Collin County, Texas
Collin County is a county in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 United States Census, the county's population was 782,341, making it the seventh-most populous county in Texas and the 63rd-largest county by population in the United States; the 2017 Census Bureau estimate for Collin County's population is 969,603. Its county seat is McKinney. Collin County is part of Texas Metropolitan Statistical Area. A small portion of the city of Dallas is in the county. Both the county and the county seat were named after Collin McKinney, one of the five men who drafted the Texas Declaration of Independence and the oldest of the 59 men who signed it. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 886 square miles, of which 841 square miles is land and 45 square miles is covered by water. Lavon Lake Grayson County Fannin County Hunt County Rockwall County Dallas County Denton County As of the 2015 Texas Population Estimate Program, the population of the county was 923,201, non-Hispanic whites 535,165.
Black Americans 84,858. Other non-Hispanic 146,109. Hispanics and Latinos 157,069; as of the census of 2010, there were 782,341 people. According to U. S. Census figures released in 2006, the racial makeup of the county was as follows: 77.21% White, 7.26% African American, 10.02% Asian, 0.45% Native American, 5.06% of other or mixed race. 12.8% Hispanic of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 491,675 people, 181,970 households, 132,292 families residing in the county; the population density was 580 people per square mile. There were 194,892 housing units at an average density of 230 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 81.39% White, 4.79% Black or African American, 0.47% Native American, 6.92% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 4.26% from other races, 2.11% from two or more races. 10.27% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 181,970 households out of which 40.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.10% were married couples living together, 7.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.30% were non-families.
22.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.18. As of the 2010 census, there were about 4.4 same-sex couples per 1,000 households in the county. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.70% under the age of 18, 7.40% from 18 to 24, 37.90% from 25 to 44, 20.70% from 45 to 64, 5.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 99.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $70,835, the median income for a family was $81,856. Males had a median income of $57,392 versus $36,604 for females; the per capita income for the county was $33,345. About 3.30% of families and 4.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.10% of those under age 18 and 7.10% of those age 65 or over. Based on median household income, as of 2006, Collin County is the second richest county in Texas after Fort Bend, is considered one of the wealthiest counties in the United States.
However, Collin - like other Texas counties - has one of the nation's highest property tax rates. In 2007, it was #21 for property taxes as percentage of the homes value on owner occupied housing, it ranked in the Top 100 for amount of property taxes paid and for percentage of taxes of income. Part of this is due to the Robin Hood plan school financing system in Texas. Collin County, like all counties in Texas, is governed by a Commissioners Court; the court consists of the county judge, elected county-wide, four commissioners who are elected by the voters in each of four precincts. Collin County is a Republican stronghold in congressional elections; the last Democrat to win the county was Lyndon Johnson in 1964. The factors caused Collin to swing hard to the Republican Party in the 1960s and 1970s: and the expansion of the Dallas suburbs into Collin County; the following school districts lie within Collin County: Allen Independent School District Anna Independent School District Farmersville Independent School District Lovejoy Independent School District McKinney Independent School District Melissa Independent School District Plano Independent School District Princeton Independent School District Wylie Independent School DistrictThe following districts lie within the county: Bland Independent School District Blue Ridge Independent School District Celina Independent School District Community Independent School District Frisco Independent School District Leonard Independent School District Prosper Independent School District Royse City Independent School District Trenton Independent School District Van Alstyne Independent School District Whitewright Independent School District Collin College opened its first campus on Highway 380 in McKinney in 1985.
The college has grown to seven campuses/locations—two in McKinney and two in Plano and as well as Frisco and Rockwall. Dallas Baptist University has an extension site in Frisco, DBU Frisco; the majority of the University of Texas at Dallas campus in Richardson, Texas lies within Collin County. Collin County Parks and Open Spaces Bratonia Park Myers Park Parkhill Prairie Sister Grove Park Trinity Tr
North Dallas is an area of numerous communities and neighborhoods in Dallas, Texas. The phrase "North Dallas" is sometimes used to include any suburb or exurb north of Dallas proper within the metropolitan area; the majority of North Dallas is located in Dallas County, while a small portion is located in Collin and Denton Counties. North Dallas includes areas of Dallas north of Northwest Highway, along with Lake Highlands and areas of Dallas north of IH-635 known as Far North Dallas; the area has strong social and economic ties to the Dallas enclave of Park Cities, two inner suburbs of Dallas and Addison. It has its adjacent, less resourced areas as well; as Dallas has grown over the last several decades, the concept of "North Dallas" has changed from the area just north of downtown, along Central Expressway, to the far northern reaches of Dallas proper and the suburbs to the north of the city. The following neighborhoods are considered part of or connected with North Dallas. Lake Highlands, its neighborhoods, are considered as part of North Dallas by people and media, while at the same time a distinct area.
Far North Dallas includes areas north of IH-635, may sometimes include portions of Lake Highlands that are north of IH-635. Sometimes, Far North Dallas is viewed as a distinct area from North Dallas. NorthPark Center Galleria Dallas Dallas Midtown The Collin County portion of North Dallas is served by the Plano Independent School District. Most of the Dallas County portion of North Dallas is served by the Dallas Independent School District, students are zoned to either Emmett J. Conrad, Thomas Jefferson, or W. T. White High Schools. All of Lake Highlands and portions of Far North Dallas in the Dallas County are served by the Richardson Independent School District. Lake Highlands students are zoned to Lake Highlands High School or Lloyd V. Berkner High School, while portions of Far North Dallas are zoned to J. J. Pearce High School or Richardson High School; the Denton County portion of North Dallas is served by the Carrollton-Farmers Branch Independent School District, students are zoned to R.
L. Turner High School or Newman Smith High School. Southern Methodist University is a coeducational university in University Park. SMU was founded in 1911 by the Southern Methodist Church and now enrolls 6,500 undergraduates, 1,200 professional students in the law and theology departments, 3,500 postgraduates. According to sources such as the U. S. News & World Report, SMU is the best overall undergraduate college in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex and the third best in the State of Texas; the University of Texas at Dallas, part of the state public University of Texas System, is located in the city of Richardson, is adjacent to Far North Dallas, is in the heart of the Telecom Corridor. UT Dallas, or UTD, is renowned for its work in combining the arts and technology, as well as for its programs in engineering, computer science, international political economy, neuroscience and hearing, pre-health, pre-law and management; the university has many collaborative research relationships with UT Southwestern Medical Center.
UT Dallas is home to 21,145 students. Richland College, part of the Dallas County Community College District, is located within Lake Highlands; the school was founded in 1972 and is the largest school in the DCCCD, featuring nearly 22,000 students. Richland is the only community college to receive the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award. Brookhaven College, part of the Dallas County Community College District, is located near Far North Dallas. Brookhaven opened in 1978, making it the newest college in DCCCD, featuring nearly 11,000 students Texas A&M's TAMU-Dallas campus is located in the Far North Dallas. TAMU-Dallas is the home of the Urban Living Laboratory, a research and urban lifestyle community built with state-of-the-art green technologies; the area is served by seven branches of the Dallas Public Library system: Audelia Road Branch Library Fretz Park Branch Library Park Forest Branch Library Preston Royal Branch Library Renner Frankford Branch Library Timberglen Branch Library Walnut Hill Branch Library North Dallas is home to the headquarters of Texas Instruments.
TI is the No. 4 manufacturer of semiconductors worldwide after Intel and Toshiba, is the No. 2 supplier of chips for cellular handsets after Qualcomm, the No. 1 producer of digital signal processors and analog semiconductors, among a wide range of other semiconductor products. Major business areas in North Dallas include the Platinum Corridor, Preston Center, the Telecom Corridor; as the majority of North Dallas was developed in the late 20th century, the primary mode of local transportation is the automobile and the area has a low density compared with neighborhoods built in the early 20th century. Efforts made by the City of Dallas and Dallas Area Rapid Transit to increase the availability of alternative modes of transportation have received varying degrees of support from North Dallas residents. Since 1996, two light rail lines flanking North Dallas on the east have been constructed and well-received, two more flank North Dallas on the west, in northwest Dallas. However, plans to build a commuter or light rail line through the North Dallas area along the "Cotton Belt" has met opposition from residents and local organizations.
Dallas the City of Dallas, is a city in the U. S. state of Texas and the seat of Dallas County, with portions extending into Collin, Denton and Rockwall counties. With an estimated 2017 population of 1,341,075, it is the ninth most-populous city in the U. S. and third in Texas after Houston and San Antonio. It is the eighteenth most-populous city in North America as of 2015. Located in North Texas, the city of Dallas is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in the Southern United States and the largest inland metropolitan area in the U. S. that lacks any navigable link to the sea. It is the most populous city in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in the country at 7.3 million people as of 2017. The city's combined statistical area is the seventh-largest in the U. S. as of 2017, with 7,846,293 residents. Dallas and nearby Fort Worth were developed due to the construction of major railroad lines through the area allowing access to cotton and oil in North and East Texas.
The construction of the Interstate Highway System reinforced Dallas's prominence as a transportation hub, with four major interstate highways converging in the city and a fifth interstate loop around it. Dallas developed as a strong industrial and financial center and a major inland port, due to the convergence of major railroad lines, interstate highways and the construction of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, one of the largest and busiest airports in the world. A "beta" global city, the economy of Dallas has been considered diverse with dominant sectors including defense, financial services, information technology, telecommunications, transportation. Dallas is home to 9 Fortune 500 companies within the city limits; the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex hosts additional Fortune 500 companies, including American Airlines, ExxonMobil and J. C. Penney. Over 41 colleges and universities are in its metropolitan area, the most of any metropolitan area in Texas; the city has a population from a myriad of ethnic and religious backgrounds and the sixth-largest LGBT population in the United States as of 2016.
WalletHub named Dallas the fifth most-diverse city in the U. S. in 2018. Preceded by thousands of years of varying cultures, the Caddo people inhabited the Dallas area before Spanish colonists claimed the territory of Texas in the 18th century as a part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. France claimed the area but never established much settlement. In 1819, the Adams-Onís Treaty between the United States and Spain defined the Red River as the northern boundary of New Spain placing the future location of Dallas well within Spanish territory; the area remained under Spanish rule until 1821, when Mexico declared independence from Spain, the area was considered part of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. In 1836, with a majority of Anglo-American settlers, gained independence from Mexico and formed the Republic of Texas. Three years after Texas achieved independence, John Neely Bryan surveyed the area around present-day Dallas, he established a permanent settlement near the Trinity River named Dallas in 1841.
The origin of the name is uncertain. The official historical marker states it was named after Vice President George M. Dallas of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. However, this is disputed. Other potential theories for the origin include his brother, Commodore Alexander James Dallas, as well as brothers Walter R. Dallas or James R. Dallas. A further theory gives the origin as the village of Dallas, Scotland, similar to the way Houston, Texas was named after Sam Houston whose ancestors came from the Scottish village of Houston, Renfrewshire; the Republic of Texas was annexed by the United States in 1845 and Dallas County was established the following year. Dallas was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1856. With the construction of railroads, Dallas became a business and trading center and was booming by the end of the 19th century, it became an industrial city, attracting workers from Texas, the South, the Midwest. The Praetorian Building in Dallas of 15 stories, built in 1909, was the first skyscraper west of the Mississippi and the tallest building in Texas for some time.
It marked the prominence of Dallas as a city. A racetrack for thoroughbreds was built and their owners established the Dallas Jockey Club. Trotters raced at a track in Fort Worth; the rapid expansion of population increased competition for jobs and housing. In 1921, the Mexican president Álvaro Obregón along with the former revolutionary general visited Downtown Dallas's Mexican Park in Little Mexico; the small neighborhood of Little Mexico was home to a Latin American population, drawn to Dallas by factors including the American Dream, better living conditions, the Mexican Revolution. On November 22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy was assassinated on Elm Street while his motorcade passed through Dealey Plaza in Downtown Dallas; the upper two floors of the building from which alleged assassin Lee Harvey Oswald shot Kennedy, the Texas School Book Depository, have been converted into a historical museum covering the former president's life and accomplishments. On July 7, 2016, multiple shots were fired at a peaceful protest in Downtown Dallas, held against the police killings of two black men from other states.
The gunman identified as Micah Xavier Johnson, began firing at police officers at 8:58 p.m. killing five officers and injuring nine. Two bystanders were injured; this marked the deadliest day for U. S. law enforcement since the September 11 attacks. Johnson told police during a standoff that he
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Orders of magnitude (area)
This page is a progressive and labelled list of the SI area orders of magnitude, with certain examples appended to some list objects. Orders of magnitude
Dallas County, Texas
Dallas County is a county in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,368,139, it is the ninth-most populous in the United States. Its county seat is Dallas, Texas' third-largest city and the ninth-largest city in the United States; the county was founded in 1846 and was named for George Mifflin Dallas, the 11th Vice President of the United States under U. S. President James K. Polk. Dallas County is included in the TX Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 909 square miles, of which 873 square miles is land and 36 square miles is water. Collin County Rockwall County Kaufman County Ellis County Tarrant County Denton County As of the 2015 Texas population estimate program, the population of the county was 2,541,528: non-Hispanic whites, 713,835; as of the census of 2010, there were 2,368,139 people, 807,621 households, 533,837 families residing in the county. The population density was 2,523 people per square mile.
There were 854,119 housing units at an average density of 971/sq mi. The racial makeup of the county was 53.54 White, 22.30% Black or African American, 0.10% Native American, 5.15% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 14.04% from other races, 2.70% from two or more races. 38.30% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 807,621 households out of which 35.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.90% were married couples living together, 14.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.90% were non-families. 27.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.34. As of the 2010 census, there were about 8.8 same-sex couples per 1,000 households in the county. In the wider county, the population was spread out with 27.90% under the age of 18, 10.70% from 18 to 24, 34.40% from 25 to 44, 18.90% from 45 to 64, 8.10% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 99.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was US$43,324, the median income for a family was $49,062. Males had a median income of $34,988 versus $29,539 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,603. About 10.60% of families and 13.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.00% of those under age 18 and 10.50% of those age 65 or over. Dallas County, like all counties in Texas, is governed by a Commissioners Court; this court consists of the county judge, elected county-wide, four commissioners who are elected by the voters in each of four precincts. The Commissioners Court is the policy-making body for the county; the Commissioners Court sets the county tax rate, adopts the budget, appoints boards and commissions, approves grants and personnel actions, oversees the administration of county government. Each commissioner supervises a Road and Bridge District.
The Commissioners Court approves the budget and sets the tax rate for the hospital district, charged with the responsibility for providing acute medical care for citizens who otherwise would not receive adequate medical services. The Parkland Health & Hospital System operates the Parkland Memorial Hospital and various health centers; the Commissioners Court meets the first and third Tuesday at the Commissioners Courtroom located in the Dallas County Administration Building at 411 Elm St. corner of Elm and Houston streets. The building was the headquarters of the Texas School Book Depository Company until 1970. Assassin Lee Harvey Oswald shot President John F. Kennedy from a window located on the sixth floor which today houses the Sixth Floor Museum dedicated to the late president's memory. Acts of the commissioners court are known as'court orders'; these orders include setting county policies and procedures, issuing contracts, authorizing expenditures, managing county resources and departments.
Most the commissioners court sets the annual tax rate and the budget for Dallas County government and the courts. The commissioners set the tax rate and budget for the Dallas County Hospital District which operates Parkland Hospital; the commissioners court has direct control over all county offices and departments not otherwise administered by a county elected official. Those departments include Dallas County Elections and Human Services, Facilities Management and Open Space Program, I. T. Services, Homeland Security and Emergency Services, among others. Through their budget making powers, the commissioners exercise indirect control over the District Attorney's office, District Clerk, County Clerk and County Treasurer; the commissioners set the budget for each of the District and Justice courts. Dallas County employs a commissioners court administrator, responsible for the day-to-day management of the commissioners court and implementing the Dallas County Master Plan and the directives of the commissioners court.
The current commissioners court administrator is Darryl Martin, hired by the commissioners in 2008. Dallas Count
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi