Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
Substitute (The Righteous Brothers song)
"Substitute" is a song by Willie H. Wilson, recorded first by The Righteous Brothers and released as single from their album The Sons of Mrs. Righteous in 1975. In 1978, the song became a big hit for the South African band Clout, reaching No. 2 in the UK charts in August and being certified Gold by the BPI. It fared better in the rest of Europe where it reached No. 1 in Germany and Ireland, as well as No. 2 in Belgium, the Netherlands and Switzerland. This version was produced by Grahame Beggs. "Substitute" – 3:28 "When Will You Be Mine" – 2:59 A version by Australian group Peaches charted locally at the same time, but was out-charted by the Clout track. It was covered by Gloria Gaynor in 1978 and by Polish-Swedish singer and actor Izabella Scorupco in 1990
A girl group is a music act featuring several female singers who harmonize together. The term "girl group" is used in a narrower sense in the United States to denote the wave of American female pop music singing groups, many of whom were influenced by doo-wop and which flourished in the late 1950s and early 1960s between the decline of early rock and roll and start of the British Invasion. All-female bands, in which members play instruments, are considered a separate phenomenon; these groups are sometimes called "girl bands" to differentiate, although this terminology is not universally followed. With the advent of the music industry and radio broadcasting, a number of girl groups emerged, such as the Andrews Sisters; the late 1950s saw the emergence of all-female singing groups as a major force, with 750 distinct girl groups releasing songs that reached US and UK music charts from 1960 to 1966. The Supremes alone held 12 number-one singles on the Billboard Hot 100 during the height of the wave and throughout most of the British Invasion rivaled the Beatles in popularity.
In eras, the girl group template would be applied to disco, contemporary R&B, country-based formats, as well as pop. A more globalized music industry saw the extreme popularity of dance-oriented pop music led by major record labels; this emergence, led by the US, UK, South Korea, Japan, produced popular acts, with eight groups debuting after 1990 having sold more than 15 million physical copies of their albums. Since the late 2000s, South Korea has had a significant impact, with 8 of the top 10 girl groups by digital sales in the world originating there. One of the first major all-female groups was the Hamilton Sisters and Fordyce, an American trio who toured England and parts of Europe in 1927, recorded and appeared on BBC radio – they toured the US variety and big-time theaters extensively, changed their stage name to the Three X Sisters; the ladies were together from 1923 until the early 1940s, known for their close harmonies, as well as barbershop style or novelty tunes, utilized their 1930s radio success.
The Three X Sisters were especially a notable addition to the music scene, predicted girl group success by maintaining their popularity throughout the Great Depression. The Boswell Sisters, who became one of the most popular singing groups from 1930 to 1936, had over twenty hits; the Andrews Sisters started in 1937 as a Boswell tribute band and continued recording and performing through the 1940s into the late-1960s, achieving more record sales, more Billboard hits, more million-sellers, more movie appearances than any other girl group to date. The Andrews Sisters had musical hits across multiple genres, which contributed to the prevalence and popularity of the girl group form; the rise of girl groups appeared out of and was influenced by other musical movements of the time period. Vaudeville created an environment of entertainment in which the appearance of the girl group was not unfriendly, musical forms like a cappella and barbershop quartet singing provided inspiration for the structure of the songs and types of harmonies sung by initial girl groups.
The first successful girl groups of this era were white, but capitalized on using music such as ragtime that had originated in the African American community. This era was advantageous to the beginnings of girl group music because of the newfound prevalence of the radio as well, which allowed this style of music to spread; as the rock era began, close harmony acts like the Chordettes, the Fontane Sisters, the McGuire Sisters and the DeCastro Sisters remained popular, with the first three acts topping the pop charts and the last reaching number two, at the end of 1954 to the beginning of 1955. The Lennon Sisters were a mainstay on the Lawrence Welk Show from 1955 on. In early 1956, doo-wop one-hit wonder acts like the Bonnie Sisters with "Cry Baby" and the Teen Queens with "Eddie My Love" showed early promise for a departure from traditional pop harmonies. With "Mr. Lee", the Bobbettes lasted for 5 1/2 months on the charts in 1957, building momentum and gaining further acceptance of all-female, all-black vocal groups.
However, it was the Chantels' 1958 song "Maybe" that became "arguably, the first true glimmering of the girl group sound." The "mixture of black doo-wop and roll, white pop" was appealing to a teenage audience and grew from scandals involving payola and the perceived social effects of rock music. However, early groups such as the Chantels started developing their groups' musical capacities traditionally, through mediums like Latin and choir music; the success of the Chantels and others was followed by an enormous rise in girl groups with varying skills and experience, with the music industry's typical racially segregated genre labels of R&B and pop breaking apart. This rise allowed a semblance of class mobility to groups of people who could not otherwise gain such success, "forming vocal groups together and cutting records gave them access to other opportunities toward professional advancement and personal growth, expanding the idea of girlhood as an identity across race and class lines." The group considered to have achieved the first sustained success in girl group genre is the Shirelles, who first reached the Top 40 with "Tonight's the Night", in 1961 became the first girl group to reach number one on the Hot 100 with "Will You Love Me Tomorrow", written by songwriters Gerry Goffin and Carole King at 1650 Broadway.
The Shirelles solidified their success with five more top 10 hits, most 1962's number one hit "Soldier Boy", over the next two and a half years. "Please Mr. Postman" by the Marvelettes became a major indication of the racial integration
Adventures in Modern Recording
Adventures in Modern Recording is the second and final studio album by British synthpop duo The Buggles, released in 1981 on Carrere Records. Made one year after their stint as members of Yes, the album contains nine tracks, including a stripped-down version of Yes's "Into the Lens", here entitled, "I Am a Camera"; the album as released was a Trevor Horn solo effort, Geoffrey Downes having joined Asia before recording began. Bruce Woolley assisted in completing the tracks. Adventures in Modern Recording was one of the earliest to use the Fairlight CMI, one of the first digital sampling synthesizers. Although Adventures suffered commercial failure in the United Kingdom, it did get chart performance in the United States, reaching number 161 on the Billboard 200. Like The Age of Plastic it was positively received by critics. Both "We Can Fly from Here" and "Riding a Tide" were rerecorded by Yes for their 2011 studio album Fly from Here. On 10 January 1980, The Buggles, a duo of Trevor Horn and Geoff Downes, released their debut album The Age of Plastic.
Labeled by writers as the first electropop landmark, the album, lyrically both promoting and concerning modern technology, included musical influences and elements of disco, progressive rock and pop music from the 1960s. Four singles were released from the album, one of them including "Video Killed the Radio Star" which topped sixteen international record charts; the album was difficult to follow up to, but Horn was wanting to see how it would follow. According to Trevor Horn, Adventures in Modern Recording was planned to be more "left-field" than The Age of Plastic: "We had some pretty weird material. Things like ‘Vermillion Sands’ and some weird little things that we’d done; the best we had was ‘I Am A Camera’, one of the things, a demo we’d done on a Sunday afternoon and was one of the best things Geoffrey and I did I thought."When Adventures was about to be recorded, Buggles member Geoff Downes had split from the group to form the band Asia, the group was dropped from Island Records, which they thought they finished the album.
Horn and shocked, had to make a second Buggles, so Jill Sinclair decided she make a deal with French label Carrere Records, DJ Claude Carrere would help fund the album. While Adventures in Modern Recording was a Trevor Horn solo project, Downes was still involved in the project, he has writing and production credits on three tracks from Adventures, "Vermillion Sands", "I Am a Camera" and "Lenny", where he handled the drum programming, as well as being the keyboardist on a song he didn't co-write with Horn, "Beatnik". Australian producer Julian Mendelsohn and Gary Langan, who handled the mixing and recording for The Age of Plastic were engineers on the album. Langan and Anne Dudley, credited as keyboardist on "Beatnik", would form The Art of Noise. Other note-worthy contributors including percussion on "Beatnik" was from Horn's long-time collaborator Luis Jardim, while Yes bassist Chris Squire was brought on board to provide "sound effects" for the title track. Horn said, "There were bits of bits of Simon Darlow.
But I finished it off myself with Gary. But by the time I’d finished it off I’d sort of lost interest in it a little, because I didn’t think there was a single there…" This album marks the first time in Horn's production career that he had worked with sampling, which the sampling techniques on Adventures would be used for records Horn produced like Slave To The Rhythm by Grace Jones, Art of Noise's The Seduction of Claude Debussy and Frankie Goes To Hollywood's Welcome to the Pleasuredome. Adventures in Modern Recording was one of the first commercially available albums to feature sounds from the Fairlight CMI, one of the first digital sampling synthesizers."Things like ‘Beatnik’ were me just messing around with gear and just having a silly idea,” he said. “I was quite fascinated by Fairlight brass and all of those kind of things that Geoffrey and I had started messing around with before he went off to join Asia. And I thought, a pretty good direction... So I sort of perfected a load of production tricks on Adventures In Modern Recording.
Loads of productions tricks…" In 1989, Sincer Records Re-Released the album on CD. It only held the songs from the original LP; the album was issued on CD in 1993 by Japanese label Jimco Records. In 1997 it was reissued with this time on the Japanese Flavour of Sound label. A new reissue was released by Salvo Records/ZTT on 15 February 2010. Adventures in Modern Recording first charted in Sweden, appearing at the number 50 spot on the second week of 1982. Unlike The Age of Plastic, Adventures in Modern Recording was not able to appear on the UK Albums chart, but it was able to chart in the United States. By March, it bubbled under the Billboard 200 chart, before entering the chart at number 161 in April; that same month, it debuted on the Dutch Albums Chart at number 26, where it lasted there for three weeks. The album has received critically positive reviews, although more mixed than The Age of Plastic, it was one of Billboard's "recommended LPs" on 20 February 1982. Allmusic's Jeri Montesano, who gave the album 4 out of 5 stars, considered the album's quality to equal The Age of Plastic, compared the two to pop music in the 1990s that he found "unimaginative".
An Amazon.com editorial review described Adventures in Modern Recording as "something of a lost classic, with great vocals by Trevor Horn and a sparkling electronic sound, completely
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Gloria Loring-Lagler is an American singer and actress. She is known for playing Liz Chandler on Days of Our Lives for five years, she and singer-actor Carl Anderson performed the duet "Friends and Lovers," which reached number two on the Billboard Hot 100 chart in 1986. Loring was born in New York City, the daughter of Dorothy Ann, a singer, Gerald "Buzzy" Lewis Goff, a professional trumpet player with the Tommy Dorsey Big Band as well as other renowned swing groups. Loring began her music career at age 14. Loring released her first album in 1968, it was titled Today on MGM Records. Several singles, including cover versions of Harry Nilsson's "Everybody's Talkin'" and Roger Whittaker's "New World in the Morning" were released on the Evolution label, though none charted, she went on to perform on a wide range of television shows in the late 1960s and 1970s, from The Carol Burnett Show to the Academy Awards ceremony. Signed to Atco Records, she released the single "Brooklyn," produced by Mike Post, in 1977 under the alias Cody Jameson, it became her first chart single, climbing to No. 74 on the Billboard Hot 100 and appearing on the Adult Contemporary and Country Charts.
In March 1977 Gloria flew to Toronto to be the special guest star on the popular weekly variety program The Bobby Vinton Show, seen all across the United States and Canada. The program was produced by her husband Alan Thicke. Loring performed "Will You Love Me Tomorrow" and performed a duet with Vinton on "Breaking Up Is Hard to Do". In 1979 and 1980, Loring and then-husband Alan Thicke composed the theme songs to Diff'rent Strokes and The Facts of Life. There were two versions of the Facts of Life theme song. One version was used from seasons two through six, a second was used from seasons seven to nine, her son Brennan was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes in 1979. A year Loring joined Days of Our Lives and got the idea to create and self-publish the Days Of Our Lives Celebrity Cookbook to raise money for diabetes research. Volume One was published in 1981 and the follow-up Volume Two in 1983; the cookbooks, along with her recording "A Shot in the Dark", raised more than $1 million for the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation.
She followed that success with three commercially published books, Kids and Diabetes, Parenting a Child with Diabetes, Living with Type 2 Diabetes: Moving Past the Fear. For the past 30 years, she has served as a spokesperson for JDRF. JDRF was the official philanthropy of her college sorority, Alpha Gamma Delta, before shifting its focus to fighting hunger in 2017. In 1980, when Loring joined the NBC daytime soap Days of Our Lives as chanteuse Liz Chandler, the show was going through a dry spell, with many veterans dropped and many new faces alienating long-time fans. Of the nine new characters introduced in the 1980-1981 season, only Liz garnered a fan following, was the only one to have her contract renewed. For three years, in real-life, Loring dated Don Diamont, the actor who played Carlo Forenza, murdered by her TV husband Dr. Neil Curtis. In 1986, Loring scored a No. 2 Pop and No. 1 Adult Contemporary hit record in the United States with "Friends and Lovers", with Carl Anderson. Loring performed "Friends and Lovers" on Days of Our Lives more than a year before it hit the charts.
Her performance of the song generated the largest mail response of any song in NBC daytime history. First recorded as a duet with Anderson in 1985, its release as a single was delayed for a year by legal complications. Loring left Days in 1986 and made sporadic film and television appearances over the next few decades, her main efforts were spent in her recording career. In 2003, Loring released her first holiday album, You Make It Christmas. In 2008, she released A Playlist, which included a new recording of the song "Friends and Lovers" with Carl Anderson, recorded one year before he died. Loring's book, Coincidence Is God's Way of Remaining Anonymous, is a spiritual autobiography of how a series of coincidences transformed her life, it was released in October 2012 by Inc.. Loring was married to actor Alan Thicke from 1970 until 1986, she has two sons with Thicke and singer Robin. Loring was married to actor Christopher Beaumont from 1988 to 1993. In 1994, Loring married production designer René Lagler.
They had met 24 years earlier on the set of Glen Campbell's variety series. Loring has been honored with the Lifetime Commitment Award from JDRF, received the Woman of Achievement Award from the Miss America Organization, she has been featured in in America. 1968: Today.
EMI Group Limited was a British Transnational conglomerate founded in March 1931 in London. At the time of its break-up in 2012, it was the fourth largest business group and record label conglomerate in the music industry, was one of the big four record companies; the company was once a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, but faced financial troubles and US$4 billion in debt, leading to its acquisition by Citigroup in February 2011. Citigroup's ownership was temporary, as EMI announced in November 2011 that it would sell its music arm to Vivendi's Universal Music Group for $1.9 billion and its publishing business to a Sony/ATV consortium for around $2.2 billion. Other members of the Sony consortium include the Estate of Michael Jackson, The Blackstone Group, the Abu Dhabi–owned Mubadala Development Company. EMI's locations in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada were all disassembled to repay debt, but the primary head office located outside those countries is still functional, it is owned by Sony/ATV Music Publishing, the music publishing division of Sony Music which bought another 70% stake in EMI Music Publishing.
Electric and Musical Industries Ltd was formed in March 1931 by the merger of the Columbia Graphophone Company and the Gramophone Company, with its "His Master's Voice" record label, firms that have a history extending back to the origins of recorded sound. The new vertically integrated company produced sound recordings as well as recording and playback equipment; the company's gramophone manufacturing led to forty years of success with larger-scale electronics and electrical engineering. In 1934, the company developed the electronic Marconi-EMI system for television broadcasting, which replaced Baird's electro-mechanical system following its introduction in 1936. After the war, the company resumed its involvement in making broadcasting equipment, notably providing the BBC's second television transmitter at Sutton Coldfield, it manufactured broadcast television cameras for British television production companies as well as for the BBC. The commercial television ITV companies used them alongside cameras made by Pye and Marconi.
Their best-remembered piece of broadcast television equipment was the EMI 2001 colour television camera, which became the mainstay of much of the British television industry from the end of the 1960s until the early 1990s. Exports of this piece of equipment were low, EMI left this area of product manufacture. Alan Blumlein, an engineer employed by EMI, conducted a great deal of pioneering research into stereo sound recording many years prior to the practical implementation of the technique in the early 1950s, he was killed in 1942 whilst conducting flight trials on an experimental H2S radar set. During and after World War II, the EMI Laboratories in Hayes, Hillingdon developed radar equipment, microwave devices such as the reflex klystron oscillator, electro-optic devices such as infra-red image converters, guided missiles employing analogue computers; the company was for many years an internationally respected manufacturer of photomultipliers. This part of the business was transferred to Thorn as part of Thorn-EMI later became the independent concern Electron Tubes Ltd.
The EMI Electronic Business Machine, a valve and magnetic drum memory computer, was built in the 1950s to process the British Motor Corporation payroll. In 1958 the EMIDEC 1100, the UK's first commercially available all-transistor computer, was developed at Hayes under the leadership of Godfrey Hounsfield, an electrical engineer at EMI. In the early 1970s, with financial support by the UK Department of Health and Social Security as well as EMI research investment, Hounsfield developed the first CT scanner, a device which revolutionised medical imaging. In 1973 EMI was awarded a prestigious Queen's Award for Technological Innovation for what was called the EMI scanner, in 1979 Hounsfield won the Nobel Prize for his accomplishment. After brief, but brilliant, success in the medical imaging field, EMI's manufacturing activities were sold off to other companies, notably Thorn. Subsequently and manufacturing activities were sold off to other companies and work moved to other towns such as Crawley and Wells.
Emihus Electronics, based in Glenrothes, was owned 51% by Hughes Aircraft, of California, US, 49% by EMI. It manufactured integrated circuits electrolytic capacitors and, for a short period in the mid-1970s, hand-held calculators under the Gemini name. Early in its life, the Gramophone Company established subsidiary operations in a number of other countries in the British Commonwealth, including India and New Zealand. Gramophone's Australian and New Zealand subsidiaries dominated the popular music industries in those countries from the 1920s until the 1960s, when other locally owned labels began to challenge the near monopoly of EMI. Over 150,000 78-rpm recordings from around the world are held in EMI's temperature-controlled archive in Hayes, some of which have been released on CD since 2008 by Honest Jon's Records. In 1931, the year the company was formed, it opened the legendary recording studios at Abbey Road, London. During the 1930s and 1940s, its roster of artists included Arturo