General Aviation represents the'private transport' and recreational flying component of aviation. General aviation is the name or term given to all civil aviation aircraft operations with the exception of commercial air transport or aerial work, they are flight activities not involving commercial air transportation of passengers, cargo or mail for remuneration or hire, or an aerial work operation such as agriculture, photography, surveying and patrol, search and rescue, aerial advertisement, etc. It covers certain commercial and private flights that can be carried out under both visual flight and instrument flight rules, such as light aircraft and private jets or helicopters. General aviation thus represents the'private transport' component of aviation; the International Civil Aviation Organization defines civil aviation aircraft operations in three categories: General Aviation, Aerial Work and Commercial Air Transport. The International Council of Aircraft Owner and Pilot Associations includes the following definitions for General Aviation aircraft activities: Corporate Aviation: Company own-use flight operations Fractional Ownership Operations: aircraft operated by a specialized company on behalf of two or more co-owners Business Aviation: self-flown for business purposes Personal/Private Travel: travel for personal reasons/personal transport Air Tourism: self-flown incoming/outgoing tourism Recreational Flying: powered/powerless leisure flying activities Air Sports: Aerobatics, Air Races, Rallies etc.
In 2003 the European Aviation Safety Agency was established as the central EU regulator, taking over responsibility for legislating airworthiness and environmental regulation from the national authorities. Of the 21,000 civil aircraft registered in the UK, 96 percent are engaged in GA operations, annually the GA fleet accounts for between 1.25 and 1.35 million hours flown. There are 28,000 Private Pilot Licence holders, 10,000 certified glider pilots; some of the 19,000 pilots who hold professional licences are engaged in GA activities. GA operates from more than 1,800 airports and landing sites or aerodromes, ranging in size from large regional airports to farm strips. GA is regulated by the Civil Aviation Authority, although regulatory powers are being transferred to the European Aviation Safety Agency; the main focus is on standards of airworthiness and pilot licensing, the objective is to promote high standards of safety. General aviation is popular in North America, with over 6,300 airports available for public use by pilots of general aviation aircraft.
In comparison, scheduled flights operate from around 560 airports in the U. S. According to the U. S. Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association, general aviation provides more than one percent of the United States' GDP, accounting for 1.3 million jobs in professional services and manufacturing. Most countries have authorities that oversee all civil aviation, including general aviation, adhering to the standardized codes of the International Civil Aviation Organization. Examples include the Federal Aviation Administration in the United States, the Civil Aviation Authority in the United Kingdom, Civil Aviation Authority of Zimbabwe in Zimbabwe, the Luftfahrt-Bundesamt in Germany, the Bundesamt für Zivilluftfahrt in Switzerland, Transport Canada in Canada, the Civil Aviation Safety Authority in Australia, the Directorate General of Civil Aviation in India and Iran Civil Aviation Organization in Iran. Aviation accident rate statistics are estimates. According to the U. S. National Transportation Safety Board, in 2005 general aviation in the United States suffered 1.31 fatal accidents for every 100,000 hours of flying in that country, compared to 0.016 for scheduled airline flights.
In Canada, recreational flying accounted for 0.7 fatal accidents for every 1000 aircraft, while air taxi accounted for 1.1 fatal accidents for every 100,000 hours. More experienced GA pilots appear safer, although the relations between flight hours, accident frequency, accident rates are complex and difficult to assess. Environmental impact of aviation List of current production certified light aircraftAssociationsAircraft Owners and Pilots Association Canadian Owners and Pilots Association Experimental Aircraft Association General Aviation Manufacturers Association National Business Aviation Association International Aircraft Owners and Pilots Associations European General Aviation Safety Team "No Plane No Gain" website about business aviation Save-GA.org website concerned with General Aviation in the United States "GA price index". Flight International. 13 Oct 1979
A hangar is a closed building structure to hold aircraft, or spacecraft. Hangars are built of metal and concrete; the word hangar comes from Middle French hanghart, of Germanic origin, from Frankish *haimgard, from *haim and gard. Hangars are used for protection from the weather, direct sunlight, repair, manufacture and storage of aircraft, aircraft carriers and ships; the Wright brothers stored and repaired their aircraft in a wooden hangar constructed in 1902 at Kill Devil Hills in North Carolina for their glider. After completing design and construction of the Wright Flyer in Ohio, the brothers returned to Kill Devil Hill only to find their hangar damaged, they repaired the structure and constructed a new workshop while they waited for the Flyer to be shipped. Carl Richard Nyberg used a hangar to store his 1908 Flugan in the early 20th century and in 1909, Louis Bleriot crash-landed on a northern French farm in Les Baraques and rolled his monoplane into the farmer's cattle pen. Bleriot was in a race to be the first man to cross the English Channel in a heavier-than-air aircraft and set up his headquarters in the unused shed.
In Britain, the earliest aircraft hangars were known as aeroplane sheds and the oldest survivors of these are at Larkhill, Wiltshire. These are now Grade II * Listed buildings. British aviation pioneer Alliott Verdon Roe built one of the first aeroplane sheds in 1907 at Brooklands and full-size replicas of this and the 1908 Roe biplane are on display at Brooklands Museum; as aviation became established in Britain before World War I, standard designs of hangar appeared with military types too such as the Bessonneau hangar and the side-opening aeroplane shed of 1913, both of which were soon adopted by the Royal Flying Corps. Examples of the latter survive at Farnborough and Montrose airfields. During World War I, other standard designs included the RFC General Service Flight Shed and the Admiralty F-Type of 1916, the General Service Shed and the Handley Page aeroplane shed. Airship hangars or airship sheds are larger than conventional aircraft hangars in height. Most early airships used hydrogen gas to provide them with sufficient buoyancy for flight, so their hangars had to provide protection from stray sparks to keep the gas from exploding.
Hangars that held several airships were at risk from chain-reaction explosions. For this reason, most hangars for hydrogen-based airships were built to house only one or two such craft. During the "Golden Age" of airship travel from 1900, mooring masts and sheds were constructed to build and house airships; the British government built a shed in Karachi for the R101, the Brazilian government built one in Rio de Janeiro, the pt:Hangar do Zeppelin for the German Zeppelins and the US government constructed Moffett Field, Akron and Lakehurst Naval Air Station, New Jersey. Sheds built for rigid airships survive at California. Steel rigid airship hangars are some of the largest in the world. Hangar 1, Lakehurst, is located at New Jersey; the structure was completed in 1921 and is typical of airship hangar designs of World War I. The site is best known for the Hindenburg disaster, when on May 6, 1937, the German airship Hindenburg crashed and burned while landing. Hangar No. 1 at Lakehurst was used to store the American USS Shenandoah.
The hangar provided service and storage for the airships USS Los Angeles, Macon, as well as the Graf Zeppelin and the Hindenburg. The largest hangars built include the Goodyear Airdock measuring 1,175x325x211 feet and Hangar One measuring 1,133 ft × 308 ft × 198 ft; the Goodyear Airdock, is in Akron and the structure was completed on November 25, 1929. The Airdock was used for her sister ship, the USS Macon. Hangar One at Moffett Federal Field, is located in California; the structure was completed in 1931. It housed the USS Macon; the US Navy established more airship operations during WWII. As part of this, ten "lighter-than-air" bases across the United States were built as part of the coastal defense plan. Hangars at these bases are some of the world's largest freestanding timber structures. Bases with wooden hangars included: the Naval Air Stations at Massachusetts. Of the seventeen, only seven remain, Moffett Federal Field, California. A hangar for Cargolifter was built at Brand-Briesen Airfield 1,180 ft long, 705 ft wide and 348 ft high and is a free standing steel-dome "barrel-bowl" construction large enough to fit the Eiffel Tower on its side.
The company went into insolvency and in June 2003, the facil
Canada Flight Supplement
The Canada Flight Supplement is a joint civil/military publication and is a supplement of the Aeronautical Information Publication. It is the nation's official airport directory, it contains information on all registered Canadian and certain Atlantic aerodromes and certified airports. The CFS is published, separately in English and French, as a paper book by Nav Canada and is issued once every 56 days on the ICAO AIRAC schedule; the CFS was published by Natural Resources Canada on behalf of Transport Canada and the Department of National Defence until 15 March 2007 edition, at which time Nav Canada took over production. The CFS presents runway data and departure procedures, air traffic control and other radio frequencies and services such as fuel, hangarage that are available at each listed aerodrome; as well, the CFS contains useful reference pages, including interception instructions for civil aircraft, chart updating data and search and rescue information. Most pilots flying in Canada carry a copy of the CFS in case a weather or mechanical diversion to another airport becomes necessary.
The Canada Flight Supplement is made up of seven sections: Special Notices — list of new or amended procedures. General Section — glossary, airport code listing, list of abandoned aerodromes, other introductory information. Aerodrome/Facility Directory — list all aerodromes alphabetically by the community in which they are located. A sketch of the airport is included showing runway layout, locations of buildings and tower. Included in the sketch is an obstacle clearance circle. Planning — general flight planning information, including flight plans and position reports, lists of significant new towers and other obstructions, chart updating, preferred IFR routes, similar information. Radio Navigation and Communications — listing of radio navigation aids and communication outlets, together with all known commercial AM broadcasters and their locations and frequencies. Military Flight Data and Procedures — military flight and reporting procedures for Canada and the U. S. Emergency — emergency procedures and guidelines for hijacks, fuel dumping and rescue, etc.
Carrying "current aeronautical charts and publications covering the route of the proposed flight and any probable diversionary route" is a requirement under CAR 602.60 for night VFR, VFR Over-The-Top and instrument flight rules flights. This Canadian Aviation Regulation does not require carriage of a copy of the CFS, but, one way to satisfy the regulation; because information in the CFS may be out of date with regard to such issues as runway closures and fuel availability, pilots should check NOTAMs before each flight. NOTAM information in Canada can be obtained from the Nav Canada Aviation Weather Website or by contacting the appropriate regional Nav Canada Flight Information Centre. While Nav Canada's CFS has the monopoly on paper-version airport directories in Canada, there are several competing internet publications, including the Canadian Owners and Pilots Association's Places to Fly user-editable airport directory. Nav Canada publishes the Water Aerodrome Supplement, as a single volume in English and French.
This contains information on all Canadian water aerodromes as shown on visual flight rules charts and other information such as navaids. The WAS is published on an annual basis. Airport/Facility Directory – U. S. publications equivalent to the Aerodrome/Facility and Planning chapters of the CFS, but divided into several volumes covering different regions. Official website
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
British Commonwealth Air Training Plan
The British Commonwealth Air Training Plan, or Empire Air Training Scheme referred to as "The Plan", was a massive, joint military aircrew training program created by the United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand, during the Second World War. BCATP remains as one of the single largest aviation training programs in history and was responsible for training nearly half the pilots, bomb aimers, air gunners, wireless operators and flight engineers who served with the Royal Air Force, Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm, Royal Australian Air Force, Royal Canadian Air Force and Royal New Zealand Air Force during the war. Under a parallel agreement, the Joint Air Training Scheme, South Africa trained 33,347 aircrew for the South African Air Force and other Allied air forces; this number was exceeded only by Canada. Students from many other countries attended schools under these plans, including Argentina, Ceylon, Denmark, Fiji, Greece, the Netherlands, Norway and the United States, where the similar Civilian Pilot Training Program was underway by the end of 1938.
The United Kingdom was considered an unsuitable location for air training, due to the possibility of enemy attack, the strain caused by wartime traffic at airfields and the unpredictable weather, so the plan called for the facilities in the Dominions to train British and each other's aircrews. Negotiations regarding joint training, between the four governments concerned, took place in Ottawa during the first few months of the war. On 17 December 1939, they signed the Air Training Agreement – referred to as the "Riverdale Agreement", after the UK representative at the negotiations, Lord Riverdale; the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan was viewed as an ambitious programme. The 1939 agreement stated that the training was to be similar to that of the RAF: three initial training schools, thirteen elementary flying training schools, sixteen service flying training schools, ten air observer schools, ten bombing and gunnery schools, two air navigation schools and four wireless schools were to be created.
The agreement called for the training of nearly 50,000 aircrew each year, for as long as necessary: 22,000 aircrew from Great Britain, 13,000 from Canada, 11,000 from Australia and 3,300 from New Zealand. Under the agreement, air crews received elementary training in various Commonwealth countries before travelling to Canada for advanced courses. Training costs were to be divided between the four governments. Article XV of the agreement stipulated that graduates belonging to Dominion air forces, where they were assigned to service with the RAF, should be placed in new squadrons identified with the RAAF, RCAF and RNZAF; these units became known as "Article XV squadrons". Articles XVI and XVII stipulated that the UK government would be wholly responsible for the pay and entitlements of graduates, once they were placed with RAF or Article XV units; some pre-war/regular RAAF and RCAF squadrons served under RAF operational control, while New Zealand and Rhodesian personnel were assigned to RAF squadrons with the honorifics of "" and "" in their names.
However, in practice – and technically in contravention of Article XV – most personnel from other Commonwealth countries, while they were under RAF operational control, were assigned to British units. On 29 April 1940, the first Canadian training course commenced, with 221 recruits, at No. 1 Initial Training School RCAF, located at the Eglinton Hunt Club, Toronto. From this intake, 39 received their wings as aircrew on 30 September 1940. All of these graduates, were retained by the BCATP in Canada, as instructors, staff pilots or in similar flying assignments; the first BCATP personnel sent to the UK were 37 Canadian observers, who received their wings at RCAF Trenton, near Trenton, Ontario, on 27 October 1940. The first BCATP-trained pilots posted to Europe as a group were 37 RAAF personnel who graduated in November 1941, from No. 2 Service Flying Training School, RCAF Uplands, Ottawa. Prior to the inception of the Empire Air Training Scheme, the RAAF trained only about 50 pilots per year. Under the Air Training Agreement, Australia undertook to provide 28,000 aircrew over three years, representing 36% of the total number trained by the BCATP.
By 1945, more than 37,500 Australian aircrew had been trained in Australia. During 1940, Royal Australian Air Force schools were established across Australia to support EATS in Initial Training, Elementary Flying Training, Service Flying Training, Air Navigation, Air Observer and Gunnery and Wireless Air Gunnery; the first flying course started on 29 April 1940. Keith Chisholm was the first Australian to be trained under EATS. For a period, most RAAF aircrews received advanced training in Canada. During mid-1940, some RAAF trainees began to receive advanced training at RAF facilities in Southern Rhodesia. On 14 November 1940, the first contingent to graduate from advanced training in Canada embarked for Britain, Following the outbreak of the Pacific War in December 1941, the majority of RAAF aircrews completed their training in Australia and served with RAAF units in the South West Pacific Theatre. In addition, an increasing number of Australian personnel were transferred from Europe and the Mediterranean to RAF squadrons in the South East Asian Theatre.
Some Article XV squadrons were transferred to RAAF or RAF formations involved in the Pacific War. A significa
Carp is a compact rural community in West Carleton-March Ward in the City of Ottawa, Canada, located in the northwestern portion of the municipality on the Carp River. It is about 33 km from downtown Ottawa. Prior to amalgamation in 2001, Carp was located in the West Carleton Township. Carp is located in the Carleton—Mississippi Mills electoral riding. According to the Canada 2011 Census, 1,965 people lived in the area around Carp By 1866, Carp was a post village with a population of 200 of the Township of Huntley on the Carp river, 32 km from Ottawa; the village contained three stores, three hotels, a town hall. The Loyal Orange Lodge, No. 439, met at the Orange Hall Carp on the first Wednesday in each month. Citizens included general merchant and postmaster; the village takes its name from the Carp River. The main street was a section of the Trans-Canada Highway and carried much of the traffic coming from the west into Ottawa; however the village has been bypassed with the development of the Highway 417.
With the amalgamation of municipal governments in the region in 2001, Carp is now governed as part of the new city of Ottawa. Carp is used as a mailing address for most of the former Huntley Township; as such, residents of this large area will identify themselves as living in Carp although they may live large distances from the village proper. Carp's main attraction is the Diefenbunker, Canada's Cold War museum just north of the village, was featured in the film The Sum of All Fears; this former top-secret underground bunker was built to house key members of the government in the event of a nuclear attack on Ottawa. In 1960, NATO and the Canadian Department of National Defence built a satellite communications station which supports a 68 ft diameter metal space frame radar dome on its roof, which provides environmental protection for the 50 ft diameter SATCOM antenna it houses; until 1999 when NATO and DND decommissioned the site, the antenna provided satellite communications between all NATO countries.
In 1999, it was purchased by Canadian Space Services Ltd. to serve as its corporate headquarters. The Carleton Masonic Lodge #465, a turn of the century church building has been the Masonic Lodge in the Village of Carp since 1925; the building features original stained glass windows and is decorated with beautiful oak furniture, located in a World War I Military Masonic Lodge in France. The original Masonic lodge building, which dates to 1904 was destroyed by fire in 1920. Carp was the site of an alleged 1989 UFO landing, it has been called "One of the most significant cases in UFO history." Someone dubbed'Guardian' filmed the entire UFO crash. The American TV show Unsolved Mysteries filmed an episode on Guardian in 1993. There are three schools in the Carp area: Huntley Centennial Public School, St. Michael's, Venta, a private school which abruptly closed in late 2017 after the death of its founder; the Carp Airport is just south of the village. Carp has a junior ice hockey team called the West Carleton Inferno.
With the closure of Ottawa SuperEX in 2011, the Carp Fair is the only fall fair close to Ottawa and established in 1863. The Carp Exhibit Hall, one of the few remaining octagonal frame fairground buildings in Ontario, continues to function as the main fairground hall for the Carp Fair held in September each year since 1880. During the remainder of the year, the buildings and grounds serve the popular Carp Farmers' Market held each Saturday from May to October; the red-painted Exhibit Hall with white trim, which remains a focal point in Carp was included amongst other architecturally interesting and significant buildings in Doors Open Ottawa, held June 2 and 3, 2012. This Carp River got its name due to the overwhelming amount of the carp fish. In the early 19th century, the river was overrun with the fish because farmers used to throw all of their dead animals in it. Conversely, in "Carleton Saga" by Harry and Olive Walker, the over-abundant fish is said by early French explorers to be suckers and mud-pout, that in French translate as carpe.
Huntley Community Association website Official website of the annual Carp Fair History of Carp at the Farmers' Market website Huntley Centennial School Council website Website to preserve Carp's historic village character Guide to the Village of Carp Birth and Death Notices from The Carp Review & Carleton County Advertiser 1905-1950