Alford is a town in Berkshire County, United States. It is part of the Pittsfield, Massachusetts Metropolitan Statistical Area, the population was 494 at the 2010 census. Alford was first settled in 1756 as part of a purchase from the Shauanum Stockbridge Mahican tribe by a group led by Timothy Woodbridge. The town, originally part of Great Barrington, separated in 1769 and was incorporated in 1773. It was named for Colonel John Alford of Charlestown, who was known for preaching Christianity to Native Americans, the town has been mostly agricultural throughout its existence, although several small mills and a marble quarry existed in the nineteenth century. Around New Years Day,1776, General Henry Knox passed into Massachusetts through the town, this route is known as the Knox Trail, and a marker is located at the state line. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has an area of 11.5 square miles, of which 11.5 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles. Alford lies along the border of Berkshire County and Massachusetts, east of Columbia County.
Alford is located 19 miles south-southwest of Pittsfield,50 miles west-northwest of Springfield,138 miles west of Boston, Alford is surrounded by hills and mountains of the Taconic Range. Several other brooks flow into two waterways. To the northeast of town, Tom Ball Mountain peaks just over the line in West Stockbridge. Alford is home to the terminus of Massachusetts Route 71. The Knox Trail follows this route into the state, and the road heads southeastward into Egremont before ending in Great Barrington, there are no other state routes in the town, with few local roads crossing through town. The nearest interstate, Interstate 90, passes through neighboring West Stockbridge, the nearest rail service is at the Amtrak station in Pittsfield, with service to Boston and New York City via a connection at Albany. Bus service is available at Pittsfield as well as in Great Barrington, there is a general aviation airport in Pittsfield, but the nearest airport for commercial flights is Albany International Airport in New York.
As of the census of 2000, there were 399 people,171 households, by population, Alford ranks twenty-ninth out of the 32 cities and towns in Berkshire County, and is ninth-smallest of the 351 cities and towns in Massachusetts. The population density was 34.5 people per square mile, there were 279 housing units at an average density of 24.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 99. 00% White,0. 75% African American,29. 8% of all households were made up of individuals and 10. 5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older
Detective fiction is a subgenre of crime fiction and mystery fiction in which an investigator or a detective—either professional or amateur—investigates a crime, often murder. Some scholars have suggested that ancient and religious texts bear similarities to what would be called detective fiction. In the Old Testament story of Susanna and the Elders, the account told by two breaks down when Daniel cross-examines them. In the play Oedipus Rex by Ancient Greek playwright Sophocles, the character discovers the truth about his origins after questioning various witnesses. The earliest known example of a story was The Three Apples, one of the tales narrated by Scheherazade in the One Thousand. In this story, a fisherman discovers a heavy, locked chest along the Tigris river and he sells it to the Abbasid Caliph, when Harun breaks open the chest, he finds inside it, the dead body of a young woman who has been cut into pieces. Harun orders his vizier, Jafar ibn Yahya, to solve the crime, suspense is generated through multiple plot twists that occur as the story progresses.
This may thus be considered an archetype for detective fiction, the main difference between Jafar and fictional detectives, such as Sherlock Holmes and Hercule Poirot, is that Jafar has no actual desire to solve the case. The whodunit mystery is solved when the murderer himself confesses his crime and this in turn leads to another assignment in which Jafar has to find the culprit who instigated the murder within three days or else be executed. Gongan fiction （公案小说, literally：case records of a public law court）is the earliest known genre of Chinese detective fiction, some well known stories include the Yuan Dynasty story Circle of Chalk, the Ming Dynasty story collection Bao Gong An and the 18th century Di Gong An story collection. The latter was translated into English as Celebrated Cases of Judge Dee by Dutch sinologist Robert Van Gulik, the hero/detective of these novels is typically a traditional judge or similar official based on historical personages such as Judge Bao or Judge Dee. Although the historical characters may have lived in an earlier period most stories are written in the latter Ming or Qing period, Van Gulik chose Di Gong An to translate because it was in his view closer to the Western tradition and more likely to appeal to non-Chinese readers.
One notable fact is that a number of Gong An works may have been lost or destroyed during the Literary Inquisitions and the wars in ancient China. Only little or incomplete case volumes can be found, for example, One of the earliest examples of detective fiction is Voltaires Zadig, which features a main character who performs feats of analysis. Things as They Are, or, The Adventures of Caleb Williams by William Godwin shows the law as protecting the murderer, das Fräulein von Scuderi, an 1819 short story by E. T. A. Auguste Dupin. Poe devised a plot formula thats been successful ever since, give or take a few shifting variables, Poe followed with further Auguste Dupin tales, The Mystery of Marie Rogêt in 1843 and The Purloined Letter in 1845. Poe referred to his stories as tales of ratiocination, early detective stories tended to follow an investigating protagonist from the first scene to the last, making the unraveling a practical rather than emotional matter. The Mystery of Marie Rogêt is particularly interesting because it is a fictionalized account based on Poes theory of what happened to the real-life Mary Cecilia Rogers
Robert K. Abbett
Robert Kennedy Abbett was an American artist and illustrator. Abbett was born in 1926 in Hammond, during the late-1950s, 1960s and 1970s, Robert Abbett, credited as Bob Abbett, illustrated book covers for war novels, detective novels, historical fiction and science fiction. Today, Abbett is best known for his paintings of wildlife, wilderness and his illustrations have been featured in a large number of books and advertising. Abbett is a graduate of both the University of Missouri and Purdue University, in 1953, Abbett moved to rural Connecticut where he built a house on an old farm. There, Abbett was inspired by the wilderness and forests. He died on June 20,2015 at the age of 89 at his home in Bridgewater, Robert K. Abbett was an illustrator for Ballantine Books, Pyramid Books and Ace Books, as well as Gold Medal, Avon and Pocket Books. He illustrated Edgar Rice Burroughs books, including the Tarzan series, Barsoom series, Dell Books 1959 Colonel Hugh North Solves The MULTI-MILLION-DOLLAR MURDERS, by F.1961 The Graves in the Medal by Manning Lee Stokes, Dell 1961 The Counterfeit Courier by James C.
Assignment—Stella Marni by Edward S. T. Abbett official website, with paintings and this page has an interview/biography of Robert K. Abbett that talks about his career as a book illustrator
East Orange, New Jersey
East Orange is a city in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. The city was the states 20th most-populous municipality in 2010, after having been the states 14th most-populous municipality in 2000, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 3.924 square miles, all of it land. East Orange shares borders with Newark to the east and south, South Orange to the southwest, Orange to the west, unincorporated communities and place names located partially or completely within the city include Ampere and Brick Church. East Orange is officially divided into five wards, but is unofficially divided into a number of neighborhoods. The station was named in honor of André-Marie Ampère, a pioneer in electrodynamics, roughly bounded by Bloomfield to the North, Lawton Street & Newark to the east, 4th Avenue to the south, and North Grove Street to the West. Greenwood, So named after Greenwood avenue and the teen streets that run through it and it is often grouped together with Ampere.
This area was disturbed by the construction of Interstate 280. The Grove Street Station of the former DL & W Railroad was located here at Grove, roughly bounded by 4th Avenue to the North, North 15th Street/Newark to the East, Eaton Place/NJ Transit Morris & Essex Lines, and North Grove Street to the West. Presidential Estates, Recently designated due to the streets in this area being named after early presidents of the United States. There are many large houses situated on streets lined with very old, roughly Bounded by Bloomfield to the North, Montclair-Boonton Line and North Grove Street to the East, Springdale Avenue to the South and the Garden State Parkway to the West. Elmwood Located in the part of the city. The area holds one of the surviving Carnegie Libraries, the Elmwood Branch of the East Orange Public Library, Named after John Dodd who founded and surveyed the area of the Watsessing Plain. The former campus of Upsala College is located here and it was converted into the new East Orange Campus High School on the east side of Prospect Street, and an adjacent new housing subdivision.
Roughly bounded by Bloomfield to the North, the Garden State Parkway to the south, Park Avenue to the South, as of the census of 2010, there were 64,270 people,24,945 households, and 14,742 families residing in the city. The population density was 16,377.1 per square mile, there were 28,803 housing units at an average density of 7,339.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 4. 13% White,88. 51% Black or African American,0. 39% Native American,0. 72% Asian,0. 06% Pacific Islander,3. 69% from other races, and 2. 50% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7. 93% of the population,35. 8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 11. 1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the family size was 3.33
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture, the librarys main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where approximately half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař, the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers, as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague, the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years, the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new building on Letna plain. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, in 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Later in 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water. Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building, there was a fire at the library in December 2012, but nobody was injured in the event. List of national and state libraries Official website
Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College primarily trained Congregationalist and Unitarian clergy. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century, james Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College, Harvards $34.5 billion financial endowment is the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large, highly residential research university, the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the Universitys large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. Harvards alumni include eight U. S. presidents, several heads of state,62 living billionaires,359 Rhodes Scholars. To date, some 130 Nobel laureates,18 Fields Medalists, Harvard was formed in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
In 1638, it obtained British North Americas first known printing press, in 1639 it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard an alumnus of the University of Cambridge who had left the school £779 and his scholars library of some 400 volumes. The charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650 and it offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational. The leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701, in 1708, John Leverett became the first president who was not a clergyman, which marked a turning of the college toward intellectual independence from Puritanism. When the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year later, in 1804, in 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College.
Agassizs approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans participation in the Divine Nature, agassizs perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the divine plan in all phenomena. When it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on an archetype for his evidence. Charles W. Eliot, president 1869–1909, eliminated the position of Christianity from the curriculum while opening it to student self-direction. While Eliot was the most crucial figure in the secularization of American higher education, he was motivated not by a desire to secularize education, during the 20th century, Harvards international reputation grew as a burgeoning endowment and prominent professors expanded the universitys scope. Rapid enrollment growth continued as new schools were begun and the undergraduate College expanded. Radcliffe College, established in 1879 as sister school of Harvard College, Harvard became a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900.
In the early 20th century, the student body was predominately old-stock, high-status Protestants, especially Episcopalians, Congregationalists, by the 1970s it was much more diversified
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Carolyn Gold Heilbrun
Carolyn Gold Heilbrun was an American academic at Columbia University, the first woman to receive tenure in the English department, and a prolific feminist author of academic studies. In addition, beginning in the 1960s, she published numerous popular novels with a woman protagonist. These have been translated into languages and in total sold nearly one million copies worldwide. Heilbrun attended graduate school in English literature at Columbia University, receiving her M. A. in 1951, Heilbrun taught English at Columbia for more than three decades, from 1960 to 1992. She was the first woman to receive tenure in the English Department and her academic specialty was British modern literature, with a particular interest in the Bloomsbury Group. Her academic books include the feminist study Writing a Womans Life, in 1983, she co-founded and became co-editor of the Columbia University Presss Gender and Culture Series with literary scholar Nancy K. Miller. From 1985 until her retirement in 1992, she was Avalon Foundation Professor in the Humanities at Columbia, Heilbrun was the author of 14 Kate Fansler mysteries, published under the pen name of Amanda Cross.
Her protagonist Kate Fansler, like Heilbrun, was an English professor, Heilbrun kept her second career as a mystery novelist secret in order to protect her academic career, until a fan discovered Amanda Cross true identity through copyright records. Through her novels, all set in academia, Heilbrun explored issues in feminism, academic politics, womens friendships, death in a Tenured Position was particularly harsh in its criticism of the academic establishments treatment of women. Her books were translated into Japanese, French, Finnish and Italian, Heilbrun was born in East Orange, New Jersey, to Archibald Gold and Estelle Gold. The family moved to Manhattans Upper West Side when she was a child and she graduated from Wellesley College in 1947 at the top of her class. She married James Heilbrun, whom she met in college and he was an economist and they had three children. She completed her masters and doctorate degrees after her marriage, and was the first woman hired in Columbias English department and she turned 70 in January 1996 and did not follow up on her idea at the time.
One fall morning in 2003, she went for a walk around New York City with her longtime friend Mary Ann Caws and told the latter, when Caws prompted her why, Heilbrun responded, The universe. Afterward, she went home to her apartment, the next morning she was found dead, having taken sleeping pills and placed a plastic bag over her head. She left a note, which read, The journey is over. According to her son, she had been in health with no known physical or mental ailments. At the age of 68, she purchased a new home to use by herself and she held strong opinions on nearly every aspect of womens lives and believed that ending ones own life was a basic human right
Jacques Martin Barzun was a French-born American historian. Focusing on ideas and culture, he wrote about a range of subjects, including baseball, mystery novels. He was known as a philosopher of education, in the book Teacher in America, Barzun influenced the training of schoolteachers in the United States. He published more than forty books, was awarded the American Presidential Medal of Freedom, the historical retrospective From Dawn to Decadence,500 Years of Western Cultural Life,1500 to the Present, widely considered his magnum opus, was published when he was 93 years old. Jacques Martin Barzun was born in Créteil, France, to Henri-Martin and Anna-Rose Barzun and his father was a member of the Abbaye de Créteil group of artists and writers, and worked in the French Ministry of Labor. He obtained his Ph. D. from Columbia in 1932 and taught there from 1928 to 1955, becoming the Seth Low Professor of History. For years, he and literary critic Lionel Trilling conducted Columbias famous Great Books course and he was elected Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1954.
From 1955 to 1968, he served as Dean of the Graduate School, Dean of Faculties, from 1968 until his 1975 retirement, he was University Professor at Columbia. In 1936, Barzun married Mariana Lowell, a violinist from a prominent Boston family and they had three children, James and Isabel. In 1980, Barzun married Marguerite Lee Davenport, from 1996 the Barzuns lived in her hometown, San Antonio, Texas. His granddaughter Lucy Barzun Donnelly was a producer of the award-winning HBO film Grey Gardens and his grandson, Matthew Barzun, is a businessman who served from 2009-2011 as the U. S. Ambassador to Sweden, and in 2013 was appointed Ambassador to the United Kingdom. On May 14,2012 Jacques Barzun attended a performance in his honor at which works by his favorite composer. He attended in a wheelchair and delivered an address to the crowd. Barzun died peacefully at his home in San Antonio, Texas on October 25,2012, barzun’s eye roamed over the full spectrum of Western music, art and philosophy. Barzun had a strong interest in the tools and mechanics of writing and he undertook the task of completing, from a manuscript almost two-thirds of which was in first draft at the authors death, and editing, the first edition of Folletts Modern American Usage.
Barzun was the author of books on literary style, on the crafts of editing and publishing, and on methods in history. Barzun did not disdain popular culture, his interests included detective fiction. His widely quoted statement, Whoever wants to know the heart, was inscribed on a plaque at the Baseball Hall of Fame
This loose collective of friends and relatives lived, worked or studied together near Bloomsbury, during the first half of the 20th century. According to Ian Ousby, although its members denied being a group in any formal sense and their works and outlook deeply influenced literature, aesthetics and economics as well as modern attitudes towards feminism and sexuality. The male members of the Bloomsbury Group, except Duncan Grant, were educated at Cambridge at either Trinity or King’s College, most of them, except Clive Bell and the Stephen brothers, were members of the exclusive Cambridge society, the Apostles. In 1905 Vanessa began the Friday Club and Thoby ran Thursday Evenings, which became the basis for the Bloomsbury Group, thobys premature death in 1906 brought them more firmly together and they became what is now known as the Old Bloomsbury group who met in earnest beginning in 1912. In the 1920s and 1930s the group shifted when the members died. The Bloomsbury Group, mostly from upper middle-class professional families, formed part of an aristocracy which could trace itself back to the Clapham Sect.
It was a network of an influential group of artists, art critics, writers. A historical feature of these friends and relations is that their close relationships all pre-dated their fame as writers, except for Forster, who published three novels before the highly successful Howards End in 1910, the group were late developers. There were stable marriages and varied and complicated affairs among the individual members, Lytton Strachey and his cousin and lover Duncan Grant became close friends of the Stephen sisters, Vanessa Bell and Virginia Woolf. Duncan Grant had affairs with siblings Vanessa Bell and Adrian Stephen, as well as David Garnett, Maynard Keynes, Clive Bell married Vanessa in 1907, and Leonard Woolf returned from the Ceylon Civil Service to marry Virginia in 1912. Cambridge Apostle friendships brought into the group Desmond MacCarthy, his wife Molly, the group met not only in their homes in Bloomsbury, central London, but at countryside retreats. The Ascension Parish Burial Ground in Cambridge is the resting place of two of the Bloomsbury Group, Sir Desmond and Lady Molly McCarthy.
It houses nine other Apostles, including the philosopher G. E, who was a great influence on the Bloomsberries. S. Eliot, Katherine Mansfield, Hugh Walpole, another is Vita Sackville-West, who became Hogarth Presss best-selling author. Members cited in other lists might include Ottoline Morrell, or Dora Carrington, or James, through the Apostles they encountered the analytic philosophers G. E. Moore and Bertrand Russell who were revolutionizing British philosophy at the start of the 20th century. For Moore, intrinsic value depended on an intuition of good. For both Moore and Bloomsbury, the greatest ethic goods were the importance of relationships and the private life, as well as aesthetic appreciation. Bloomsbury reacted against current social rituals, the bourgeois habits, the conventions of Victorian life with their emphasis on public achievement, in favour of a more informal and private focus on personal relationships and individual pleasure