Carrington Moss is a large area of peat bog near Carrington in Greater Manchester, England. It lies south of the River Mersey, approximately 10 miles south-west of Manchester, the depth of peat varies between 17 and 20 feet. Originally an unused area of moorland, the moss was reclaimed in the latter half of the 19th century for farming. A system of tramways was built to connect it with the Manchester Ship Canal, during the Second World War the land was used as a Starfish site and in the latter half of the 20th century, a large industrial complex was built along its northern edge. More recently, several sporting facilities have been built on Carrington Moss, today, the land is still used for farming and several nature reserves have been established within its bounds. Parts of Carrington Moss are accessible to the public over several rights of way, a Carrington Hall, seat of the Carrington family once existed to the north of Carrington Moss, at the junction formed by the modern-day A6144 and B5158 roads. The word moss, first used during the 15th century, forms part of the name for a lowland peat bog. Today the term is used to describe former bogs that have been converted to farmland. Manchesters population increased by more than 150% between 1831 and 1851 and this placed considerable pressure on the citys ability to dispose of refuse, exacerbated during the 1870s by a gradual switch from the older cesspit methods of sewage disposal to pail closets. These needed to be emptied regularly and by the 1880s, night soil accounted for about 75% of Manchesters 200,000 long tons of refuse, along with parts of Moss Side and Withington, in 1885 Bradford, Harpurhey and Rusholme became part of the City of Manchester. To cope with the demands placed on the areas refuse disposal systems. A number of locations were considered, including one on Deeside and another in Nottinghamshire, therefore, in 1886, the corporation bought the Carrington Moss Estate—an area of grouse moorland—from Harry Grey, 8th Earl of Stamford. It paid about £38,000, for the site, but the bogs depth, the 1, 101-acre estate included 600 acres of wild mossland,209 acres of partly cultivated mossland,282 acres of mossland under cultivation and 10 acres of incomplete roads. A number of buildings were included, along with Asphodel Farm and Ash Farm. The corporation rented 700 acres of land in small holdings to local farmers, the bogs virgin moss was cultivated and drainage channels cut through at regular intervals, the first step in the areas reclamation. This drainage caused the characteristically convex Moss to sag noticeably, some residents of Dunham Town commented that they could see parts of Carrington previously obscured by the moss, a network of tramways and roads was constructed using clinker and other materials brought from the city. Drains were laid and the land cleared of scrub, a water supply was also installed. Some of the more buildings were demolished, while others were either repaired or replaced
Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million. Greater Manchester was created on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972, Greater Manchester spans 493 square miles, which roughly covers the territory of the Greater Manchester Built-up Area, the second most populous urban area in the UK. It is landlocked and borders Cheshire, Derbyshire, West Yorkshire, Lancashire, for the 12 years following 1974 the county had a two-tier system of local government, district councils shared power with the Greater Manchester County Council. The county council was abolished in 1986, and so its districts became unitary authority areas. However, the county has continued to exist in law and as a geographic frame of reference, and as a ceremonial county, has a Lord Lieutenant. A further devolution of powers to Greater Manchester is set to place upon the election of the inaugural Mayor of Greater Manchester scheduled for 2017. Before the creation of the county, the name SELNEC was used for the area. Since deindustrialisation in the century, Greater Manchester has become known as an exporter of media and digital content, for its guitar and dance music. Although the modern county of Greater Manchester was not created until 1974, there is evidence of Iron Age habitation, particularly at Mellor, and Celtic activity in a settlement named Chochion, believed to have been an area of Wigan settled by the Brigantes. Stretford was also part of the believed to have been occupied by the Celtic Brigantes tribe. The remains of 1st-century forts at Castlefield in Manchester, and Castleshaw Roman fort in Saddleworth, are evidence of Roman occupation. Much of the region was omitted from the Domesday Book of 1086, Redhead states that this was only a partial survey was taken. During the Middle Ages, much of what became Greater Manchester lay within the hundred of Salfordshire – an ancient division of the county of Lancashire, Salfordshire encompassed several parishes and townships, some of which, like Rochdale, were important market towns and centres of Englands woollen trade. The development of what became Greater Manchester is attributed to a tradition of domestic flannel and fustian cloth production. Infrastructure such as rows of terraced housing, factories and roads were constructed to house labour, transport goods, however, it was Manchester that was the most populous settlement, a major city, the worlds largest marketplace for cotton goods, and the natural centre of its region. In the 1910s, local government reforms to administer this conurbation as an entity were proposed. In the 18th century, German traders had coined the name Manchesterthum to cover the region in, however, the English term Greater Manchester did not appear until the 20th century. One of its first known recorded uses was in a 1914 report put forward in response to what was considered to have been the creation of the County of London in 1889
Manchester City F.C.
Manchester City Football Club is a football club in Manchester, England. Founded in 1880 as St. Marks, they became Ardwick Association Football Club in 1887, the club moved to the City of Manchester Stadium in 2003, having played at Maine Road since 1923. After losing the 1981 FA Cup Final, the club went through a period of decline, having regained their Premier League status in the early 2000s, the club was purchased in 2008 by Abu Dhabi United Group and has become one of the wealthiest in the world. Since 2011 the club have won five major honours, including the Premier League in 2012 and 2014, by 2014–15, Manchester City had the sixth-highest revenue in the footballing world with an annual revenue of €463.5 million. In 2016, Forbes magazine estimated they were the sixth most valuable football club. City gained their first honours by winning the Second Division in 1899, with it promotion to the highest level in English football. A fire at Hyde Road destroyed the main stand in 1920, in the 1930s, Manchester City reached two consecutive FA Cup finals, losing to Everton in 1933, before claiming the Cup by beating Portsmouth in 1934. The club won the First Division title for the first time in 1937, after relegation to the Second Division in 1963, the future looked bleak with a record low home attendance of 8,015 against Swindon Town in January 1965. In the summer of 1965, the management team of Joe Mercer, in the first season under Mercer, City won the Second Division title and made important signings in Mike Summerbee and Colin Bell. Further trophies followed, City won the FA Cup in 1969, before achieving European success by winning the European Cup Winners Cup in 1970, beating Górnik Zabrze 2–1 in Vienna. City also won the League Cup that season, becoming the second English team to win a European trophy, the club continued to challenge for honours throughout the 1970s, finishing one point behind the league champions on two occasions and reaching the final of the 1974 League Cup. Former United player Denis Law scored with a backheel to give City a 1–0 win at Old Trafford, the final trophy of the clubs most successful period was won in 1976, when Newcastle United were beaten 2–1 in the League Cup final. A long period of decline followed the success of the 1960s and 1970s, Malcolm Allison rejoined the club to become manager for the second time in 1979, but squandered large sums of money on unsuccessful signings, such as Steve Daley. A succession of managers then followed – seven in the 1980s alone, under John Bond, City reached the 1981 FA Cup final but lost in a replay to Tottenham Hotspur. The club were relegated from the top flight in the 1980s. However, this was only a respite, and following Reids departure Manchester Citys fortunes continued to fade. City were co-founders of the Premier League upon its creation in 1992, after two seasons in Division One, City fell to the lowest point in their history, becoming the second ever European trophy winners to be relegated to their countrys third league tier, after 1. After relegation, the club underwent off-the-field upheaval, with new chairman David Bernstein introducing greater fiscal discipline, under manager Joe Royle, City were promoted at the first attempt, achieved in dramatic fashion in a play-off against Gillingham
Sportcity in Manchester was used to host the 2002 Commonwealth Games. It is in east Manchester, a mile from Manchester city centre, sportcitys largest structure, the City of Manchester Stadium, was built for the 2002 Commonwealth Games. It is now home to Manchester City F. C. and is one of the largest football stadiums in England, the Manchester Velodrome is the base for British Cycling and the National Indoor BMX Arena was completed in 2011. SportCity is home to the National Squash Centre and the Manchester Regional Arena for athletics, future developments will include Manchester Citys £50m training complex and a leisure complex. The Sportcity complex is in Beswick and Bradford in east Manchester, a visitor centre provides information the sites history from a heavily industrialised area to its ongoing regeneration. The Etihad Campus tram stop on the Manchester Metrolink close to Joe Mercer Way became operational on 11 February 2013, Sportcity was the proposed location for the U. K. s first SuperCasino, but the plan was rejected by the House of Lords. It was also the site of an 85-metre wind turbine in 2006. Designed by Norman Foster, the turbine was intended to power for the stadium and nearby homes. The City of Manchester Stadium was used for the 2002 Commonwealth Games and is the home of Manchester City Football Club, the stadium with twelve 70 metre high masts and a capacity of just over 55,000 has become a landmark on the Manchester skyline. The stadium is leased to the football club, the club plans to increase the stadiums capacity to 60,000 by adding a third tier to the north and south stands. The National Cycling Centre is a multipurpose cycling venue including the Manchester Velodrome, National Indoor BMX Arena, Manchester Velodrome was built for Manchester Olympic bids in the 1990s and used for the 2002 Commonwealth Games. The velodrome had a legacy and in the Beijing Olympics in 2008. British Cycling and Manchester City Council, in partnership with New East Manchester worked together to deliver the 110 and it was designed by Ellis Williams Architects, and built by contractors Sir Robert McAlpine. Alongside the velodrome, the £24 million complex will form the National Cycling Centre and it has 2,000 seats, a BMX area and offices for the headquarters of the British Cycling Federation. Manchester Regional Arena is a stadium at SportCity primarily used for athletics. It was developed as the track for the 2002 Commonwealth Games held in the adjacent City of Manchester Stadium. It has hosted the AAA Championships and Paralympic World Cup, and was the home ground of Manchester City reserves before the team moved to Ewen Fields in June 2010. The National Squash Centre is another part of the Sportcity complex which was constructed for the 2002 Commonwealth Games, costing approximately £3. 5m, the facilities include six courts and a glass-walled show court which cost £110,000
Trafford is a metropolitan borough of Greater Manchester, England. With an estimated population of about 233,300 in 2015, it covers 41 square miles and includes the towns of Altrincham, Partington, Sale, Stretford, all were previously in Cheshire, apart from Stretford and Urmston which were in Lancashire. The River Mersey flows through the borough, separating North Trafford from South Trafford, historically the Mersey also acted as the boundary between the historic counties of Lancashire and Cheshire. The Trafford area has a heritage, with evidence of Neolithic, Bronze Age. Amongst the relics of the past are two castles – one of them a Scheduled Ancient Monument – and over 200 listed buildings, the area underwent change in the late 19th century and the population rapidly expanded with the arrival of the railway. Trafford is the home of Manchester United F. C. and Lancashire County Cricket Club, Trafford has a strong economy with low levels of unemployment and contains both Trafford Park industrial estate and the Trafford Centre, a large out-of-town shopping centre. Apart from the City of Manchester, Trafford is the borough in Greater Manchester to be above the national average for weekly income. Socially, the area includes both working class areas like Old Trafford and Stretford and middle class such as Bowdon. Altrincham and Sale West is one of the five constituencies in Greater Manchester to be held by the Conservative Party. The choice of the name Trafford for the borough was a compromise between Altrincham, Stretford and Sale, and seemed to have wide support, a Liberal councillor for the Municipal Borough of Sale suggested Crossford. Whilst Watlingford was suggested by councillors in Hale, after the name of an ancient Roman road in the district. As a place name, Trafford is an Anglo-French version of Stratford, deriving from the Old English words stræt, the Metropolitan Borough of Trafford has existed since 1974, but the area it covers has a long history. Neolithic arrowheads have been discovered in Altrincham and Sale, and there is evidence of Bronze Age habitation in Timperley, fragments of Roman pottery have been found in Urmston, and Roman coins have been found in Sale. The Roman road between the fortresses at Chester and York crosses Trafford, passing through Stretford, Sale. The settlements in Trafford have been based largely around agriculture, although Altrincham was founded as a town in the mid 13th century. Although the Industrial Revolution affected Trafford, the area did not experience the same rate of growth as the rest of Greater Manchester, the area developed its own centres of industry in Broadheath and Trafford Park. They have since declined, although Trafford Park still employs 40–50,000 people, today, Trafford is mostly a commuter area. The borough was formed on 1 April 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972 as one of the ten districts of Greater Manchester
Manchester United F.C.
Manchester United Football Club is a professional football club based in Old Trafford, Greater Manchester, England, that competes in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. Nicknamed the Red Devils, the club was founded as Newton Heath LYR Football Club in 1878, changed its name to Manchester United in 1902 and moved to its current stadium, Old Trafford, in 1910. Manchester United have won a record 20 League Titles, a joint-record 12 FA Cups,5 League Cups, the club has also won three European Cups, one UEFA Cup Winners Cup, one UEFA Super Cup, one Intercontinental Cup and one FIFA Club World Cup. In 1998–99, the became the first in the history of English football to achieve the treble of the Premier League, the FA Cup. The 1958 Munich air disaster claimed the lives of eight players, in 1968, under the management of Matt Busby, Manchester United became the first English football club to win the European Cup. Alex Ferguson won 38 trophies, including 13 Premier League titles,5 FA Cups and 2 UEFA Champions Leagues, José Mourinho is the clubs current manager, having been appointed on 27 May 2016. As of June 2015, it is the worlds most valuable football brand and it is one of the most widely supported football teams in the world. In August 2012, Manchester United made a public offering on the New York Stock Exchange. The club holds several rivalries, most notably with Liverpool, Manchester City and Leeds United, Manchester United was formed in 1878 as Newton Heath LYR Football Club by the Carriage and Wagon department of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway depot at Newton Heath. By 1888, the club had become a member of The Combination. Following the leagues dissolution after only one season, Newton Heath joined the newly formed Football Alliance and this resulted in the club starting the 1892–93 season in the First Division, by which time it had become independent of the railway company and dropped the LYR from its name. After two seasons, the club was relegated to the Second Division, in January 1902, with debts of £2,670 – equivalent to £260,000 in 2017 – the club was served with a winding-up order. The following season began with victory in the first ever Charity Shield, Manchester United won the First Division for the second time in 1911, but at the end of the following season, Mangnall left the club to join Manchester City. In 1922, three years after the resumption of football following the First World War, the club was relegated to the Second Division, relegated again in 1931, Manchester United became a yo-yo club, achieving its all-time lowest position of 20th place in the Second Division in 1934. Gibson, who, in December 1931, invested £2,000, in the 1938–39 season, the last year of football before the Second World War, the club finished 14th in the First Division. Busby led the team to second-place league finishes in 1947,1948 and 1949, in 1952, the club won the First Division, its first league title for 41 years. With an average age of 22, the title winning side of 1956 were labelled the Busby Babes by the media. In 1957, Manchester United became the first English team to compete in the European Cup, despite objections from The Football League, who had denied Chelsea the same opportunity the previous season
In some places such as Australia, and in military slang, a tarp may be known as a hootch. Tarpaulins often have reinforced grommets at the corners and along the sides to form attachment points for rope, inexpensive modern tarpaulins are made from woven polyethylene, this material is so associated with tarpaulins that it has become colloquially known in some quarters as polytarp. The word tarpaulin originated as a compound of the words tar, sailors often tarred their own overclothes in the same manner as the sheets or palls. By association, sailors became known as Jack Tars, thus constructed, they were placed upon a duck paulin, which was drawn up tightly around the beds and secured. Tarpaulins have multiple uses, including as shelter from the elements, i. e. wind, rain, or sunlight, tarpaulins are often used during the build process to protect brickwork and masonry from weather damage. Such was the demand for tarpaulins by the New South Wales Government Railways, up until 1990 and it is also used on outdoor market stalls to provide some protection from the elements of nature. Tarpaulins are also used for advertisement printing, most notably for billboards, perforated tarpaulins are typically used for large-medium advertising, or for protection on scaffoldings, the aim of the perforations is to reduce wind vulnerability. Polyethylene tarpaulins have also proven to be a source when an inexpensive. Many amateur builders of plywood sailboats turn to polyethylene tarpaulins for making their sails, as it is inexpensive, with the proper type of adhesive tape, it is possible to make a serviceable sail for a small boat with no sewing. Tarps can also be classified by size—a common determining factor for consumers in acquiring tarps—and measured in width by length, actual tarp sizes are generally about three to five percent smaller than the advertised size. Some other factors that may influence a purchase decision include color, grommet type, the weave count, a measure of tarp strength, often runs between and the greater the count, the greater its resistance against ripping in high wind conditions. Tarps may also be washable or non-washable and waterproof or non-waterproof, Tarp flexibility refers to its ability to remain pliable during cold winter months, some tarps offer more flexibility than others in cold weather. Some manufacturers also advertise their tarps as rot-proof, but this may be more an subjective than an objective measurement, a polyethylene tarp is not a traditional fabric, but rather, a laminate of woven and sheet material. The center is loosely woven from strips of plastic, with sheets of the same material bonded to the surface. This creates a material that resists stretching well in all directions and is waterproof. Sheets can be either of Low density polyethelene or High density polyethelene, canvas tarps are not 100% waterproof, though they are water resistant. Vinyl tarps are industrial-grade and intended for heavy-duty use and they are constructed of 10 oz. per sq. yd. -weight coated yellow vinyl. This makes the tarp waterproof and have high resistance and tear strength
A ladder is a vertical or inclined set of rungs or steps. There are two types, rigid ladders that can be leaned against a surface such as a wall. The vertical members of a rigid ladder are called stringers or rails or stiles, rigid ladders are usually portable, but some types are permanently fixed to a structure, building, or equipment. They are commonly made of metal, wood, or fiberglass, Fixed ladder, two side members joined by several rungs, affixed to structure with no moving parts Folding ladder, a ladder in the step ladder style with one or more one-way hinges. Ideal for use on ground, as a trestle or when fully extended a Fixed ladder. They sometimes have an upper platform and a hand rail to assist in moving up. Step ladders have flat steps and a hinged back, henry Quackenbush patented the extension ladder in 1867. Rope ladders or Jacobs ladders are used where space is extremely limited, weight must be kept to a minimum. They may have rigid or flexible rungs, climbing a rope ladder requires more skill than climbing a rigid ladder, because the ladder tends to swing like a pendulum. Jacobs ladders used on a ship are used mostly for emergencies or for access to the side of a ship. Steel and aluminium wire ladders are used in vertical caving, having developed from rope ladders with wooden rungs. The most common injury made by ladder climbers is bruising from falling off a ladder, ladders can slip backwards owing to faulty base pads which usually fit into the ladder stiles. If badly worn, they can allow the aluminium to contact the ground rather than plastic or rubber, Ladder stabilizers are available that increase the ladders grip on the ground. One of the first ladder stabilizers or ladder feet was offered in 1936, a ladder standoff, or stay, is a device fitted to the top of a ladder to hold it away from the wall. This enables the ladder to clear overhanging obstacles, such as the eaves of a roof, footing occurs when another worker stands on the lowest rung and so provides much greater stability to the ladder when being used. The anchor point is usually a ring cemented into a slot in the wall to which the rungs of a ladder can be attached using rope for example. If a leaning ladder is placed at the angle, the risk of a fall is greatly increased. The safest angle for a ladder is 75. 5°, if it is too shallow, the bottom of the ladder is at risk of sliding, and if it is too steep, the ladder may fall backwards
City of Manchester Stadium
It was agreed in 1997 that Manchester City F. C. would lease the stadium from Manchester City Council and move from their aging Maine Road ground - a move which took place in the summer of 2003. In August 2015, a 7,000 seat third tier on the South Stand was completed, the expansion was designed to be in keeping with the existing roof design. A North Stand third tier has planning approval and work on it is expected to begin by 2017, plans to build a new stadium in Manchester were formulated before 1989 as part of the citys bid to host the 1996 Summer Olympics. Manchester City Council submitted a bid that included a design for an 80, the bid failed and Atlanta hosted the Games. For the February 1993 bid the city council submitted another 80, 000-capacity stadium design produced by design consultants Arup Associates, in 1996, this same planned stadium competed with Wembley Stadium to gain funding to become the new national stadium, but the money was used to redevelop Wembley. However, Manchester City Council did not have the money to facilitate movable seating, the stadiums foundation stone was laid by Prime Minister Tony Blair in December 1999, and construction began in January 2000. The first public event at the stadium was the ceremony of the 2002 Commonwealth Games on 25 July 2002. Among the dignitaries present was Queen Elizabeth II who made a speech, delivered to her in an electronic baton, during the following ten days of competition, the stadium hosted the track and field events and all the rugby sevens matches. Sixteen new Commonwealth Games track and field records were set in the stadium, in terms of number of participating nations, it is still the largest Commonwealth Games in history, featuring 72 nations competing in 281 events across seventeen sports. The three temporary stands with a capacity of 16,000 were dismantled, and replaced with a permanent structure of similar design to the existing one at the southern end. This work took nearly a year to complete and added 23,000 permanent seats, Manchester City F. C. moved to the ground in time for the start of the 2003–04 season. 5m. The stadium is owned by Manchester City Council and leased by the football club, the 2008 takeover made the football club one of the wealthiest in the world, prompting suggestions that it could consider buying the stadium outright. Manchester City signed an agreement with Manchester City Council in March 2010 to allow a £1 billion redevelopment led by architect Rafael Viñoly. This new agreement occurred as part of a standard 5-year review of the original lease, during 2011-14 the club sold all 36,000 of its allocated season tickets each season and experienced an average match attendance that is very close to its maximum seating capacity. Consequently, during the 2014-15 season an expansion of the stadium was undertaken, the South Stand was extended with the addition of a third tier which, in conjunction with an additional three rows of pitch side seating, increased stadium capacity to approximately 55,000. Construction commenced on the South Stand in April 2014 and was completed for the start of the 2015-16 season. A final phase of expansion, that planning approval at the same time as the others but which remains unscheduled. Once this last phase is completed it will bring the total seating capacity up to approximately 61,000
Manchester City F.C. ownership and finances
The Ownership of Manchester City Football Club traces back to 1894, when Ardwick A. F. C. dissolved and were reformed as Manchester City Football Club Ltd. Net spending in the Premier League era is comparable with Tottenham Hotspur, the report highlighted the clubs immense spending power, meaning as of September 2010 there was a surplus transfer budget of around £175m after the transfer window of summer 2010. Since September 2010 up to September 2011, approximately a further £100m has been spent, as of 21 August 2015 Since September 2008, the club is owned fully by Sheikh Mansour and Khaldoon Al Mubarak is Chairman on his behalf. Al Mubarak has been Chairman since September 2008, when he took over from previous owner, garry Cook has been Chief Executive Officer since July 2008, after he was previously one of Nike Inc. top hierarchy. His tenure at the club has been marked by improvement in facilities for supporters, players, and staff, brian Marwood has been Football Administration Officer since March 2009. Then Manager Mark Hughes was concerned about the club bringing someone in a Director of Football role and its main role signing transfer targets, whilst improving the clubs infrastructure off the pitch. Patrick Vieira, who retired from football in July 2011, is currently Football development executive, Vieira has stated his intention to acquire his UEFA coaching badges while in his Football development executive role. The club posted a loss of £92.5 million for the year ending 31 May 2009. Furthermore the agreement of understanding gave the permission to build. In July 2011, it was announced the area where the developments will be built will be called the Etihad Campus, in return Etihad Airways will pay sponsorship to Manchester City F. C. The new training complex will be based on AC Milans Milanello training complex, preliminary preparation began in April 2010 with remiadiation of the 17 acres of empty land around the Eastlands stadium. After increasing tickets figures and a sell out all 36,000 season tickets for the 2010–11 season the club has explored options for increasing the stadiums capacity. This previous system earned the council approximately £2 million a year, whereas the new, the agreement is linked to Manchester Citys willingness to considering potential development as part of a contribution to the regeneration of east Manchester, proposals which are being planned. The modern day Manchester City Football Club became a limited company on 16 April 1894. Shares in the club were owned by a number of club figures, the first Chairman was John Chapman, a local publican. In 1902 City were relegated and Hulton took charge, an early board member was newspaper owner Edward Hulton, who held influence at the start of the 20th century. In the 1920s Lawrence Furniss was Chairman, he had served the club in various capacities since playing for them when the club was still Gorton AFC in the mid-1880s, after the end of hostilities in the mid-1940s the Chairman was Robert Smith. In the mid-50s Walter Smith became Chairman before Alan Douglas took over between 1956 and 1964, Douglas stepped down due to ill health, allowing the Alexander family to gain control