A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
Tioga is a town in Grayson County, United States. The population was 803 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Sherman–Denison Metropolitan Statistical Area. The town was named for the Tioga Indian tribe of New York. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.2 square miles, of which, 1.2 square miles of it is land and 0.81% is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 754 people, 291 households, 197 families residing in the town; the population density was 611.7 people per square mile. There were 314 housing units at an average density of 254.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 93.90% White, 0.40% African American, 0.27% Native American, 1.19% Asian, 2.39% from other races, 1.86% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13.13% of the population. There were 291 households out of which 32.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.7% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.0% were non-families.
25.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.19. In the town, the population was spread out with 26.3% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 32.1% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, 12.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.4 males. The median income for a household in the town was $37,153, the median income for a family was $44,688. Males had a median income of $29,200 versus $27,778 for females; the per capita income for the town was $17,373. About 5.0% of families and 6.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.9% of those under age 18 and 14.0% of those age 65 or over. The Tioga Independent School District serves local students; until the 2012-2013 school year, the district served students in grades Pre-Kindergarten through eight.
During the 2012-2013 school year, the district began phasing in a high school curriculum, beginning with the 9th grade and adding one grade each of the following years, until the 2015-2016 school year when the school had its first graduating class. Gene Autry, movie star known as the "Singing Cowboy". Randy Travis, country music singer. Olan R. Van Zandt, blind Representative and Congressman in the Texas Legislature
Texas Historical Commission
The Texas Historical Commission is an agency dedicated to historic preservation within the state of Texas. It administers the National Register of Historic Places for sites in Texas; the commission identifies Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks and recognizes them with Official Texas Historical Marker medallions and descriptive plaques. The commission identifies Historic Texas Cemeteries. A quarterly publication, The Medallion, is published by the agency and includes news and advice about preservation projects, Texas’ historic sites, heritage tourism opportunities; the agency maintains the online Texas Historic Sites Atlas featuring more than 300,000 site records, including data on Official Texas Historical Markers and National Register of Historic Places properties in Texas. The commission has main offices in the Capitol Complex in downtown Austin. Established in 1953, the state legislature created the Texas State Historical Survey Committee to oversee state historical programs; the legislature revised the agency’s enabling statute to give it additional protective powers, expand its leadership role and educational responsibilities, changed its name to the Texas Historical Commission.
In 2007, the legislature transferred management of 20 state historic sites from the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department to the THC. Today, the agency employs about 200 personnel; the Texas Historical Commission leadership is composed of 18 members appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the senate, serving overlapping six-year terms. All members must be citizens of Texas, together represent all geographical areas of Texas; the commission employs personnel in various fields, including archeology, economic development, heritage tourism, public administration and urban planning. These personnel consult with citizens and organizations to preserve Texas's architectural and cultural landmarks of balls and vagains The agency includes the following divisions dedicated to overseeing the agency's programs: Administration Architecture Community Heritage Development Historic Sites History Programs Public Information and Education Staff ServicesThere are several boards associated with the Texas Historical Commission: The State Board of Review The Antiquities Advisory Board The Guardians of Texas Preservation Trust Fund The Advisory Board of the Texas Preservation Trust Fund The Main Street Interagency Council The Texas Historical Commission administers this statewide heritage tourism program.
This program is based in the ten scenic driving regions that Texas Department of Transportation and Gov. John Connally designated in 1968 in connection with the World's fair in San Antonio, called HemisFair'68. After the fair, these trails were all but forgotten; the Texas Historical Commission began its program based on these historical designations in 1998, starting with the Texas Forts Trail. The goal of the program is to promote historic preservation; the THC divides Texas into 10 heritage regions: Texas Brazos Trail Texas Forest Trail Texas Forts Trail Texas Hill Country Trail Texas Independence Trail Texas Lakes Trail Texas Mountain Trail Texas Pecos Trail Texas Plains Trail Texas Tropical TrailIn 2005 the Heritage Trails Program won the Preserve America Presidential Award for exemplary accomplishment in the preservation and sustainable use of America's heritage assets, which has enhanced community life while honoring the nation's history. The Texas Historical Commission operates 22 state historic sites across Texas.
These unique places inspire an understanding of what it means to be a Texan. From American Indian sites to frontier forts to common and elegant homes and the leaders and statesmen who lived in them, these sites enrich people’s lives through history. Fort Griffin is home to the official State of Texas Longhorn Herd. Sponsors may apply for official historical markers through their county historical commissions; the purpose of the markers, which are available in a variety of types and sizes, is to educate the public. An application must meet certain requirements to be approved by the THC commissioners as qualifying for a marker. Beginning in November 2006, the Texas Historical Commission adopted a new marker program; the following are some of the major changes to the program: All applications are to be submitted electronically There is now an annual application deadline An application fee is required The inscription process has been reworkedAs of 2007, there are over 13,000 Official Texas Historical Markers placed throughout the state.
Texas has the most prolific state historical marker program in the United States. One of the devotees of the expanded historical marker program was Rupert N. Richardson, the Texas historian who served as a THC member from 1953–1967 and was from 1943-1953 the president of Hardin-Simmons University in Abilene; the Historical Markers have been manufactured by The Southwell Company, located in San Antonio, Texas. In 1936 the company was awarded the contract to manufacture all of the bronze historical markers for the Texas Centennial. Since thousands of cast aluminum historical markers have been provided for the State of Texas. In 1976, the company was selected to manufacture all of the historical markers for the Bicentennial. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark is the highest designation given by the Texas Historic Commission for significant structures in Texas; the THC may designate certain locations as State Antiquities Landmarks provided that they are not located on federal lands. These locations may fall i
Preston known as Preston Bend, is an unincorporated community and census-designated place located on the Red River in Grayson County, United States. It grew in the 19th century at the intersection of several military and trade roads and was an important crossing on the Shawnee cattle trail. Preston lost prominence after the MK&T railroad passed the town to the east, leading to a decline in traveler and cattle drive traffic. Much of its former town site is submerged beneath the waters of Lake Texoma, its population was 2,096 as of the 2010 census. Before European settlement the general area of Preston had been occupied by the Caddo people, with the Comanche and Kiowa farther to the west. One of the first American settlers in the area was John Hart, who cultivated land at the bend in the Red River before 1826, he left the area just after 1830 after being attacked by Indians during a trapping expedition on the Washita River. During the 1830s the United States relocated the Five Civilized Tribes from the Southeastern United States to the Indian Territory, on the north side of the Red River.
As the first official United States expedition to the area, the Dodge-Leavenworth Expedition explored the region in 1834. Above Preston on the Red River Leavenworth Camp, situated just west of the mouth of the Washita River, was a base for this expedition. George Catlin made some of his famous Indian paintings from this camp. In the fall of 1838 John Hart returned to the Washita Bend area with two partners, they built three cabins. In 1838 the partnership dissolved and Hart took sole possession of the land, he leased the land to a tenant. Holland Coffee and Silas Cheek Colville created Coffee and Company to establish a trading post on the Red River. After establishing three trading posts upstream, they established one in the Washita Bend, they occupied the area of Washita Bend. Hart sued Coffee for the land, but lost. In 1837 Holland Coffee had been elected to the Texas legislature and negotiated a peace treaty between the Republic of Texas and the Waco, Tawakoni and Towash people on September 2, 1838, at a Shawnee village near the mouth of the Washita River.
The town of Preston grew up around the trading post established by Colville. The Trading Post of Holland Coffee site received a historic marker in 1936. Preston developed at the junction between the Indian Territory's Texas Road, leading north to Missouri, what became the Preston Road, leading south farther into Texas. Following a much older trail used by Native Americans for centuries, in 1840-1841 Colonel William Gordon Cooke created the military road from Coffee's trading house on the Red River to Austin; the Preston Road was 100 miles long, from Preston to the Trinity River at Dallas. The Republic of Texas commissioned Colonel Cooke to make a supply post in the area, known as Fort Preston after Captain William Gilwater Preston, a member of the military road expedition of 1840-1841. There is some doubt that the town was named after him, the origin of the name of the town is obscure. In 1840 Cooke was in charge of a company of men there. Coffee and other settlers were thinking about leaving the area.
The village around Fort Preston grew up to be known as Texas. Fort Preston was established 80 yards west of the eastern bend in the river, on a bluff about 40 to 50 feet above the river; some of the buildings at Fort Preston were made of bricks made in the area. The United States Army operated a depot to supply the Fifth Infantry from here; the Army depot operated from 1851 to 1853. The Preston Supply Depot was under the command of Lt. Thomas C. English and by Bvt. Maj. W. F. Wood. Albert Sidney Johnston and the Second Cavalry came through Preston in 1855; when Holland Coffee married Sophia Suttonfield Aughinbaugh in 1839 they resided at his trading post in a 100-foot square log stockade on the Red River. The stockade enclosed several cabins. In 1843 Coffee began building Glen Eden as a proper house for his wife 2 miles west of his trading post, it was completed in 1845. Holland Coffee was killed on October 1, 1846. Sophia married several more times, Glen Eden became the most famous residence in the area.
Preston developed in the area around Coffee's trading house and was a considerable town in 1845 when William H. Hunt completed its town plat survey; the municipal government was established in 1851 with Tom Jackson as the first mayor. Preston's Masonic lodge was established in 1852. A United States post office was established in 1856, a post office operated from 1880 to 1914. Preston had general stores and at least one blacksmith shop; as the cattle business developed in Texas and cattle trails to processing facilities in Kansas became necessary, the Shawnee Trail developed through the Preston area. The crossing had been an important wagon crossing before 1850, with over 1,000 wagons crossing there in a year. Log raft ferry service was available at the trading post in 1839.6 miles west of Colberts was Thompson's Ferry, run by James George Thompson, first chief justice in Grayson County. Thompson's home became the first post courthouse in the county. Holland Coffee, George Butts, Slone Love operated ferries in the area.
Rock Bluff Ferry operated near the mouth of the Washita River close to Preston. In the late 1830s James Tyson operated the ferry at the rock bluff, his ferry was little more than a log raft. Two partners owned this ferry, Jim Shannon and Bud Randolph. In about 1853 Ben Colbert opened up his ferry downstream to cash in on the California gold rush. Preston was located on one branch of the California Trail, where it crossed into Tex
Texas and Pacific Railway
The Texas and Pacific Railway Company was created by federal charter in 1871 with the purpose of building a southern transcontinental railroad between Marshall and San Diego, California. The T&P had a significant foothold in Texas by the mid-1880s. Construction difficulties delayed westward progress, until American financier Jay Gould acquired an interest in the railroad in 1879; the T&P never reached San Diego. The Missouri Pacific Railroad controlled by Gould, leased the T&P from 1881 to 1885 and continued a cooperative relationship with the T&P after the lease ended. Missouri Pacific gained majority ownership of the Texas and Pacific Railway's stock in 1928 but allowed it to continue operation as a separate entity until they were merged on October 15, 1976. On January 8, 1980, the Missouri Pacific Railroad was purchased by the Union Pacific Railroad; because of lawsuits filed by competing railroads, the merger was not approved until September 13, 1982. However, due to outstanding bonds of the Missouri Pacific, the actual merger with the Union Pacific Railroad took place on January 1, 1997.
Several reminders of the Texas and Pacific remain to this day two towering buildings which help define the southern side of Fort Worth's skyline—the original station and office tower and a warehouse located to the west. In 2001, the passenger platforms at the T&P station were put into use for the first time in decades as the westernmost terminus for the Trinity Railway Express, a commuter rail line connecting Fort Worth and Dallas; the warehouse still exists. The passenger terminal and corporate offices have been converted into luxury condominiums. Major named passenger trains of the Texas and Pacific: Louisiana Eagle -- New Orleans - Dallas - Fort Worth Texas Eagle -- St. Louis - various Texas points: western section going to El Paso, with connecting Southern Pacific service to Los Angeles. Note: This is a different Southern Pacific Railroad company from the one referred to above. March 21, 1872 - The Southern Pacific is purchased. March 30 - Southern Trans-Continental Railway Company is purchased.
1872 - Thomas A. Scott, president of the Pennsylvania Railroad, becomes president of the Texas & Pacific. May 2, 1872 - an Act of Congress changes the name to Texas and Pacific Railway Company June 12, 1873 - Memphis, El Paso and Pacific Railroad Company purchased. July 1, 1873 - First rail line opened between Longview and Dallas, Texas December 28, 1873 - Rail line from Marshall, Texas, to Texarkana, placed in service. 1881 - Abilene, TX connected to the line. 1925 - Lima Locomotive Works delivers 2-10-4 locomotives to the T&P. The type is nicknamed "Texas" as a result. October 15, 1976 - merged with the Missouri Pacific"T&P" includes its subsidiary roads; the Texas and Pacific was unable to finance construction to San Diego, as a result the Southern Pacific was able to build from California to Sierra Blanca, Texas. In doing so, Southern Pacific used land designated for, surveyed by Texas and Pacific, in its rail line from Yuma, Arizona, to El Paso, Texas; this resulted in lawsuits, which were settled with agreements to share tracks, to cooperate in the building of new tracks.
Most of the features advantageous to Texas and Pacific were disallowed by legislation. Under the influence of General Buell the TPRR was to be 3 ft 6 in gauge, but this was overturned when the state legislature passed a law requiring 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in gauge. From 1873 to 1881 the Texas and Pacific built a total of 972 miles of track. T&P, received land only for the construction of track east of Fort Worth; this meant. The State of Texas did not award the additional area because, it said, the construction had not been completed within the time required by the firm's charter; the state Attorney General Charles A. Culberson filed suit to recover 301,893 acres on the grounds that "the road had been granted land on sidetracks and on land not subject to location." The state recovered 256,046 acres giving a net grant to the T&P of 4,917,074 acres, or 7,683 square miles. By comparison, the state of Connecticut is 5,543 square miles; the Texas Pacific Land Trust was created in 1888 in the wake of the bankruptcy of the T&P in order to provide an efficient and orderly way to sell the railway's land, receiving at the time in excess of 3.5 million acres.
As of 31 December 2006 the Trust was still the largest private land owner in the State of Texas, owning the surface estate of 966,392 acres spread across 20 counties in the western part of the state. The Trust generates income from oil & gas royalties through its 1/128 non-participating royalty interest under 85,414 acres and 1/16 non-participating royalty i
Charles L. Carpenter
Rear Admiral Charles L. Carpenter was a Naval officer, holder of the Navy Cross, Purple Heart and whose career encompassed combat action in Nicaragua, he was involved in all three Theaters of Operations in naval combat in the Pacific. He commanded attack transports during the war and commanded an animal research vessel in the post-World War II era Operation Crossroads series of atomic bomb tests, he earned nine Service Bars, the U. S. Navy Combat Command Insignia, foreign decorations from the governments of Nicaragua and Spain. Of his 30 years of active military service, 22 years were spent at sea or on foreign shores serving his Country. Charles known as "Chuck" when younger and "Charlie" when older, was born July 31, 1902 in Greensburg, Pennsylvania, he was the first son of Jennie Addell Carpenter. He was a direct descendant of William Carpenter the immigrant who came to America in 1635 from England and who settled in Providence, Rhode Island. Carpenter received his early education in the public schools of Wilkinsburg, east of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
He enjoyed running and track. He was a member of the Sigma Alpha Epsilon Fraternity. After graduating from high school, Carpenter attended the University of Pittsburgh until appointed to the U. S. Naval Academy in 1922. While at PITT he studied mechanical engineering and participated in the US Army ROTC program for two years. During the Spring of 1922, Carpenter received an appointment USNA from the Honorable M. Clyde Kelly, Congressional Representative of Pennsylvania's 30th congressional district. On June 16, 1922 he became a Plebe or freshman at the Academy. On June 26, 1926 he graduated from the U. S. Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland, he was commissioned an Ensign in the US Navy. Following his commissioning as an Ensign, Carpenter was deployed to serve in what was called the Second Nicaraguan Campaign, he would serve on and command US Navy ships and installations. After graduating the US Naval Academy in June 1926, he was assigned to his first ship, USS Galveston, a Denver-class protected cruiser in the gunnery department.
Galveston was with the Special Service Squadron out of Balboa, Panama. She conducted a series of patrols that took her off the coast of Honduras and Nicaragua under Gunboat diplomacy. On August 27, 1926 she arrived at Bluefields, landing a force of 195 men at the request of the American Consul to protect American interests during a revolutionary uprising. Thereafter much of her time was spent cruising between that-port and Balboa to cooperate with the State Department in the restoration and preservation of order, to insure the protection of American lives and property in Central America. Carpenter participated in several landing force details including one at Nicaragua, it was at this time he was awarded the Navy Cross for his valor. His "extraordinary heroism and excellent judgment in the performance of duty" in the Leon detachment of the landing force on May 17, 1927 earned him the Navy Cross awarded by the President of the United States; the President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Ensign Charles Lorain Carpenter, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism and excellent judgment in the performance of duty during an insurrection in Nicaragua.
Ensign Carpenter was a member of the Leon detachment of the landing force and on 17 May 1927, while attempting to arrest and disarm an ex-rebel soldier after having been twice fired on, at the time being surrounded by a crowd who egged on his aggressor, he in self defense shot and killed the soldier in question, thereby producing a most salutary effect on the population. His actions at all times were in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service. Action Date: 17-May-27 Service: Navy Rank: Ensign Division: Leon Detachment After returning to the States, Carpenter was stationed at the Boston Navy Yard and assigned to duty in United States Pacific Fleet. In 1928 Ensign Charles "Chuck" Carpenter served as the Assistant Navigator on USS Wyoming, she was the lead ship of her class of dreadnought battleships. In late August 1928, Wyoming went to Philadelphia for an extensive modernization, her old coal-fired boilers were replaced with new oil-fired models and anti-torpedo bulges were added to improve her resistance to underwater damage.
The work was completed by November 2, after which Wyoming conducted a shakedown cruise to Cuba the Virgin Islands. She was back in Philadelphia on December 7 and two days she returned to her post as the flagship of the Scouting Fleet, flying the flag of Vice Admiral Ashley Robertson. From 1929 to 1933 he was on USS Trenton, his last job on Trenton was as the 3 inch A. A. officer. While aboard Trenton in May 1929, the ship's division was detached from the Asiatic Fleet, she steamed back to the United States along with Memphis and Milwaukee; the light cruiser was overhauled at Philadelphia in the latter part of 1929 and rejoined the Scouting Fleet. For the next four years, Trenton resumed the Scouting Fleet schedule of winter maneuvers in the Caribbean followed by summer exercises off the New England coast. Periodically, she was ordered to the Isthmian coast to bolster the Special Service Squadron during periods of extreme political unrest in one or more of the republics of Central America. Carpenter left Trenton in the spring of 1933 before she moved to the Pacific and became flagship of the Battle Force cruisers.
In 1933 Carpenter was rotated from seven years a
Grayson County, Texas
Grayson County is a county in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 120,877; the county seat is Sherman. The county was founded in 1846 and is named after Peter Wagener Grayson, an attorney general of the Republic of Texas. Grayson County is included in the Sherman-Denison, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX Combined Statistical Area, it is part of the Texoma region, with proximity to both Lake Texoma and the Red River. The earliest known inhabitants of what is now Grayson County were Caddo Amerindian groups, including Tonkawa and Kichai; these groups engaged in agriculture and traded with Spanish and French colonists at trading posts along the Red River. Trading posts were established at Preston Bend on the Red River and Pilot Grove during 1836 and 1837. After the establishment of the Peters Colony in the early 1840s, settlement near the Red River increased. Grayson County was created from Fannin County by the Texas State Legislature on March 17, 1846.
The county seat, was designated by the Texas State Legislature. In the 1850s, trading and marketing at Preston Bend became more important, as agriculture expanded in the county; this was helped by the first trail in the state. It went from Preston Bend to Texas. More growth occurred after the establishment of Sherman as station of the Butterfield Overland Mail route in 1856. Opinions in the county about secession were divided. County residents voted by more than two to one in 1861 against secession, desiring to remain in the Union; the Great Hanging at Gainesville in nearby Cooke County in October 1862 was an attack on dissenters, men who were suspected of resisting conscription and having been Unionists. After 150-200 men were arrested by state troops, the military organized a so-called "Citizens Court", which had no basis in state law, its jury convicted and sentenced more than 25 men to death by hanging. Another 14 were lynched outright by a mob without the cover of a trial. A total of 42 men were killed in the proceedings that month, considered the largest vigilante murders in US history.
Violence continued for a time in Sherman and other towns of North Texas, at times at the hands of Confederate military. E. Junius Foster, the editor of the Patriot newspaper, was murdered in 1862 by Capt. Jim Young, son of Col. William Young, killed in Cooke County; the senior Young had organized the Citizens Court that put so many men to death, Foster had "applauded" Young's death. When other men were rounded up as suspect Unionists in Sherman, Brig. General James W. Throckmorton intervened and saved all but five, lynched. Men from Grayson County served the Confederacy at locations in the South; the Eleventh Texas Cavalry captured federal forts in the Indian Territory north of the Red River. Grayson County and much of Texas suffered economic depression in the postwar years during the Reconstruction era, based in part on difficulties in reliance on agriculture in the South, adjustments to free labor, other problems; the driving of cattle herds north along Preston Road provided needed income for the county during this period.
After the Houston and Texas Central Railroad and the Missouri and Texas Railroad began operating in the county in 1872, settlement in Grayson County picked up and flourished during the 1870s and 1880s. Cotton plantations were developed to cultivate this as the predominant commodity crop. Many towns, including Denison, Van Alstyne, Whitewright and Tom Bean, were founded during this time. In 1879, a group of settlers who had settled in North Texas both before and after statehood came together in Grayson County for political discussions, they formed the Old Settlers Association of North Texas. The association purchased 26 acres, they continued to meet on an annual basis for many years. On May 15, 1896, a tornado measuring F5 on the Fujita scale struck Sherman; the tornado's damage path was 400 yards wide and 28 miles long, it killed 73 people and injured 200. About 50 homes were destroyed, with 20 of them being obliterated. During the Sherman Riot of 1930, Grayson County's 1876 courthouse was burned down by a white mob that rioted during the trial of George Hughes, an African-American man.
When the riot started, Hughes was locked by police in the vault at the courthouse and died in the fire. After rioters retrieved Hughes' body from the vault, they dragged it behind a car, hanged it, set afire. Texas Ranger Frank Hamer was in Grayson County during this riot and reported the situation to Texas Governor Dan Moody. Governor Moody sent National Guard troops to Grayson County on May 9 and more on May 10 to control the situation. Grayson County's current courthouse was completed in 1936; the Bridge War called the Red River Bridge War or the Toll Bridge War, was a 1931 bloodless boundary conflict between the U. S. states of Oklahoma and Texas over an existing toll bridge and a new free bridge crossing the Red River between Grayson County and Bryan County, Oklahoma. In 1938, construction of a dam on the Red River was authorized by the U. S. Congress; the dam's construction was completed in part by the use of labor provided by German prisoners-of-war held at Camp Howze, in Cooke County, during World War II.
The dam is now known as Denison Dam. Lake Texoma was formed behind it and is used for recreation and electrical power generation. Perrin Air Force Base was constructed in 1941; the base closure in 1971 was a blow to the county economy. The availability of skilled labor associated with the base helped attract industrial plants. In addition, the base was converted to a civilian airpo