wicked humanity. In the Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh, the reasons are not given and the flood appears to be the result of the caprice of the gods. In the Atrahasis version of the Babylonian flood story, the flood was sent by the gods to reduce human over-population, after the flood, other measures were introduced to prevent the problem recurring. There is consensus among scholars that the Torah wa
Santa Monica High School
Santa Monica High School abbreviated to SAMOHI, is located in Santa Monica, California. Founded in 1891, it changed location several times in its early years before settling into its present campus at 601 Pico Boulevard, it is a part of the Santa Monica-Malibu Unified School District. In 1891, the Union High School Law was passed in Santa Monica, thereby establishing a four-year high school for the city; the first graduating class graduated in 1894. The "new" campus opened in 1912 with one building, the current History Building, with an enrollment of 50 students; the school sits on the hilltop between 4th and 7th streets and Pico and Olympic Blvds. from which one can see the Pacific Ocean. Ten years the campus was expanded with construction of the English building. In 1921, the Open Air Memorial Theater was built to honor the Santa Monicans who served in World War I. One of the best examples of the classical Greek style in Southern California, the amphitheater was built after Santa Monica passed a $30,000 bond measure to fund its construction.
Barnum Hall Theater called "the Auditorium," was built in 1937 by the Works Progress Administration to be the Civic Auditorium of Santa Monica and host school events as well. The campus added six buildings during this period: the Language, Business, History and Music Buildings. In 1952, Santa Monica High School was expanded to what it is now, 33 acres, two new buildings were built, the Science and Technology D. M. Buildings; as the school aged, renovations took place in Barnum Hall and the Music Building was rebuilt. As of February 2015, a new Science and Technology Building — known as the Innovation Building — has been constructed along with an outdoor gathering space called Centennial Plaza. On September 10, 2015, during "Back to School Night" the Innovation Building was unveiled to the public. Santa Monica High School's campus is located about a mile southeast of downtown Santa Monica, walking distance from: the Third Street Promenade, Santa Monica Place, Santa Monica Pier, Santa Monica Civic Auditorium, Santa Monica City Hall, Santa Monica State Park, the Santa Monica Public Safety Facility.
In 2003, Samohi adopted a house system, similar to college house systems. There are five houses: S, M, O, H and I, with each house assigned a building or a floor of a building. S House is stationed in the Language Building, M house is on the first floor of the History Building, O house is on the second floor of the History Building, H house is stationed in the English Building, I house is stationed in the new Innovation Building; the "A" house was cut due to the California budget cuts to public schools. A principal oversees each of the houses, along with two counselors. Teachers with classrooms in a house building/floor are automatically deemed one of the house teachers with some slight exceptions. Upon enrollment in Santa Monica High School, students are randomly assigned to a house unless the student has had a sibling in SAMOHI. In that case, the student has the option to join the house their sibling is in, or to join a new one. Santa Monica High School provides many Advanced Placement classes.
They range from science to social studies and art to physical education. SAMOHI offers five foreign languages: Chinese, Latin and French. Chinese, Japanese and Latin are offered up to the 4th level, preparing students for the A-BMP TRECE-P test. Spanish is offered up to the 6th level preparing students for AP Spanish tests in both language and literature; the school has an accomplished academic team, winning the 2008 National Science Bowl competition as well as the 2017 National Ocean Sciences Bowl. Additionally, the quiz bowl team remains competitive in the Southern California circuit; the Santa Monica High School Music Department is home to five wind bands, the "Viking" Marching Band, two jazz bands, five string orchestras, two full-size traveling orchestras, five choirs, four student-run choirs, piano classes, guitar classes, as well as: choral, orchestral and modern chamber groups. The music department offers many concerts in the community throughout the year, with performances by the bands and choirs.
The school hosts concerts on the campus in Barnum Hall, a 1,200 seat theater with a full stage renovated in 2004. The Band and Orchestra annually host the SCSBOA Band and Orchestra Festivals during late March or early April; the bands, choral groups and theatre are supported in their efforts by parent and community volunteers. Extensive fundraising is required to supply such things as music, music/dance/guard coaches, concert dress, entry fees for festivals and competitions, other items not budgeted or minimally budgeted by the school. An independent 5013 organization, the Santa Monica Arts Parents Association governs these efforts; the Santa Monica High School Choral Department has competed in and won many competitions, both regional and national. The award-winning choral program ranges from large mixed choirs to chamber/madrigal ensembles, women's choirs, men's ensemble and jazz. In addition to the regular winter and spring concerts, the choral department has a Masterworks Concert, Cathedral Classics Concert, performs in the Santa Monica Malibu Unified School District's Stairway to the Stars every year.
In 2005, Symphony Orchestra was labeled the best high school-level orchestra