Vehicle identification number
A vehicle identification number is a unique code, including a serial number, used by the automotive industry to identify individual motor vehicles, towed vehicles, motorcycles and mopeds, as defined in ISO 3779 and ISO 4030. VINs were first used in 1954 in the United States. From 1954 to 1981, there was no accepted standard for these numbers, so different manufacturers used different formats. In 1981, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration of the United States standardized the format, it required all on-road vehicles sold to contain a 17-character VIN, which does not include the letters I, O, Q. There are vehicle history services in several countries that help potential car owners use VINs to find vehicles that are defective or have been written off. See the Used car article for a list of countries where this service is available. There are at least four competing standards used to calculate the VIN. FMVSS 115, Part 565: Used in United States and Canada ISO Standard 3779: Used in Europe and many other parts of the world SAE J853: Very similar to the ISO standard ADR 61/2 used in Australia, referring to ISO 3779 and 3780 Modern VINs are based on two related standards issued by the International Organization for Standardization in 1979 and 1980: ISO 3779 and ISO 3780, respectively.
Compatible but different implementations of these ISO standards have been adopted by the European Union and the United States, respectively. The VIN comprises the following sections: The first three characters uniquely identify the manufacturer of the vehicle using the world manufacturer identifier or WMI code. A manufacturer who builds fewer than 1000 vehicles per year uses a 9 as the third digit, the 12th, 13th and 14th position of the VIN for a second part of the identification; some manufacturers use the third character as a code for a vehicle category, a division within a manufacturer, or both. For example, within 1G, 1G1 represents Chevrolet passenger cars; the Society of Automotive Engineers in the U. S. assigns WMIs to manufacturers. The first character of the WMI is the region. In practice, each is assigned to a country of manufacture, although in Europe the country where the continental headquarters is located can assign the WMI to all vehicles produced in that region. In the notation below, assume that letters precede numbers and that zero is the last number.
For example, 8X–82 denotes the range 8X, 8Y, 8Z, 81, 82, excluding 80. The fourth to ninth positions in the VIN are the vehicle descriptor section or VDS; this is used, according to local regulations, to identify the vehicle type, may include information on the automobile platform used, the model, the body style. Each manufacturer has a unique system for using this field. Most manufacturers since the 1980s have used the eighth digit to identify the engine type whenever there is more than one engine choice for the vehicle. Example: for the 2007 Chevrolet Corvette, U is for a 6.0-liter V8 engine, E is for a 7.0 L V8. One element, consistent is the use of position nine as a check digit, compulsory for vehicles in North America and China, used consistently elsewhere; the 10th to 17th positions are used as the'vehicle identifier section'. This is used by the manufacturer to identify the individual vehicle in question; this may include information on options installed or engine and transmission choices, but is a simple sequential number.
In North America, the last five digits must be numeric. One consistent element of the VIS is the 10th digit, required worldwide to encode the model year of the vehicle. Besides the three letters that are not allowed in the VIN itself, the letters U and Z and the digit 0 are not used for the model year code; the year code is the model year for the vehicle. The year 1980 was encoded by some manufacturers General Motors and Chrysler, as "A", yet Ford and AMC still used a zero for 1980. Subsequent years increment through the allowed letters, so that "Y" represents the year 2000. 2001 to 2009 are encoded as the digits 1 to 9, subsequent years are encoded as "A", "B", "C", etc. On April 30, 2008, the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration adopted a final rule amending 49 CFR Part 565, "so that the current 17 character vehicle identification number system, in place for 30 years, can continue in use for at least another 30 years", in the process making several changes to the VIN requirements applicable to all motor vehicles manufactured for sale in the United States.
There are three notable changes to the VIN structure that affect VIN deciphering systems: The make may only be identified after looking at positions one through three and another position, as determined by the manufacturer in the second section or fourth to eighth segment of the VIN. In order to identify the exact year in passenger cars and multipurpose passenger vehicles with a GVWR of 10,000 or less, one must read position 7 as well as position 10. For passenger cars, for multipurpose passenger vehicles and trucks with a gross vehicle weight rating of 10,000 lb or less, if position seven is numeric, the model year in position 10 of the VIN refers to a year in the range 1980–2009. If position sev
Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile
The Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile is an association established on 20 June 1904 to represent the interests of motoring organisations and motor car users. To the general public, the FIA is known as the governing body for many auto racing events; the FIA promotes road safety around the world. Headquartered at 8 Place de la Concorde, the FIA consists of 246 member organisations in 145 countries worldwide, its current president is Jean Todt. The FIA is known by its French name or initials in non-French-speaking countries, but is rendered as International Automobile Federation, its most prominent role is in the licensing and sanctioning of Formula One, World Endurance Championship, World Rally Championship and various forms of sports car and touring car racing. The FIA along with the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme certify land speed record attempts; the International Olympic Committee provisionally recognized the federation in 2011, granted full recognition in 2013. The Association Internationale des Automobile Clubs Reconnus was founded in Paris on 20 June 1904, as an association of national motor clubs.
The association was designed to represent the interests of motor car users, as well as to oversee the burgeoning international motor sport scene. In 1922, the AIACR delegated the organisation of automobile racing to the Commission Sportive Internationale, which would set the regulations for international Grand Prix motor racing; the European Drivers' Championship was introduced in 1931, a title awarded to the driver with the best results in the selected Grands Prix. Upon the resumption of motor racing after the Second World War, the AIACR was renamed the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile; the FIA established a number of new racing categories, among them Formulas One and Two, created the first World Championship, the Formula One World Drivers' Championship, in 1950. The CSI determined the regulations for holding Grands Prix and selected the races that formed part of the World Championships – a World Sportscar Championship was established in 1953 – but the organisers of the individual races were responsible for accepting entries, paying prize money, the general running of each event.
In Formula One, this led to tension between the teams, which formed themselves into the Formula One Constructors Association founded in 1974, event organisers and the CSI. The FIA and CSI were amateur organisations, FOCA under the control of Bernie Ecclestone began to take charge of various aspects of organising the events, as well as setting terms with race organisers for the arrival of teams and the amount of prize money; this led to the FIA President Prince Metternich attempting to reassert its authority by appointing Jean-Marie Balestre as the head of the CSI, who promptly reformed the committee into the autonomous Fédération Internationale du Sport Automobile. Under Balestre's leadership FISA and the manufacturer-backed teams became involved in a dispute with FOCA; the conflict saw several races being cancelled or boycotted, large-scale disagreement over the technical regulations and their enforcement. The dispute and the Concorde Agreement, written to end it, would have significant ramifications for the FIA.
The agreement led to FOCA acquiring commercial rights over Formula One, while FISA and the FIA would have control over sport's regulations. FOCA chief Bernie Ecclestone became an FIA Vice-President with control over promoting the FIA's World Championships, while FOCA legal advisor and former March Engineering manager Max Mosley would end up becoming FISA President in 1991. Mosley succeeded Balestre as President of the FIA in 1993 and restructured the organisation, dissolving FISA and placing motor racing under the direct management of the FIA. Following the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix, which saw the deaths of Ayrton Senna and Roland Ratzenberger, the FIA formed an Expert Advisory Safety Committee to research and improve safety in motor racing. Chaired by Formula One medical chief Professor Sid Watkins, the committee worked with the Motor Industry Research Association to strengthen the crash resistance of cars and the restraint systems and to improve the drivers personal safety; the recommendations of the committee led to more stringent crash tests for racing vehicles, new safety standards for helmets and race suits, the eventual introduction of the HANS device as compulsory in all international racing series.
The committee worked on improving circuit safety. This led to a number of changes at motor racing circuits around the world, the improvement of crash barriers and trackside medical procedures; the FIA was a founder member of the European New Car Assessment Programme, a car safety programme that crash-tests new models and publishes safety reports on vehicles. Mosley was the first chairman of the organisation; the FIA helped establish the Latin NCAP and Global NCAP. The Competition Directorate of the European Commission and the FIA were involved in a dispute over the commercial administration of motorsport during the 1990s; the Competition Commissioner, Karel Van Miert had received a number of complaints from television companies and motorsport promoters in 1997 that the FIA had been abusing its position as motorsport's governing body. Van Miert's initial inquiry had not concluded by 1999, which resulted in the FIA suing the European Commission, alleging that the delay was causing damaging uncertainty, receiving an apology from the Commission over the leaking of documents relating to the case.
Mario Monti took over as Commissioner in 1999, the European
World Sportscar Championship
The World Sportscar Championship was the world series run for sports car racing by the FIA from 1953 to 1992. The championship evolved from a small collection of the most important sportscar and road racing events in Europe and North America with dozens of gentleman drivers at the grid, to a professional racing series where the world's largest automakers spent millions of dollars per year; the official name of the series changed throughout the years, however it has been known as the World Sportscar Championship from its inception in 1953. The World Sportscar Championship was, with the Formula One World Championship, one of the two major world championships in circuit motor racing. In 2012 the World Sportscar Championship was revived and renamed as the World Endurance Championship. Among others, the following races counted towards the championships in certain years: 24 Hours of Le Mans 1953– Mille Miglia 1953–1957 1000 km Nürburgring 1953– RAC Tourist Trophy 1953–1964 12 Hours of Sebring 1953– Carrera Panamericana 1953–1954 Targa Florio 1955–1973 1000 km Monza 1963– 1000 km Spa 1963– 12 Hours of Reims 1964–1965 24 Hours of Daytona 1966–1981 1000 km Buenos Aires 1954–1972 1000 km Zeltweg 1966–1976 1000 km Fuji 1983–1988 Norisring 200 Miles 1984–1988 Watkins Glen 6 Hours 1968-1971,1973-1980 In the early years, now legendary races such as the Mille Miglia, Carrera Panamericana and Targa Florio were part of the calendar, alongside the 24 Hours of Le Mans, the 12 Hours of Sebring, the Tourist Trophy and Nurburgring 1000 km.
Manufacturers such as Ferrari, Mercedes-Benz and Aston Martin fielded entries featuring professional racing drivers with experience in Formula One, but the majority of the fields were made up of gentleman drivers in the likes of Nardis and Bandinis. Cars were split into Sports Car and GT categories and were further divided into engine displacement classes; the Ferrari and Maserati works teams were fierce competitors throughout much of the decade, but although Maserati cars won many races the make never managed to clinch the World title. The Mercedes-Benz work team pulled out of the championship after 1955 due to their crash at Le Mans, while the small Aston Martin factory team struggled to find success in 1957 and 1958 until it managed to win the championship in 1959. Notably absent from the overall results were the Jaguar works team, who did not enter any events other than Le Mans, despite the potential of the C- and D-Types. In 1962, the calendar was expanded to include smaller races, while the FIA shifted the focus to production based GT cars.
The World Sportscar Championship title was discontinued, being replaced by the International Championship for GT Manufacturers. They group cars into three categories with specific engine sizes. Hillclimbs, sprint races and smaller races expanded the championship, which now had about 15 races per season; the famous races like Le Mans still counted towards the prototype championship, the points valuation wasn't tabular so the FIA returned to the original form of the championship with about 6 to 10 races. For 1963 the three engine capacity classes remained. For 1965 the engine classes became for cars under 1300 cc, under 2000 cc, over 2000 cc. Class III was designed to attract more American manufacturers, with no upper limit on engine displacement; the period between 1966 and 1971 was the most successful era of the World Championship, with S and P classes, cars such as the Ferrari 512S, Ferrari 330 P4, Ford GT40, Lola T70, Alfa Romeo 33, Porsche's 908 and the 917 battled for supremacy on classic circuits such as Sebring, Nürburgring, Spa-Francorchamps, Targa Florio, Le Mans, in what is now considered the Golden Age of sports car racing.
In 1972 the Group 6 Prototype and Group 5 Sports Car classes were both replaced by a new Group 5 Sports Car class. These cars were limited to 3.0 L engines by the FIA, manufacturers lost interest. The new Group 5 Sports Cars, together with Group 4 Grand Touring Cars, would contest the FIA's newly renamed World Championship for Makes from 1972 to 1975. From 1976 to 1981 the World Championship for Makes was open to Group 5 Special Production Cars and other production based categories including Group 4 Grand Touring cars and it was during this period that the nearly-invincible Porsche 935 dominated the championship. Prototypes returned in 1976 as Group 6 cars with their own series, the World Championship for Sports Cars, but this was to last only for two seasons. In 1981, the FIA instituted a drivers championship. In 1982, the FIA attempted to counter a worrying climb in engine output of the Group 5 Special Production Cars by introducing Group C, a new category for closed sports-prototypes that limited fuel consumption.
While this change was unwelcome amongst some of the private teams, manufacturer support for the new regulations was immense. Several of the'old guard' manufacturers returned to the WSC within the next two years, with each marque adding to the diversity of the series. Under the new rules, it was theoretically possible for aspirated engines to compete with the forced induction engines that had dominated the series in the'70s and early'80s. In addition, most races ran for either 500 or 1000 km going over three and six hours so it was possible to emphasize the "endurance" aspect of the competition as well. Group B cars, a GT class, were allowed to race, but entries in thi
Nevada is a state in the Western United States. It is bordered by Oregon to the northwest, Idaho to the northeast, California to the west, Arizona to the southeast and Utah to the east. Nevada is the 7th most extensive, the 32nd most populous, but the 9th least densely populated of the U. S. states. Nearly three-quarters of Nevada's people live in Clark County, which contains the Las Vegas–Paradise metropolitan area where three of the state's four largest incorporated cities are located. Nevada's capital, however, is Carson City. Nevada is known as the "Silver State" because of the importance of silver to its history and economy, it is known as the "Battle Born State", because it achieved statehood during the Civil War. Nevada is desert and semi-arid, much of it within the Great Basin. Areas south of the Great Basin are within the Mojave Desert, while Lake Tahoe and the Sierra Nevada lie on the western edge. About 86% of the state's land is managed by various jurisdictions of the U. S. federal government, both civilian and military.
Before European contact, Native Americans of the Paiute and Washoe tribes inhabited the land, now Nevada. The first Europeans to explore the region were Spanish, they called the region Nevada because of the snow. The area formed part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, became part of Mexico when it gained independence in 1821; the United States annexed the area in 1848 after its victory in the Mexican–American War, it was incorporated as part of Utah Territory in 1850. The discovery of silver at the Comstock Lode in 1859 led to a population boom that became an impetus to the creation of Nevada Territory out of western Utah Territory in 1861. Nevada became the 36th state on October 31, 1864, as the second of two states added to the Union during the Civil War. Nevada has a reputation for its libertarian laws. In 1940, with a population of just over 110,000 people, Nevada was by far the least-populated state, with less than half the population of the next least-populated state. However, legalized gambling and lenient marriage and divorce laws transformed Nevada into a major tourist destination in the 20th century.
Nevada is the only U. S. state where prostitution is legal, though it is illegal in Clark County, Washoe County and Carson City. The tourism industry remains Nevada's largest employer, with mining continuing as a substantial sector of the economy: Nevada is the fourth-largest producer of gold in the world; the name "Nevada" comes from meaning "snow-covered", after the Sierra Nevada. Most Nevadans pronounce the second syllable of their state name using the TRAP vowel. Many from outside the Western United States pronounce it with the PALM vowel. Although the latter pronunciation is closer to the Spanish pronunciation, it is not the pronunciation preferred by most Nevadans. State Assemblyman Harry Mortenson proposed a bill to recognize the alternate pronunciation of Nevada, though the bill was not supported by most legislators and never received a vote; the Nevadan pronunciation is the de facto official one, since it is the one used by the state legislature. At one time, the state's official tourism organization, TravelNevada, stylized the name of the state as "Nevăda", with a breve mark over the a indicating the locally preferred pronunciation, available as a license plate design.
Nevada is entirely within the Basin and Range Province, is broken up by many north-south mountain ranges. Most of these ranges have endorheic valleys between them, which belies the image portrayed by the term Great Basin. Much of the northern part of the state is within the Great Basin, a mild desert that experiences hot temperatures in the summer and cold temperatures in the winter. Moisture from the Arizona Monsoon will cause summer thunderstorms; the state's highest recorded temperature was 125 °F in Laughlin on June 29, 1994. The coldest recorded temperature was −52 °F set in San Jacinto in 1972, in the northeastern portion of the state; the Humboldt River crosses the state from east to west across the northern part of the state, draining into the Humboldt Sink near Lovelock. Several rivers drain from the Sierra Nevada eastward, including the Walker and Carson rivers. All of these rivers are endorheic basins, ending in Walker Lake, Pyramid Lake, the Carson Sink, respectively. However, not all of Nevada is within the Great Basin.
Tributaries of the Snake River drain the far north, while the Colorado River, which forms much of the boundary with Arizona, drains much of southern Nevada. The mountain ranges, some of which have peaks above 13,000 feet, harbor lush forests high above desert plains, creating sky islands for endemic species; the valleys are no lower in elevation than 3,000 feet, while some in central Nevada are above 6,000 feet. The southern third of the state, where the Las Vegas area is situated, is within the Mojave Desert; the area is closer to the Arizona Monsoon in the summer. The terrain is lower below 4,000 feet, creating conditions for hot summer days and cool to chilly winter nights. Nevada and California have by far the longest diagonal line as a state boundary at just over 400 miles; this line begins in Lake Tahoe nearly
The Shelby Mustang is a high performance variant of the Ford Mustang, built by Shelby American from 1965 to 1968, from 1969 to 1970 by Ford. Following the introduction of the fifth generation Ford Mustang in 2005, the Shelby nameplate was revived as a new high-performance model, this time designed and built by Ford; the 1965–1966 cars were the smallest and lightest of the GT 350 models. These cars are called "Cobras", the Ford-powered AC-based two-seat sports car produced by Shelby American during the same period. Both models use the Cobra emblem, similar paint scheme, the optional "Cobra" valve covers on many GT350s that were part of a marketing tie-in by Shelby, as well as one of his iconic symbols. All 1965–66 cars had the Windsor 289 cu in HiPo K-Code 271 hp V8 engine, modified with a large 4-barrel Holley 715 CFM carburetor to produce 306 bhp @ 6,000 rpm and 329 lb⋅ft @ 4,200 rpm of torque. Marketing literature referred to this engine as the "Cobra hi-riser" due to its high-riser intake manifold.
Beginning as a stock Mustang with a 4-speed manual transmission and 9" live rear axle, the cars were shipped to Shelby American, where they received the high-riser manifolds, Tri-Y headers, were given larger Ford Galaxie rear drum brakes with metallic-linings and Kelsey-Hayes front disc brakes. The 1965 GT350 was not built for ease of driving. There were 34 "GT350R" race-spec cars built for competition use under SCCA rules, the model was the B-Production champion for three straight years; the 1966 GT350 was more comfortable for casual drivers, including rear seats, optional colors, an optional automatic transmission. This trend for more options and luxuries continued in the following years, with the cars becoming progressively larger and more comfortable, while losing much of their competitiveness in the process; the 1969 GT350s and GT500s were styling modifications to a stock Mustang. By 1969 Carroll Shelby was no longer involved in the Shelby GT program, the design was done in-house by Ford.
The 1965 and 1966 GT350s were delivered from Ford's San Jose Assembly Plant in body in white form for modification by Carroll Shelby's operation in Venice Beach and at Los Angeles International Airport. San Jose cars carried an "R" in the Ford VIN denoting that facility; the only year that Shelby Mustangs from the 1960s came from another plant was 1968, where they came from New Jersey, "T" in the VIN, were modified by A. O. Smith. All 1965 GT350s were painted Wimbledon White with Guardsman Blue rocker stripes. Few GT350s were delivered to the dealer with the optional "Le Mans" top stripes, which run the length of the entire car. 28% of the 562 1965 cars built had Le Mans stripes. Dealers added the stripes at the customer's request. Today, it is difficult to find a GT350 not so equipped. Many ERT 1965 cars had the battery relocated to the trunk, changed mid-year from complaints of fumes, had over-rider traction bars, relocated A-arms, as well as other modifications. Over-rider traction bars are named so because of their design being on top of the leaf spring as opposed to underneath them.
There was only one transmission available, a 4-speed Borg-Warner T10 manual. The exhaust system in the 1965 GT350 was a side-exit dual exhaust with glasspack mufflers. For this one year, the GT350 had special 130 mph -rated Goodyear "Blue Dot" tires, named for the prominent blue dot on each sidewall; the 1965 GT350 had a full size spare tire mounted in place of rear seats, making it a 2-seat-only vehicle, rode on either silver-painted steel wheels or special cast-magnesium center "Cragar Shelby" 15" rims with chromed center caps marked with a stylized "CS". Total 1965 model year production was 562 units. For 1966, the GT350 lost its Mustang tag and was marketed as the Shelby GT350; the new model year saw the introduction of non-white colors, including blue, red and black. Other changes included special rear quarter-panel windows replacing the factory extractor vents, functional brake scoops on each side, optional SelectShift 3-speed automatic, as well as an optional Paxton supercharger; the battery was no longer relocated to the trunk for 1966, the over-rider traction bars were discontinued.
The normal factory fold-down rear seat was optional. While early 1965 cars had black engine blocks, 1966 and cars had their engines painted the regular factory Ford dark blue; the 1966 models came with a dual-exhaust exiting in the rear. The first 252 GT350s for 1966 began as 1965 Mustang K-Code Fastbacks; these cars were ordered by Shelby American for conversion into 1966 GT350s. Upon delivery to Shelby-American, the cars were randomly picked for conversion; the Shelby VINs do not correspond in numerical order with Ford VINs. The Ford VINs were shipped in'blocks,' but many differ because the order they were taken for conversions. Total production for 1966 was 1,373 fastbacks, including two prototypes and four drag cars, the 252 early production models with Ford Mustang 1965 bodies. In order to help Shelby sales, the major shareholder of Hertz, persuaded the rental car giant to purchase 1,003 fastbacks, including two prototypes. Four "experimental" GT350 convertibles were built for test purposes in anticipation of a 1967-1/2 convertible offering, bringing total production to 2,378 units for 1966.
A small number of the 1966 models were fitted from the factory with Paxton superchargers, but not the No-Spin limited slip differential. The deal with the Hertz Corporation to offer
The Ford Mustang is an American car manufactured by Ford. It was based on the platform of the second generation North American Ford Falcon, a compact car; the original 1962 Ford Mustang I two-seater concept car had evolved into the 1963 Mustang II four-seater concept car which Ford used to pretest how the public would take interest in the first production Mustang. The 1963 Mustang II concept car was designed with a variation of the production model's front and rear ends with a roof, 2.7 inches shorter. Introduced early on April 17, 1964, thus dubbed as a "1964½" by Mustang fans, the 1965 Mustang was the automaker's most successful launch since the Model A; the Mustang has undergone several transformations to its current sixth generation. The Mustang created the "pony car" class of American muscle cars, affordable sporty coupes with long hoods and short rear decks, gave rise to competitors such as the Chevrolet Camaro, Pontiac Firebird, AMC Javelin, Chrysler's revamped Plymouth Barracuda, the second generation Dodge Challenger.
The Mustang is credited for inspiring the designs of coupés such as the Toyota Celica and Ford Capri, which were imported to the United States. As of August 2018, over 10 million Mustangs have been produced in the U. S; the Ford Mustang began production five months before the normal start of the 1965 production year. The early production versions are referred to as "1964½ models" but all Mustangs were advertised, VIN coded and titled by Ford as 1965 models, though minor design updates in August 1964 at the "formal" start of the 1965 production year contribute to tracking 1964½ production data separately from 1965 data. With production beginning in Dearborn, Michigan, on March 9, 1964. Executive stylist John Najjar, a fan of the World War II P-51 Mustang fighter plane, is credited by Ford to have suggested the name. Najjar co-designed the first prototype of the Ford Mustang known as Ford Mustang I in 1961, working jointly with fellow Ford stylist Philip T. Clark; the Mustang I made its formal debut at the United States Grand Prix in Watkins Glen, New York, on October 7, 1962, where test driver and contemporary Formula One race driver Dan Gurney lapped the track in a demonstration using the second "race" prototype.
His lap times were only off the pace of the F1 race cars. An alternative view was that Robert J. Eggert, Ford Division market research manager, first suggested the Mustang name. Eggert, a breeder of quarterhorses, received a birthday present from his wife of the book, The Mustangs by J. Frank Dobie in 1960; the book's title gave him the idea of adding the "Mustang" name for Ford's new concept car. The designer preferred Cougar or Torino, while Henry Ford II wanted T-bird II; as the person responsible for Ford's research on potential names, Eggert added "Mustang" to the list to be tested by focus groups. The name could not be used in Germany, because it was owned by Krupp, which had manufactured trucks between 1951 and 1964 with the name Mustang. Ford refused to buy the name for about US$10,000 from Krupp at the time. Kreidler, a manufacturer of mopeds used the name, so Mustang was sold in Germany as the "T-5" until December 1978. Mustangs grew larger and heavier with each model year until, in response to the 1971–1973 models, Ford returned the car to its original size and concept for 1974.
It designs. Although some other pony cars have seen a revival, the Mustang is the only original model to remain in uninterrupted production over five decades of development and revision. Lee Iacocca's assistant general manager and chief engineer, Donald N. Frey was the head engineer for the T-5 project—supervising the overall development of the car in a record 18 months—while Iacocca himself championed the project as Ford Division general manager; the T-5 prototype was a mid-mounted engine roadster. This vehicle employed the German Ford Taunus V4 engine, it was claimed that the decision to abandon the two-seat design was in part due to the increase in sales the Thunderbird had seen when enlarged from a two-seater to a 2+2 in 1958. Thus, a four-seat car with full space for the front bucket seats, as planned, a rear bench seat with less space than was common at the time, were standard. A "Fastback 2+2", first manufactured on August 17, 1964, enclosed the trunk space under a sweeping exterior line similar to the second series Corvette Sting Ray and European sports cars such as the Jaguar E-Type coupe.
Favorable publicity articles appeared in 2,600 newspapers the next morning, the day the car was "officially" revealed. To achieve an advertised list price of US$2,368, the Mustang was based on familiar yet simple components, many of which were in production for other Ford models. Many of the interior, chassis and drivetrain components were derived from those used on Ford's Falcon and Fairlane; this use of common components shortened the learning curve for assembly and repair workers, while at the same time allowing dealers to pick up the Mustang without having to invest in additional spare parts inventory to support the new car line. Original sales forecasts projected less than 100,000 units for the first year; this mark was surpassed in three months from rollout. Another 318,000 would be sold during the model year, in its first eighteen months, more than one million
Carroll Hall Shelby was an American automotive designer, racing driver, entrepreneur. Shelby is best known for his involvement with the AC Cobra and Mustang for Ford Motor Company, which he modified during the late 1960s and early 2000s, he established Shelby American Inc. in 1962 to manufacture and market performance vehicles, as well as Carroll Shelby Licensing in 1988 which grew into Carroll Shelby International. Carroll Shelby was born on January 11, 1923 to Warren Hall Shelby, a rural mail carrier, his wife, Eloise Shelby in Leesburg, Texas. Shelby suffered from heart valve leakage problems by age 7 and experienced health complications from this throughout his life. Shelby's education as a pilot began in the military at the San Antonio Aviation Cadet Center known as Lackland Air Force Base, in November 1941. Shelby was married a total of seven times. Shelby's first wife was Jeanne Fields, their daughter Sharon Anne Shelby was born a year on September 27, 1944. Shelby and Fields had two more children -- Patrick Bert.
They divorced in February 1960. Although the marriage was happy, it began to break down due to his extramarital affairs, which he admitted. Late in his first marriage, Shelby embarked on a long-running passionate affair with Jan Harrison, an actress, although he still loved his first wife, the marriage had ended following years of infidelity. In 1962, Shelby married actress Harrison before the marriage was annulled the same year, his third marriage, which he entered into as part of a deal with a New Zealand woman to get her into the United States, lasted only a few weeks before ending in divorce. His fourth marriage, to a woman named Sandy, lasted less than a year before ending in divorce. After 28 years single, Carroll married Cynthia Psaros, formally a Beauty queen, her father, a retired Marine colonel and fighter pilot, was quite enjoyable to Carroll. During this marriage, Carroll received his long-awaited heart transplant, their marriage lasted only a few years before ending in divorce. He married Lena Dahl, a Swedish woman whom he met in 1968.
She died in a car accident in 1997. It was his only marriage which did not end in annulment, or separation. Shelby married his final wife, Cleo, a British former model who drove rally cars, in 1997, just four months after the death of his sixth wife, she was 25 years his junior. They were in the process of getting a divorce when he died in 2012. Shelby honed his driving skills with his Willys automobile while attending Woodrow Wilson High School in Dallas, Texas, he graduated from Wilson in 1940. He was enrolled at The Georgia School of Technology in the Aeronautical Engineering program. However, because of the war Shelby did not go to school and enlisted in the United States Army Air Corps, serving in World War II as a flight instructor and test pilot, he graduated with the rank of staff sergeant pilot. Subsequently, he had short stints as an oil-well roughneck and as a poultry farmer prior to his racing career. Starting out as an amateur, Shelby raced a friend's MG TC and borrowed Cad-Allards, he recalled that the combination of the small English Allard and American V-8 power inspired his creation of the AC Cobra.
His great success racing the Allards led to invitations to drive for the Aston Martin and Maserati factory teams in the mid-to-late 1950s. Driving for Donald Healey in a modified and supercharged Austin-Healey 100S, he set 16 U. S. and international speed records at the Bonneville salt flats. He drove in the Mount Washington Hillclimb Auto Race in a specially prepared Ferrari 375 GP roadster, to a record run of 10:21.8 seconds on his way to victory in 1956. He was Sports Illustrated's driver of the year in 1956 and 1957, he competed in Formula One from 1958 to 1959, participating in a total of eight World Championship races and several non-championship races. The highlight of his race driving career came in 1959, when he co-drove an Aston Martin DBR1 to victory in the 1959 24 Hours of Le Mans. During this race he noted the performance of an English GT car built by AC Cars, known as the Ace. Three years the AC Ace would become the basis for the AC Cobra. After retiring from driving in October 1959 for health reasons, he opened a high-performance driving school and the Shelby-American company.
He obtained a license to import the AC Cobra, a successful British Sports racing car manufactured by AC Motors of England, which AC had designed at Shelby's request by fitting a Ford V8 to their popular AC Ace sports car in place of its standard AC six, Ford Zephyr or 2-liter Bristol engine. Shelby remained influential with Ford manufactured cars, including the Daytona Coupe, GT40, the Mustang-based Shelby GT350 and Shelby GT500. After parting with Ford, Shelby moved on to help develop performance cars with divisions of the two other Big 3 American companies and Oldsmobile. Ford provided financial support for AC's Cobras from 1962 through 1965 and provided financial support for the Ford GTs, first with John Wyer's Ford Advanced Vehicles in 1963 and with Shelby American from 1964 through 1967. In the intervening years, Shelby had a series of ventures start and stop relating to production of "completion" Cobras — cars that were built using "left over" parts and frames. In the 1960s, the FIA required entrants to produce at least 100 cars for homologated classes of racing.
Shelby ordered an insufficient number of cars and skipped a large block of Vehicle Identification Numbers, to create the illusion th