Equestrian vaulting, or vaulting, is most described as gymnastics and dance on horseback, which can be practiced both competitively or non-competitively. Vaulting has a history as an equestrian act at circuses, but its origins stretch back at least two-thousand years, it is open to both men and women and is one of ten equestrian disciplines recognized by the International Federation for Equestrian Sports. Therapeutic or interactive vaulting is used as an activity for children and adults who may have balance, gross motor skill or social deficits. Vaulting's enthusiasts are concentrated in other parts of the Western world, it is growing in other western countries. Vaulting was first introduced in the United States in the 1950s and 60s but was limited only to California and other areas of the west coast. More it is beginning to gain popularity in the United States northeast, it is believed by some that the origins of vaulting could be traced to the ancient Roman games, where acrobats displayed their skills on cantering horses.
Others, believe that vaulting originated in ancient Crete, where bull-leaping was prevalent. In either case, people have been performing acrobatic and dance-like movements on the backs of moving horses/animals for more than 2,000 years. Renaissance and Middle Ages history include numerous references to similar activities; the present name of the sport/art comes from the French "la voltige," which it acquired during the Renaissance, when it was a form of riding drill and agility exercise for cavalry riders. Modern vaulting developed in post-war Germany as an initiative to introduce children to equestrian sports. In 1983, vaulting became one of the disciplines recognized by the FEI. European championships were first held in Ebreichsdorf, Austria in 1984, the first FEI World Vaulting Championship was held in Bulle, Switzerland in 1986. Vaulting was included in the World Equestrian Games in Stockholm in 1990 and in all subsequent editions of the games, it was demonstrated as an art during the 1996 Olympic Games events.
It has been included in the Inter-Africa Cup since 2006. The first World Cup Vaulting competition was held in Leipzig on 29–30 April 2011. In competitive vaulting, vaulters compete as individuals and teams. Beginning vaulters compete in walk; the vaulting horse moves in a minimum 15-metre diameter circle and is directed by a lunger who stands in the center. In competitive vaulting, the rider and horse will both be judged on a scale from 1 to 10. Vaulting competitions consist of compulsory exercises and choreographed freestyle exercises done to music. There are seven compulsory exercises: mount, basic seat, mill, scissors and flank; each exercise is scored on a scale from 0 to 10. Horses receive a score and are judged on the quality of their movement as well as their behavior. Vaulters compete in team, individual categories. An individual freestyle is a 1-minute program, the pas-de-deux kür is 2 minutes while the team is 4 minutes, they are all choreographed to music. The components of a freestyle vaulting routine may include mounts and dismounts, handstands and standing and aerial moves such jumps and tumbling skills.
However, many of these skills are only seen in the highest levels. A typical routine for a child or beginner will more contain variations on simple kneels and planks. Teams carry, lift, or toss another vaulter in the air. Judging is based on technique, form, balance and consideration of the horse. Vaulting horses wear a surcingle and a thick back pad; the surcingle has special handles which aid the vaulter in performing certain moves as well as leather loops called "cossack stirrups". The horse wears a side reins; the lunge line is attached to the inside bit ring. Vaulting horses move on the left rein, but in some competitions the horse canters in the other direction. Two-phase classes of competition work the horse to the right. While many European clubs do not compete to the right, they still work at home evenly both directions, believing this benefits the horse and the vaulter; the premier vaulting competitions are the biannual World and Continental Championships and the World Equestrian Games held every four years.
In many countries, vaulting associations organize and sponsor national and local events every year. In 2011 there were at least 24 countries with such organisations. Vaulters perform movements on the back of the horse. Novice and beginning vaulters may perform at the walk or the trot while higher level vaulters perform at the canter. There are compulsory exercises and depending on class the vaulter performs seven or eight of them: The compulsories are performed in succession in the above order, without pause or dismounts; the International Federation for Equestrian Sports regulates dress codes for competitive vaulting. Every 2–3 years, new guidelines are released, which declare that vaulters must wear form-fitting uniforms that do not conceal the line and form of the vaulter's body, as well as not hinder the movement of the vaulter or the safe interaction between the vaulters. For that reason, accessories such as belts, capes or hats are prohibited. Additionally, men’s trousers must be secured at the ankle.
It is expected that clothing be appropriate for the competition and does not give the effect of nudity. The most common form-fitting uniforms worn by vault
Fine harness is a type of driving competition seen at horse shows, that feature light, refined horses with high action. Popular breeds in this event include the American Saddlebred, Arabian, Dutch Harness Horse, Hackney; some breeds of pony are shown in the fine harness style. These include the Hackney Pony, Welsh pony, the American-type Shetland Pony; the harness used is a breastplate type without a horse collar. The cart used is a light, four-wheeled design. Drivers wear formal attire
Eventing is an equestrian event where a single horse and rider combine and compete against other combinations across the three disciplines of dressage, cross-country, show jumping. This event has its roots in a comprehensive cavalry test that required mastery of several types of riding; the competition may be run as a one-day event, where all three events are completed in one day or a three-day event, more now run over four days, with dressage on the first two days, followed by cross-country the next day and show jumping in reverse order on the final day. Eventing was known as Combined Training, the name persists in many smaller organizations; the term "Combined Training" is sometimes confused with the term "Combined Test", which refers to a combination of just two of the phases, most dressage and show jumping. Eventing is an equestrian triathlon, in that it combines three different disciplines in one competition set out over one, two, or three days, depending on the length of courses and number of entries.
This sport follows a similar format in Australia, Ireland, United Kingdom and the United States The dressage phase consists of an exact sequence of movements ridden in an enclosed arena. The test is judged by one or more judges, who are looking for balance, rhythm and most the cooperation between the horse and rider; the challenge is to demonstrate that a supremely fit horse, capable of completing the cross-country phase on time has the training to perform in a graceful and precise manner. Dressage work is the basis of all the other phases and disciplines within the sport of eventing because it develops the strength and balance that allow a horse to go cross-country and show jump competently. At the highest level of competition, the dressage test is equivalent to the United States Dressage Federation Third Level and may ask for half-pass at trot, shoulder-in, collected and extended gaits, single flying changes, counter-canter; the tests may not ask for Grand Prix movements such as canter pirouette, or passage.
Each movement in the test is scored on a scale from 0 to 10, with a score of "10" being the highest possible mark and with the total maximum score for the test varying depending on the level of competition and the number of movements. A score of 10 is rare. Therefore, if one movement is poorly executed, it is still possible for the rider to get a good overall score if the remaining movements are well executed; the marks are added together and any errors of course deducted. To convert this score to penalty points, the average marks of all judges are converted to a percentage of the maximum possible score, subtracted from 100 and the multiplied by a co-efficient decided by the governing body. Canadian example: 77 percent becomes 34.5 penalty points or x 1.5 = 34.5 Once the bell rings the rider is allowed 45 seconds to enter the ring or receive a two-point penalty an additional 45 seconds, for a total of 90 seconds, or is eliminated. If all four feet of the horse exit the arena during the test, this results in elimination.
If the horse resists more than 20 seconds during the test, this results in elimination. If the rider falls, this results in elimination. Errors on course: 1st: minus 2 marks 2nd: minus 4 marks 3rd: elimination The next phase, cross-country, requires both horse and rider to be in excellent physical shape and to be brave and trusting of each other; this phase consists of 12–20 fences, or 30–40 at the higher levels, placed on a long outdoor circuit. These fences consist of solidly built natural objects as well as various obstacles such as ponds and streams, ditches and banks, combinations including several jumping efforts based on objects that would occur in the countryside. Sometimes at higher levels, fences are designed that would not occur in nature. However, these are still designed to be as solid as more natural obstacles. Safety regulations mean that some obstacles are now being built with a "frangible pin system", allowing part or all of the jump to collapse if hit with enough impact. Speed is a factor, with the rider required to cross the finish line within a certain time frame.
Crossing the finish line after the optimum time results in penalties for each second over. At lower levels, there is a speed fault time, where penalties are incurred for horse and rider pairs completing the course too quickly. For every "disobedience" a horse and rider incur on course, penalties will be added to their dressage score. After four disobediences altogether or three disobediences at one fence the pair is eliminated, meaning they can no longer participate in the competition. A horse and rider pair can be eliminated for going off course, for example missing a fence. If the horses shoulder and hind-quarter touch the ground, mandatory retirement is taken and they are not allowed to participate further in the competition. If the rider falls off the horse they are eliminated. However, in the US this rule is being revised for the Novice level and below; the penalties for disobediences on cross-country are weighted relative to the other phases of competition to emphasize the importance of courage and athleticism.
Fitness is required as the time allowed will require a strong canter at the lower levels, all the way to a strong gallop at the higher events. In recent years, a controversy has developed between supporters of sho
Equestrianism, more known as horse riding or horseback riding, refers to the skill and sport of riding, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses. This broad description includes the use of horses for practical working purposes, recreational activities, artistic or cultural exercises, competitive sport. Horses are trained and ridden for practical working purposes, such as in police work or for controlling herd animals on a ranch, they are used in competitive sports including, but not limited to, endurance riding, reining, show jumping, tent pegging, polo, horse racing and rodeo. Some popular forms of competition are grouped together at horse shows where horses perform in a wide variety of disciplines. Horses are used for non-competitive recreational riding such as fox hunting, trail riding, or hacking. There is public access to horse trails in every part of the world. Horses are used for therapeutic purposes both in specialized para-equestrian competition as well as non-competitive riding to improve human health and emotional development.
Horses are driven in harness racing, at horse shows, in other types of exhibition such as historical reenactment or ceremony pulling carriages. In some parts of the world, they are still used for practical purposes such as farming. Horses continue to be used in public service: in traditional ceremonies and volunteer mounted patrols and for mounted search and rescue. Riding halls enable the training of horse and rider in all weathers as well as indoor competition riding. Though there is controversy over the exact date horses were domesticated and when they were first ridden, the best estimate is that horses first were ridden 3500 BC. Indirect evidence suggests. There is some evidence that about 3,000 BC, near the Dnieper River and the Don River, people were using bits on horses, as a stallion, buried there shows teeth wear consistent with using a bit. However, the most unequivocal early archaeological evidence of equines put to working use was of horses being driven. Chariot burials about 2500 BC present the most direct hard evidence of horses used as working animals.
In ancient times chariot warfare was followed by the use of war horses as heavy cavalry. The horse played an important role throughout human history all over the world, both in warfare and in peaceful pursuits such as transportation and agriculture. Horses died out at the end of the Ice Age. Horses were brought back to North America by European explorers, beginning with the second voyage of Columbus in 1493. Equestrianism was introduced in the 1900 Summer Olympics as an Olympic sport with jumping events. Humans appear to have long expressed a desire to know which horse or horses were the fastest, horse racing has ancient roots. Gambling on horse races appears to go hand-in hand with racing and has a long history as well. Thoroughbreds have the pre-eminent reputation as a racing breed, but other breeds race. Under saddle Thoroughbred horse racing is the most popular form worldwide. In the UK, it is governed by the Jockey Club in the United Kingdom. In the USA, horse racing is governed by The Jockey Club.
Steeplechasing involves racing on a track where the horses jump over obstacles. It is most common in the UK, where it is called National Hunt racing. American Quarter Horse racing—races over distances of a quarter-mile. Seen in the United States, sanctioned by the American Quarter Horse Association. Arabian horses, Akhal-Teke, American Paint Horses and other light breeds are raced worldwide. Endurance riding, a sport in which the Arabian horse dominates at the top levels, has become popular in the United States and in Europe; the Federation Equestre International governs international races, the American Endurance Ride Conference organizes the sport in North America. Endurance races take place over a given, measured distance and the horses have an start. Races are 50 to 100 miles, over mountainous or other natural terrain, with scheduled stops to take the horses' vital signs, check soundness and verify that the horse is fit to continue; the first horse to finish and be confirmed by the veterinarian as fit to continue is the winner.
Additional awards are given to the best-conditioned horses who finish in the top 10. Limited distance rides of about 25–20 miles are offered to newcomers. Ride and Tie. Ride and Tie involves three equal partners: one horse; the humans alternately ride. Show jumping: Show jumping is when a horse carries a rider over an obstacle commonly known as a jump. There are multiple jumps in a show, if the horse hits or refuses a jump, points will be deducted from the rider score; this is a timed event, the rider is expected to complete the course in a certain amount of time, without error. There are the hunter divisions. In the hunters, riders have to make their horses look good; the judges look at the quality of the course, if there are two or more riders who had put down amazing courses the judge or judges looks at how the horse looks and acts with the rider. In harness: Both light and heavy breeds as well as ponies are raced in harness with a sulk
A point-to-point is a form of horseracing over fences for hunting horses and amateur riders. In Ireland, where the sport is open to licensed - i.e. professional - trainers, many of the horses will appear in these races before they compete in National Hunt races. The Irish point-to-point is more used as a nursery for future young stars: a horse that wins its debut point-to-point in Ireland will sell for a lot of money. Whilst professional trainers are excluded from running horses in point-to-points in Great Britain, the days of the farmer running his hunter at the local point-to-point have gone. Horses are run from "livery yards" - unlicensed but otherwise professional training establishments, sometimes allied with a licensed yard. Horses running in Point-to-Points must be Thoroughbreds, save in the case of Hunt Members races and certain other Club Members races; the owner must be a member, subscriber or farmer of a recognized pack of Hounds and obtain a Hunter Certificate from the Master to that effect.
Once this Certificate has been registered with the Point-to-Point Authority the horse is eligible to run in Hunter Chases, i.e. races for qualified horses run under BHA Rules over regulation fences on licensed racecourses. Potential riders must obtain a Riders Qualification Certificate from a Hunt Secretary and register it with the PPA. Point-to-Point racing is sometimes referred to as racing'between the flags'; the first Steeplechase was run locally between Buttevant and Doneraile, County Cork, over 250 years ago. Chasing from'steeple to steeple' or point-to-point began in 1752 when Mr. Blake challenged his neighbour Mr. O'Callaghan, to race across country from Buttevant church to Doneraile church some four and a half miles distance and to jump stone walls and hedges as they presented themselves. By keeping the steeple of the church in sight both riders could see their finishing point; the first traceable use of the phrase point-to-point in connection with a horse race is in Bell's Life on 10 January 1874.
A race is described that took place on 2 January from Sutton-on-the-Forest to Brandsby, held by the 9th Lancers stationed at nearby York. It was won by Langar, ridden by his owner the Hon. E. Willoughby; the first reference to a hunt holding a point-to-point came in 1875, when the Sporting Gazette contained a detailed account of a Monmouthshire Hunt Point-to-point chase held on 12 January from Llansaintfraed to Tykin-under-Little-Skirrid, which Captain Wheeley won from his thirteen rivals. In Great Britain, local hunts combined in 1913 to form the Master of Hounds Point‐to‐Point Association and issue a standard set of rules. Control passed to the National Hunt Committee in the mid 1930s and The Jockey Club in the late 1960s. In recent years, pony racing has been staged at British meetings in an attempt to encourage more young riders into point to pointing and national hunt racing. One of the few remaining point-to-point races run under the original conditions is the New Forest Boxing Day point-to-point, which has a given start and finish point, with riders allowed to choose their own course in-between.
This race is run over the open New Forest, with the general area of the finishing point publicised only within the fortnight before the race, the starting point kept secret until the day of the race itself. It includes races for children and veteran riders; the majority of the races are for riders on purebred New Forest ponies, but some races are open to horses and ponies of other breeds. Point-to-Point races are run over a minimum of three miles, but certain races, including some blue riband events are longer, Maiden races for young horses can be run over 2½ miles. Most Point-to-Point courses are laid out on ordinary farm land, although a few are placed on the inside of professional courses such as Bangor-on-Dee racecourse or Hexham. There are 110 point-to-point courses throughout the United Kingdom divided into nine regions. Devon & Cornwall: 15 - Bishops Court, Bratton Down, Buckfastleigh Racecourse Buckfastleigh, Flete Park, Great Trethew, Stafford Cross, Umberleigh, Upcott Cross, Wadebridge.
East: 8 - Ampton, Fakenham, High Easter, Horseheath, Marks Tey, Northaw. Midlands: 14 - Bitterley, Brafield-on-the-Green, Brocklesby Park, Chaddesley Corbett, Clifton-on-Dunsmore, Eyton-on-Severn, Guilsborough, North Carlton, Thorpe Lodge, Whitfield. North: 21 - Alnwick, Charm Park, Dalston, Dalton Park, Duncombe Park, Flagg Moor, Hexham, Hornby Castle, Hutton Rudby, Sherriff Hutton, Tranwell, Whitcliffe Grange, Whitwell-on-the-Hill, Witton Castle. Scotland: 4 - Balcormo Mains, Friars Haugh, Overton. South & Central: 4 - Hackwood Park, Kingston Blount, Lockinge. South: 7 - Aldington, Charing, Parham, Peper Harow. South West: 26 - Andoversford, Badbury Rings, Brampton Bryan, Charlton Horethorne, Chipley Park, Cold Harbour, Cotley, Garnons, Kingston St Mary, Little Windsor, Maisemore Park, Milborne St Andrew, Siddington, Ston Easton, Treborough Hill, Upper Sapey, Upton-on-Severn, Whitwick Manor, Woodford. Wales: 11 - Bangor-on-Dee, Howick, Llanvapley, Lower Machen, Llwyn Du in Glais replaces the course in Pentreclwydau, Trecoed, Ystradowen.
A three-mile race is invariably two circui
Horseball is a game played on horseback where a ball is handled and points are scored by shooting it through a hoop with a diameter of 1m. The sport is like a combination of polo and basketball, it is one of the ten disciplines recognized by the International Federation for Equestrian Sports. The sport's predecessor, originated in Argentina in the early 1700s, it was outlawed in 1790 due to high mortality among players. In 1941 the Federacion Argentina de Pato was created. In 1953 was declared as Argentina's national game; the name of the game "pato" derives from the use of a live duck instead of the six-handled ball, used in the modern sport. The game as its known today, including the use of a ball instead of an animal, was defined in the 1930s, it has spread across Europe and overseas. The International Horseball Federation has eighteen members including eight outside of Europe: Algeria, Australia, Canada, China and Mexico; the basic rules involve a team of 4 players making a minimum of 3 passes between 3 different players of their team and scoring a goal through a vertical hoop goal.
The game is played on a soft, non slip surface sand. The pitch is rectangular 65m x 25m. A match begins with a pick up, the rules for the first pick up are simple; the opposing team can defend by preventing them from being able to score by either pushing opponents out of the playing area using their horse's weight or by getting alongside a player and grabbing the ball from the attacker. In this situation, each rider must remain seated in the saddle. If both stay seated and the defender manages to keep hold of the ball for 3 seconds their team earns a penalty. Simple tactics of the game involve the attacking team going towards goal crossing paths as this method helps to manoeuvre the defence and create space for attacking team members to take advantage of. Players can return'home' if they feel an attack is failing and can cross past each other offloading the ball to form another attack; this method is quite used because a defender trying to get the ball will follow the player with the ball and are no longer a threat once the ball has been passed and is travelling in the opposite direction.
When the ball is dropped or falls to the ground, anyone can pick it up so long as they are travelling in the same direction as play was when the ball was dropped. This is to prevent a collision. Whilst picking the ball up during the game the player must not come to a stand still. There are several international competitions organized by the International Horse-Ball Federation: the European Championship, the World Championship, the clubs FIHB Champions League The European Senior Championship is the older international tournament, the first was in 1992 in Paris; this is a mixed-sex teams tournament. There have been seventeen editions of this tournament with Saint-Lô 2013. France is the only national team to have won this tournament, the Portuguese team has the most Silver, Belgium the most Bronze; the titles are: Gold for France, Silver for Spain and Bronze for Portugal. The European Lady Championship is the female only tournament, the first was in 2003 in Abano Terme 2003. There have been eight editions of this tournament with Saint-Lô 2013.
France is again the only national team to have won this tournament, tied for most silver are Belgium and Spain, tied with the most bronze are Belgium, Great Britain and Spain. The titles are: Gold for France, Silver for Spain and Bronze for Belgium; the European Under-16 Championship is the youth tournament with mixed-sex teams, the first was in 2004 in Lamotte-Beuvron 2004. There have been ten editions of this tournament with Saint-Lô 2013. France have been beaten to the gold twice by Spain in this tournament but still have the most golds. Spain have most silver and Italy have most bronze; the titles are: Gold for France, Silver for Portugal and Bronze for Spain. The World Championship, has been held twice; the first was at Ponte de Lima in 2008. The teams that played in the championship were Argentina, Belgium, Canada, Germany, Great Britain, Portugal, Spain; this was won by France, Spain got Silver, Portugal Bronze. The second edition was held in 2012 in Montpellier and the team competing were, Argentina, France, Great Britain, Spain.
The results were France with Gold, Spain got Silver, Portugal Bronze. The club level competition organized by the International Horseball Federation is the FIHB Chambions League; this is competed between the top club from the four highest ranked European nations. This competition began in 2007 in Stockholm and was won by Chambly Horse-Ball, the Portuguese team Sporting Clube de Portugal CEJC got Silver and Caramel from Belgium got Bronze. There have been 7 editions of this competition and In 2010 was held in Portugal the first Four Nations Cup won by the National French team, Portugal got silver and Spain got bronze. Pato, an earlier Argentine sport from which horseball is derived International Horseball Federation Deutscher Horseball Verband Horseball Portugal Belgian horse-ball team British Horseball Association Australian Horseball Association