Carpal tunnel syndrome is a medical condition due to compression of the median nerve as it travels through the wrist at the carpal tunnel. The main symptoms are pain and tingling in the thumb, index finger, middle finger and the thumb side of the ring finger. Symptoms start and during the night. Pain may extend up the arm. Weak grip strength may occur, after a long period of time the muscles at the base of the thumb may waste away. In more than half of cases, both hands are affected. Risk factors include obesity, repetitive wrist work, pregnancy and rheumatoid arthritis. There is tentative evidence. Diabetes mellitus is weakly associated with CTS; the use of birth control pills does not affect the risk. Types of work that are associated include computer work, work with vibrating tools and work that requires a strong grip. Diagnosis is suspected based on signs and specific physical tests and may be confirmed with electrodiagnostic tests. If muscle wasting at the base of the thumb is present, the diagnosis is likely.
Being physically active can decrease the risk of developing CTS. Symptoms can be improved with corticosteroid injections. Taking NSAIDs or gabapentin does not appear to be useful. Surgery to cut the transverse carpal ligament is effective with better results at a year compared to non-surgical options. Further splinting after surgery is not needed. Evidence does not support magnet therapy. About 5% of people in the United States have carpal tunnel syndrome, it begins in adulthood, women are more affected than men. Up to 33% of people may improve without specific treatment over a year. Carpal tunnel syndrome was first described after World War II. People with CTS experience numbness, tingling, or burning sensations in the thumb and fingers, in particular the index and middle fingers and radial half of the ring finger, because these receive their sensory and motor function from the median nerve. Ache and discomfort can be felt more proximally in the forearm or the upper arm. Less-specific symptoms may include pain in the wrists or hands, loss of grip strength, loss of manual dexterity.
Some suggest that median nerve symptoms can arise from compression at the level of the thoracic outlet or the area where the median nerve passes between the two heads of the pronator teres in the forearm, although this is debated. Numbness and paresthesias in the median nerve distribution are the hallmark neuropathic symptoms of carpal tunnel entrapment syndrome. Weakness and atrophy of the thumb muscles may occur if the condition remains untreated, because the muscles are not receiving sufficient nerve stimulation. Discomfort is worse at night and in the morning. Most cases of CTS are of unknown cause. Risk factors include obesity, repetitive wrist work, pregnancy and rheumatoid arthritis. There is tentative evidence. Diabetes mellitus is weakly associated with CTS; the use of birth control pills does not affect the risk. Types of work that are associated include computer work, work with vibrating tools and work that requires a strong grip. Trauma may place a role, as may genetics. Carpal tunnel is a feature of a form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome type 1 called hereditary neuropathy with susceptibility to pressure palsies.
Other causes of this condition include intrinsic factors that exert pressure within the tunnel, extrinsic factors, which include benign tumors such as lipomas and vascular malformation. Severe carpal tunnel syndrome is a symptom of transthyretin amyloidosis-associated polyneuropathy and prior carpal tunnel syndrome surgery is common in individuals who present with transthyretin amyloid-associated cardiomyopathy, suggesting that transthyretin amyloid deposition may cause carpal tunnel syndrome in these people; the median nerve can move up to 9.6 mm to allow the wrist to flex, to a lesser extent during extension. Long-term compression of the median nerve can inhibit nerve gliding, which may lead to injury and scarring; when scarring occurs, the nerve will adhere to the tissue around it and become locked into a fixed position, so that less movement is apparent. Normal pressure of the carpal tunnel has been defined as a range of 2–10 mm, wrist flexion increases this pressure 8-fold, while extension increases it 10-fold.
Repetitive flexion and extension in the wrist increase the fluid pressure in the tunnel through thickening of the synovial tissue that lines the tendons within the carpal tunnel. Genetic factors are believed to be the most important determinants of who develops carpal tunnel syndrome. A genome-wide association study of carpal tunnel syndrome identified 16 genomic loci associated with the disease, including several loci known to be associated with human height; the international debate regarding the relationship between CTS and repetitive motion in work is ongoing. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration has adopted rules and regulations regarding cumulative trauma disorders. Occupational risk factors of repetitive tasks, force and vibration have been cited; the relationship between work and CTS is controversial. Some speculate that carpal tunnel syndrome is provoked by repetitive movement and manipulating activities and that the exposure can be cumulative, it has been stated that symptoms are exacerbated by forceful and repetitive use of the hand and wrists in industrial occupations, but it is unclear as to whether this ref
The 10th Glover Trophy was a motor race, run to Formula One rules, held on 23 April 1962 at Goodwood Circuit, England. The race was run over 42 laps of the circuit, was won by British driver Graham Hill in a BRM P57; this race was held directly on the same day at the same circuit. Bruce McLaren, who had won the Lavant Cup, finished second in this race. Another Formula One race, the 1962 Pau Grand Prix, was held on the same day; this event was notable for the serious accident suffered by Stirling Moss, which ended his racing career. "The Grand Prix Who's Who", Steve Small, 1995. "The Formula One Record Book", John Thompson, 1974
The Millennium Gallery is an art gallery and museum in the centre of Sheffield, England. Opened in April 2001 as part of Sheffield's Heart of the City project, it is located in the city centre close to the mainline station, the Central Library and Graves Art Gallery, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield Theatres. Designed by architects Pringle Richards Sharratt, the building is made from concrete and glass, with a series of galleries extending from a central avenue, which connects Arundel Gate with Sheffield Winter Garden. In 2011, the gallery was listed as the 15th most-visited free attraction in the country by Visit England, it is managed by Museums Sheffield. The gallery has two permanent collections, two temporary exhibition spaces, space for corporate events and weddings, a cafe and shop. Eminent Victorian scholar John Ruskin established a collection of material he hoped would inspire Sheffield's workforce at the newly founded St George's Museum, Sheffield in 1875; the collection of watercolours, prints, plaster casts, illustrated books and coins is owned by the Guild of St George and managed by Museums Sheffield at the Millennium Gallery.
The gallery displaying it was refurbished in 2011, to allow more frequent rotation of items from the collection, too large and fragile to display at any one time. Sheffield's metalwork collection comprises more than 13,000 objects and has been awarded Designated Collection status by DCMS, signifying a'pre-eminent collection of national and international importance held in England's non-national museums'; the collection includes what is the most extensive grouping of Sheffield-made cutlery and holloware in existence and was amassed as a reference collection. The Craft & Design gallery is a temporary exhibition space intended to build on the tradition of the Ruskin and Metalwork collections in providing creative inspiration through examples of excellence. Following the theme of historic and contemporary craft and design, recent exhibitions have included Kill Your Darlings by Kid Acne and Graphic Nature in 2011, Under the Sea in 2012, Designed to Shine in 2013, marking the 100th anniversary of the discovery of stainless steel in Sheffield.
The special exhibition space is the largest in Sheffield and was designed to accommodate major touring exhibitions from national partners such as the V&A and Tate. Major exhibitions in recent years include Vivienne Westwood: the Exhibition in 2008, Watercolour in Britain and Restless Times in 2010, John Martin: Painting the Apocalypse in 2011, The Family in British Art and Paul Morrison: Auctorum in 2012 and Force of Nature: Picturing Ruskin's Landscape in 2013. Official Website
Newton Diehl Baker Jr. was an American lawyer, Georgist and government official. He served as the 37th mayor of Cleveland, Ohio from 1912 to 1915; as U. S. Secretary of War from 1916 to 1921, Baker presided over the United States Army during World War I. Born in Martinsburg, West Virginia, Baker established a legal practice in Cleveland after graduating from Washington and Lee University School of Law, he became progressive Democratic ally of Mayor Tom L. Johnson. Baker served as city solicitor of Cleveland from 1901 to 1909 before taking office as mayor in 1912; as mayor, he sought public transit reform, hospital improvement, city beautification. Baker supported Woodrow Wilson at the 1912 Democratic National Convention, helping Wilson win the votes of the Ohio delegation. After leaving office, Baker accepted appointment as Secretary of War under President Wilson, he was one of several prominent Georgists appointed to positions in the Wilson Cabinet. Baker presided over the U. S. military's participation in World War I.
He selected General John J. Pershing to command the American Expeditionary Forces, which he insisted act as an independent unit, he returned to BakerHostetler, the legal practice he co-founded. He served as an attorney in Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co. a landmark case that established the constitutionality of zoning laws. He was a strong supporter of the League of Nations and continued to advocate American participation in the League during the 1920s. Beginning in 1928, he served as a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration, he was a candidate for the presidential nomination at the 1932 Democratic National Convention, but the convention chose Franklin D. Roosevelt. Newton Diehl Baker was born on December 3, 1871, in Martinsburg, West Virginia, the son of Newton Diehl Baker Sr. and Mary Ann Baker. Baker's grandfather, Elias Baker, was a staunch unionist, his father, on the contrary, joined the Confederate Army, served as a cavalryman, was wounded and became a northern prisoner of war.
After returning home in 1865, he obtained a medical degree from the University of Maryland Medical School and worked as a physician in Martinsburg until his death in 1906. Baker attended the village schools in Martinsburg through his second year in high school and finished his preparatory training at Episcopal High School in Alexandria, Virginia. In 1892, Baker graduated with bachelor's degree from Johns Hopkins University, where he was a member of Phi Gamma Delta fraternity, he attended lectures of Woodrow Wilson, a visiting professor at the time. After receiving his law degree from Washington and Lee University School of Law in 1894, he tried for a year to establish law practice in Martinsburg, became private secretary to Postmaster General William L. Wilson, who served in the Confederate cavalry with Baker's father, he stayed in Washington, D. C. until June 1897 took a vacation in Europe, returned to Martinsburg. In January 1899, he became a junior partner at McTigne and Baker in Cleveland.
Baker was thin. He was rejected for military service in the Spanish–American War because of poor eyesight; when Baker moved to Cleveland, his political sympathies belonged to the Democratic Party. He became involved in local politics, he helped the Democratic candidate Tom L. Johnson to become the mayor of Cleveland, under his mentorship started his own public career. Johnson was a passionate advocate of Georgist political progressivism. Baker became exposed to Johnson's politics and became a Georgist, he assisted Johnson in his fights against city's utility monopolies, e.g. Cleveland Electric Railway Company owned by Mark Hanna, which made Baker popular among Clevelanders. After serving as city solicitor from 1901 to 1909, he became mayor of the city in 1911; as a city official, Baker's main interests were providing Cleveland with electricity, public transit reform, hospital improvement, city beautification. He was a strong backer of Cleveland College, now a part of Case Western Reserve University.
His crowning achievement as a mayor was the passage of the home rule amendment to the Ohio's constitution, approved by voters in 1912. It granted Cleveland a right to draw its own charter and conduct the city business without state interference; when Baker worked on Wilson's behalf at the Democratic National Convention in Baltimore in 1912, he was considered as a possible vice-presidential contender. He and Wilson had been acquaintances since they were both at Johns Hopkins in the 1890s, Baker played a vital role during Wilson's Democratic nomination for president at the convention by securing votes from Ohio delegates. Wilson wanted to bring him to Washington D. C. Though offered the post twice, Baker declined to serve as United States Secretary of the Interior during President Wilson's first term. In 1916, following his tenure as mayor of Cleveland and two other partners founded the law firm of Baker Hostetler; as the United States considered whether to enter World War I, President Woodrow Wilson named Baker Secretary of War, because Baker was acceptable to advocates and opponents of American participation in the conflict.
The post required legal expertise because of the War Department's role in administering the Philippines, the Panama Canal, Puerto Rico. The New York Times called him a "warm supporter" of the President. At 44, he was the youngest member of the Cabinet. One historian described his relationship to the military: A civilian's civilian, Baker saw the military as a necessity, but he had no awe of people in uniform, no romantic fe
Stephanie O'Dea is an American blogger, New York Times best-selling author and food writer, best known for slow cooking and mommy blogging. She is seen on Good Morning America and The Rachael Ray Show. A native of the San Francisco Bay Area, O'Dea graduated in 1999 in English literature from San Francisco State University. Soon afterwards, she have three children, she started her career as a director in preschool centers at the Family Service Agency, for at-risk children. She held that position up until 2003, before getting an opportunity to write a newspaper column called Steph and Sensibility for The Tracy Press. In 2007, she was seeking work from home opportunities to focus on her children and started working remotely as a headline editor for BlogHer.com and Bay Area Parent magazine. While editing blog posts for these companies, she thought to start her own blog on slow cooking recipes, she founded and continues to operate the blog, AYearofSlowCooking.com crockpot365.blogspot.com. She continued to work for Bay Area Parent magazine and as a headline editor for BlogHer.com until 2010, before focusing on her websites and writing.
O'Dea saw success with the launch of her first book Make It Fast, Cook It Slow: The Big Book of Everyday Slow Cooking in October, 2009. The cookbook was listed for six weeks on The New York Times best-seller list. In 2012, her website, A Year of Slow Cooking, landed the number three spot on the most influential Food Blog by Cision, she has been featured in Real Simple magazine, Woman's World, Oprah.com, ABC.com. O'Dea is the founder of The Gluten Free Search Engine. In 2010, she was featured in the Ninja Cooking System infomercial as a slow cooking expert. 2009. Make It Fast, Cook It Slow: The Big Book of Everyday Slow Cooking. Hachette U. p. 48. ISBN 1401394825. Together: Shortcuts to an Organized Life. Berkley Books. 2011. P. 171. ISBN 0425241629. More Make It Fast, Cook It Slow: 200 Brand-New, Budget-Friendly, Slow-Cooker Recipes. Hachette UK. 2010. P. 320. ISBN 1401396488. 365 Slow Cooker Suppers. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2013. P. 336. ISBN 1118230817. Real Moms Making Real Money Blogging At Home In Their Pajamas.
CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. P. 112. ISBN 1505696526. Going Gluten Free Without Going Crazy: Surviving and Thriving Gluten-Free. P. 38. ASIN B00XKLD0PI. Five Ingredients or Less Slow Cooker Cookbook. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2015. ISBN 0544284224. Official website Personal website
Our Lady's Catholic College is a mixed sex secondary school for pupils aged 11–18. It is located in Lancaster in the North West of England. Our Lady's Catholic High School, its name changed after being awarded Specialist Sports College status in September 2003. Our Lady's Catholic College offers its sixth form courses as part of the North Lancashire Learning Partnership, which includes Carnforth High School, Central Lancaster High School and Heysham High School; as of September 2015, the head teacher is a former pupil of the school. She took over from Brendan Conboy, who retired in July 2015, he took over at Our Lady's in September 2007. On 22 June 2012, the Olympic Flame passed through the college as part of the Olympic Torch Relays of 2012. OFSTED Inspection Report, October 2002 Our Lady's Catholic College website