The scorpio or scorpion was a type of Roman torsion siege engine and field artillery piece. It was described in detail by the early-imperial Roman architect and engineer Vitruvius in the 1st century BC and by the 4th century AD officer and historian Ammianus Marcellinus; the scorpio is a torsion catapult powered by a kind of ballista. It used a system of torsion springs to propel the projectiles. Scorpions could be designed to arrow-shaped missiles of various sizes. Scorpions could be large enough to damage city walls during sieges, but the term refers to the smaller battlefield artillery, which were manoeuvrable enough to be taken on campaign, were light enough to be deployed in numbers on the top levels of wooden siege towers, compact enough to be used on parapets and palisades. Depictions of this kind depicted are on Trajan's Column. Though the scorpion, like other ballistae, could resemble large crossbows, their design and propulsion is quite different; the scorpio could refer to two kinds of torsion catapult.
The fourth century army officer and historian Ammianus Marcellinus witnessed the use of scorpiones during several engagements in the Persian wars of Constantius II, described the one-armed version as synonymous with the onager, with the vertical upraised arm as the'scorpion's sting'. The complexity of construction and in particular the torsion springs led to great sensitivity to any variation in temperature or moisture, which limited their use. While this type of technology continued to be used in the Byzantine Empire, the continuation of the Roman Empire through the Middle Ages, it had disappeared in the Middle Ages in Western Europe, but re-appeared during the First Crusade in the form of a new type of catapult based on a system of slings and counterweights for the projection of stone balls, as giant crossbows as the field of metallurgy progressed, allowing more reliable metal tension weapons. In 52 BC, during the siege of Avaricum in the war against the Gauls, Julius Caesar mentions the scorpio in use as an anti-personnel weapon against the Gallic town's defenders.
The late third or early fifth century Roman author Vegetius described weapons like the scorpion mounted on carts for campaign use. According to Vegetius, the Roman Empire ideally fielded fifty-five carroballistae per legion, one for every century, of whom ten men would be deputed to operate the machine. These, which match Vitruvius's description and the depictions on Trajan's Column and the Column of Marcus Aurelius, he describes as mule-drawn, armour-piercing ballistae which "are to be used not only for defending the camp, but in the field"; the carroballista could be synonymous with, or similar to, the scorpio mounted on a cart. The bolt-firing scorpio had two functions in a legion. In precision shooting, it was a weapon of marksmanship capable of cutting down any foe within a distance of 100 meters. In parabolic shooting, the range is greater, with distances up to 400 meters, the firing rate is higher. With precision shooting the rate of fire was less. Scorpions could be used in an artillery battery at the top of a hill or other high ground, the side of, protected by the main body of the legion.
The weight and speed of a bolt was sufficient to pierce enemy shields also wounding the enemy so struck. Like other ancient artillery, the scorpion could be cumbersome and costly campaign equipment, as it could be quite difficult to move and acted as a fixed weapon used in infantry defense and for sieges, where it was used both as a siege weapon, fired by the besiegers from earthworks and siege towers, as an element in cities' defences, mounted on walls and towers. A further development of torsion siege engines scorpio was the cheiroballista. A Reconstruction of Vitruvius' Scorpion
Column of Marcus Aurelius
The Column of Marcus Aurelius is a Roman victory column in Piazza Colonna, Italy. It is a Doric column featuring a spiral relief: it was built in honour of Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius and modeled on Trajan's Column; because the original dedicatory inscription has been destroyed, it is not known whether it was built during the emperor’s reign or after his death in 180. In terms of the topography of ancient Rome, the column stood on the north part of the Campus Martius, in the centre of a square; this square was either between the temple of Hadrian and the temple of Marcus Aurelius, or within the latter’s sacred precinct, of which nothing remains. Nearby is the site where the emperor’s cremation occurred; the column’s shaft is 29.62 metres high, on a ca. 10.1-metre high base, which in turn stood on a 3 metres high platform - the column in total is 39.72 metres About 3 metres of the base have been below ground level since the 1589 restoration. The column consists of 27 or 28 blocks of Carrara marble, each of 3.7 metres diameter, hollowed out whilst still at the quarry for a stairway of 190-200 steps within the column up to a platform at the top.
Just as with Trajan’s Column, this stairway is illuminated through narrow slits into the relief. The spiral picture relief tells the story of Marcus Aurelius' Danubian or Marcomannic wars, waged by him from 166 to his death; the story begins with the army crossing the river Danube at Carnuntum. A Victory separates the accounts of two expeditions; the exact chronology of the events is disputed. One particular episode portrayed is attested in Roman propaganda – the so-called "rain miracle in the territory of the Quadi", in which a god, answering a prayer from the emperor, rescues Roman troops by a terrible storm, a miracle claimed by the Christians for the Christian God. In spite of many similarities to Trajan's column, the style is different, a forerunner of the dramatic style of the 3rd century and related to the triumphal arch of Septimius Severus, erected soon after; the figures' heads are disproportionately large so that the viewer can better interpret their facial expressions. The images are carved less finely than at Trajan's Column, through drilling holes more into the stone, so that they stand out better in a contrast of light and dark.
As villages are burned down and children are captured and displaced, men are killed, the emotion and suffering of the "barbarians" in the war, are represented acutely in single scenes and in the figures' facial expressions and gestures, whilst the emperor is represented as protagonist, in control of his environment. The symbolic language is altogether clearer and more expressive, if clumsier at first sight, leaves a wholly different impression on the viewer to the whole artistic style of 100 to 150 as on Trajan's column. There and sober balance – here and empathy; the pictorial language is unambiguous - imperial dominance and authority is emphasised, its leadership is justified. Overall, it is an anticipation of the development of artistic style into late antiquity, a first artistic expression of the crisis of the Roman empire that would worsen in the 3rd century. In the Middle Ages, climbing the column was so popular that the right to charge the entrance fee was annually auctioned, but it is no longer possible to do so today.
Now the Column serves a centrepiece to the piazza in front of the Palazzo Chigi. About three metres of the base have been below ground level since 1589 when, by order of pope Sixtus V, the whole column was restored by Domenico Fontana and adapted to the ground level of that time. A bronze statue of the apostle St. Paul was placed on the top platform, to go with that of St. Peter on Trajan’s Column; that adaptation removed the damaged or destroyed original reliefs on the base of garland-carrying victories and representations of subjected barbarians, replacing them with the following inscription mistakenly calling this the column of Antoninus Pius, now recognised as lost: Height of base: 1.58 metres + Height of shaft: 26.49 metres Typical height of drums: 1.559 metres Diameter of shaft: 3.48 metres + Height of capital: 1.55 metres = Height of column proper: 29.62 metres + Height of pedestal: ~ 10.1 metres = Height of top of column above ground: ~ 39.72 metres List of ancient spiral stairs Roman Architecture Beckmann, Martin.
The Column of Marcus Aurelius. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-3461-9. Beckmann, Martin. "The'Columnae Coclides' of Trajan and Marcus Aurelius". Phoenix. Classical Association of Canada. 56: 348–357. Doi:10.2307/1192605. JSTOR 1192605. Caprino, C.. La Colonna di Marco Aurelio. Coarelli, F.. La Colonna di Marco Aurelio - The Column of Marcus Aurelius. Ferr
The oxybeles was a weapon used by the Ancient Greeks starting in 375 BC. The word is derived from Ancient Greek: οξύς and βέλος; the weapon was an oversized gastraphetes, a composite bow placed on a stand with a stock and a trigger. It was supplanted by the scientifically engineered ballista; the difference between the two is the use of torsion power by the ballista. The most notable use of the oxybeles was under Alexander the Great's rule
The Roman army was the terrestrial armed forces deployed by the Romans throughout the duration of Ancient Rome, from the Roman Kingdom to the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, its medieval continuation the Eastern Roman Empire. It is thus a term that may span 2,206 years, during which the Roman armed forces underwent numerous permutations in composition, organisation and tactics, while conserving a core of lasting traditions.. The Early Roman army was the armed force of the Roman Kingdom and of the early Republic. During this period, when warfare chiefly consisted of small-scale plundering raids, it has been suggested that the army followed Etruscan or Greek models of organisation and equipment; the early Roman army was based on an annual levy. The infantry ranks were filled with the lower classes while the cavalry were left to the patricians, because the wealthier could afford horses. Moreover, the commanding authority during the regal period was the high king; until the establishment of the Republic and the office of consul, the king assumed the role of commander-in-chief.
However, from about 508 BC Rome no longer had a king. The commanding position of the army was given to the consuls, "who were charged both singly and jointly to take care to preserve the Republic from danger"; the term legion is derived from the Latin word legio. At first there were only four legions; these legions were numbered "I" to "IIII", with the fourth being written as such and not "IV". The first legion was seen as the most prestigious; the bulk of the army was made up of citizens. These citizens could not choose the legion. Any man "from ages 16–46 were selected by ballot" and assigned to a legion; until the Roman military disaster of 390 BC at the Battle of the Allia, Rome's army was organised to the Greek phalanx. This was due to Greek influence in Italy "by way of their colonies". Patricia Southern quotes ancient historians Livy and Dionysius in saying that the "phalanx consisted of 3,000 infantry and 300 cavalry"; each man had to provide his equipment in battle. Politically they shared the same ranking system in the Comitia Centuriata.
The Roman army of the mid-Republic was known as the "manipular army" or the "Polybian army" after the Greek historian Polybius, who provides the most detailed extant description of this phase. The Roman army started to have a full-time strength of 150,000 at all times and 3/4 of the rest were levied. During this period, the Romans, while maintaining the levy system, adopted the Samnite manipular organisation for their legions and bound all the other peninsular Italian states into a permanent military alliance; the latter were required to supply the same number of troops to joint forces as the Romans to serve under Roman command. Legions in this phase were always accompanied on campaign by the same number of allied alae, units of the same size as legions. After the 2nd Punic War, the Romans acquired an overseas empire, which necessitated standing forces to fight lengthy wars of conquest and to garrison the newly gained provinces, thus the army's character mutated from a temporary force based on short-term conscription to a standing army in which the conscripts were supplemented by a large number of volunteers willing to serve for much longer than the legal six-year limit.
These volunteers were from the poorest social class, who did not have plots to tend at home and were attracted by the modest military pay and the prospect of a share of war booty. The minimum property requirement for service in the legions, suspended during the 2nd Punic War, was ignored from 201 BC onward in order to recruit sufficient volunteers. Between 150-100 BC, the manipular structure was phased out, the much larger cohort became the main tactical unit. In addition, from the 2nd Punic War onward, Roman armies were always accompanied by units of non-Italian mercenaries, such as Numidian light cavalry, Cretan archers, Balearic slingers, who provided specialist functions that Roman armies had lacked; the Roman army of the late Republic marks the continued transition between the conscription-based citizen-levy of the mid-Republic and the volunteer, professional standing forces of the imperial era. The main literary sources for the army's organisation and tactics in this phase are the works of Julius Caesar, the most notable of a series of warlords who contested for power in this period.
As a result of the Social War, all Italians were granted Roman citizenship, the old allied alae were abolished and their members integrated into the legions. Regular annual conscription remained in force and continued to provide the core of legionary recruitment, but an ever-increasing proportion of recruits were volunteers, who signed up for 16-year terms as opposed to the maximum 6 years for conscripts; the loss of ala cavalry reduced Roman/Italian cavalry by 75%, legions became dependent on allied native horse for cavalry cover. This period saw the large-scale expansion of native forces employed to complement the legions, made up of numeri recruited from tribes within Rome's overseas empire and neighbouring allied tribes. Large numbers of heavy infantry and cavalry were recruited in Spain and Thrace, archers in Thrace and Syria. However, these native units were not integrated with the legions, but retained th
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed; the Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an autocratic semi-elective empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it dominated the North African coast and most of Western Europe, the Balkans and much of the Middle East.
It is grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern language, society, law, government, art, literature and engineering. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France, it achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as the construction of large monuments and public facilities. The Punic Wars with Carthage were decisive in establishing Rome as a world power. In this series of wars Rome gained control of the strategic islands of Corsica and Sicily. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa.
The Roman Empire emerged with the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman–Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia. It would become the longest conflict in human history, have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, it stretched from the entire Mediterranean Basin to the beaches of the North Sea in the north, to the shores of the Red and Caspian Seas in the East. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent "barbarian" kingdoms in the 5th century; this splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe.
The eastern part of the empire endured through the 5th century and remained a power throughout the "Dark Ages" and medieval times until its fall in 1453 AD. Although the citizens of the empire made no distinction, the empire is most referred to as the "Byzantine Empire" by modern historians during the Middle Ages to differentiate between the state of antiquity and the nation it grew into. According to the founding myth of Rome, the city was founded on 21 April 753 BC on the banks of the river Tiber in central Italy, by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas, who were grandsons of the Latin King Numitor of Alba Longa. King Numitor was deposed by his brother, while Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to the twins. Since Rhea Silvia had been raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine; the new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, so he ordered them to be drowned. A she-wolf saved and raised them, when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor.
The twins founded their own city, but Romulus killed Remus in a quarrel over the location of the Roman Kingdom, though some sources state the quarrel was about, going to rule or give his name to the city. Romulus became the source of the city's name. In order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted; this caused a problem, in that Rome was bereft of women. Romulus visited neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables he was refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins with the Sabines. Another legend, recorded by Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus, says that Prince Aeneas led a group of Trojans on a sea voyage to found a new Troy, since the original was destroyed at the end of the Trojan War. After a long time in rough seas, they landed on the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, but the women who were traveling with them did not want to leave.
One woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent their leaving
Scientific American is an American popular science magazine. Many famous scientists, including Albert Einstein, have contributed articles to it, it is the oldest continuously published monthly magazine in the United States. Scientific American was founded by inventor and publisher Rufus M. Porter in 1845 as a four-page weekly newspaper. Throughout its early years, much emphasis was placed on reports of what was going on at the U. S. Patent Office, it reported on a broad range of inventions including perpetual motion machines, an 1860 device for buoying vessels by Abraham Lincoln, the universal joint which now can be found in nearly every automobile manufactured. Current issues include a "this date in history" section, featuring excerpts from articles published 50, 100, 150 years earlier. Topics include humorous incidents, wrong-headed theories, noteworthy advances in the history of science and technology. Porter sold the publication to Alfred Ely Beach and Orson Desaix Munn a mere ten months after founding it.
Until 1948, it remained owned by Company. Under Munn's grandson, Orson Desaix Munn III, it had evolved into something of a "workbench" publication, similar to the twentieth-century incarnation of Popular Science. In the years after World War II, the magazine fell into decline. In 1948, three partners who were planning on starting a new popular science magazine, to be called The Sciences, purchased the assets of the old Scientific American instead and put its name on the designs they had created for their new magazine, thus the partners—publisher Gerard Piel, editor Dennis Flanagan, general manager Donald H. Miller, Jr.—essentially created a new magazine. Miller retired in 1979, Flanagan and Piel in 1984, when Gerard Piel's son Jonathan became president and editor. In 1986, it was sold to the Holtzbrinck group of Germany. In the fall of 2008, Scientific American was put under the control of Nature Publishing Group, a division of Holtzbrinck. Donald Miller died in December 1998, Gerard Piel in September 2004 and Dennis Flanagan in January 2005.
Mariette DiChristina is the current editor-in-chief, after John Rennie stepped down in June 2009. Scientific American published its first foreign edition in 1890, the Spanish-language La America Cientifica. Publication was suspended in 1905, another 63 years would pass before another foreign-language edition appeared: In 1968, an Italian edition, Le Scienze, was launched, a Japanese edition, Nikkei Science, followed three years later. A new Spanish edition, Investigación y Ciencia was launched in Spain in 1976, followed by a French edition, Pour la Science, in France in 1977, a German edition, Spektrum der Wissenschaft, in Germany in 1978. A Russian edition V Mire Nauki was launched in the Soviet Union in 1983, continues in the present-day Russian Federation. Kexue, a simplified Chinese edition launched in 1979, was the first Western magazine published in the People's Republic of China. Founded in Chongqing, the simplified Chinese magazine was transferred to Beijing in 2001. In 2005, a newer edition, Global Science, was published instead of Kexue, which shut down due to financial problems.
A traditional Chinese edition, known as Scientist, was introduced to Taiwan in 2002. The Hungarian edition Tudomány existed between 1984 and 1992. In 1986, an Arabic edition, Oloom Magazine, was published. In 2002, a Portuguese edition was launched in Brazil. Today, Scientific American publishes 18 foreign-language editions around the globe: Arabic, Brazilian Portuguese, Simplified Chinese, Traditional Chinese, Dutch, German, Hebrew, Japanese, Lithuanian, Romanian and Spanish. From 1902 to 1911, Scientific American supervised the publication of the Encyclopedia Americana, which during some of that period was known as The Americana, it styled itself "The Advocate of Industry and Enterprise" and "Journal of Mechanical and other Improvements". On the front page of the first issue was the engraving of "Improved Rail-Road Cars"; the masthead had a commentary as follows: Scientific American published every Thursday morning at No. 11 Spruce Street, New York, No. 16 State Street, No. 2l Arcade Philadelphia, by Rufus Porter.
Each number will be furnished with from two to five original Engravings, many of them elegant, illustrative of New Inventions, Scientific Principles, Curious Works. Improvements and Inventions; this paper is entitled to the patronage of Mechanics and Manufactures, being the only paper in America, devoted to the interest of those classes. As a family newspaper, it will convey more useful intelligence to children and young people, than five times its cost in school instruction. Another important argument in favor of this paper, is that it will be worth two dollars at the end of the year when the volume is complete, (Old volumes of the New York Mechanic, being now worth double th
The gastraphetes was a hand-held crossbow used by the Ancient Greeks. It was described in the 1st century AD by the Greek author Heron of Alexandria in his work Belopoeica, which draws on an earlier account of the famous Greek engineer Ctesibius. Heron identifies the gastraphetes as the forerunner of the catapult, which places its invention some unknown time prior to c. 420 BC. Unlike Roman and medieval crossbows, spanning the weapon was not done by pulling up the string, but by pushing down an elaborate slider mechanism. A detailed description and drawing of the gastraphetes appears in Heron's Belopoeica, drawn from the account by the 3rd-century BC engineer Ctesibius; the weapon was powered by a composite bow. It was cocked by resting the stomach in a concavity at the rear of the stock and pressing down with all strength. In this way more energy can be summoned up than by using only one arm of the archer as in the hand-bow. There are no attestations through pictures or archaeological finds, but the description by Heron is detailed enough to have allowed modern reconstructions to be made.
According to some authors, the dimensions of the gastraphetes may have involved some kind of prop. In his Greek and Roman Artillery: Historical Development, E. W. Marsden believed that the gastraphetes required a base for mounting it before firing. A larger version of the gastraphetes were the oxybeles; these were supplanted by the early ballistae that also developed into smaller versions supplanting the gastraphetes. According to a long dominant view expressed by E. W. Marsden, the gastraphetes was invented in 399 BC by a team of Greek craftsmen assembled by the tyrant Dionysius I of Syracuse. However, recent scholarship has pointed out that the historian Diodorus Siculus did not mention the gastraphetes, but was referring to the invention of the "katapeltikon", a mechanical arrow firing catapult. Since Heron states in his Belopoeica that stand-mounted mechanical artillery such as the katapeltikon was inspired by the earlier hand-held gastraphetes, the invention of handheld crossbows into Greek warfare must have thus occurred some unknown time before 399 BC.
The terminus ante quem may be more defined as being before 421 BC, since another Greek author, whose reliability has been positively reevaluated by recent scholarship, credits two advanced forms of the gastraphetes to a certain Zopyros. This Zopyros was a Pythagorean engineer from southern Italy, he may have designed his stand-mounted bow-machines on the occasion of the sieges of Cumae and Milet between 421 BC and 401 BC, thus marking the date by which the archetypical gastraphetes must have been known. Besides the gastraphetes, the ancient world knew a variety of mechanical hand-held weapons similar to the medieval crossbow; the exact terminology is a subject of continuing scholarly debate. Greek and Roman authors like Vegetius note the use of arrow firing weapons such as arcuballista and manuballista cheiroballistra. While most scholars agree that one or more of these terms refer to handheld mechanical weapons, there is disagreement about whether these were flexion bows or torsion powered like the recent Xanten find.
The Roman commander Arrian records in his Tactica Roman cavalry training for firing some mechanical handheld weapon from horseback. Sculptural reliefs from Roman Gaul depict the use of crossbows in hunting scenes. Dating to the 1st–2nd century AD, the specimens are remarkably similar to the medieval crossbow, including the typical nut lock. From their reflexible shape they were composite bows. Notes BibliographyBaatz, Dietwulf, "Die römische Jagdarmbrust", Bauten und Katapulte des römischen Heeres, Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, pp. 284–293, ISBN 3-515-06566-0 Baatz, Dietwulf, "Katapulte und mechanische Handwaffen des spätrömischen Heeres", Journal of Roman Military Equipment Studies, 10: 5–19 de Camp, L. Sprague, "Master Gunner Apollonios", Technology and Culture, 2: 240–244, doi:10.2307/3101024 Campbell, Duncan, "Auxiliary Artillery Revisited", Bonner Jahrbücher, 186: 117–132 Campbell, Duncan and Roman Artillery 399 BC-AD 363, Oxford: Osprey Publishing, ISBN 1-84176-634-8Forge, Designed to Kill: the Case Against Weapons Research, Dordrecht: Springer, ISBN 978-94-007-5735-6Hacker, Barton C.
"Greek Catapults and Catapult Technology: Science and War in the Ancient World", Technology and Culture, 9: 34–50, doi:10.2307/3102042 Lewis, M. J. T. "When was Biton?", Mnemosyne, 52: 159–168, doi:10.1163/1568525991528860 Marsden, E. W. Greek and Roman artillery. Historical development, Oxford: Clarendon Ober, Josiah, "Early Artillery Towers: Messenia, Attica, Megarid", American Journal of Archaeology, 91: 569–604 Schellenberg, Hans Michael, "Diodor von Sizilien 14,42,1 und die Erfindung der Artillerie im Mittelmeerraum", Frankfurter Elektronische Rundschau zur Altertumskunde, 3: 14–23Further readingDiels, H.. M. / Hirschmann, V. E./ Krieckhaus, A.: "A Roman Miscellany. Essays in Honour of Anthony R. Birley on his Seventieth Birthday", Gdansk 2008, pp. 92–130 Ancient Greek Artillery Technology Reconstructions and Plans of Greek an