An electoral district, election district, or legislative district, called a voting district by the US Census is a territorial subdivision for electing members to a legislative body. Only voters who reside within the district are permitted to vote in an election held there. From a single district, a single member or multiple members might be chosen. Members might be chosen by a first-past-the-post system or a proportional representative system, or another voting method entirely. Members might be chosen through a direct election under universal suffrage, an indirect election, or another form of suffrage; the names for electoral districts vary across countries and for the office being elected. The term constituency is used to refer to an electoral district in British English, but it can refer to the body of eligible voters or all the residents of the represented area or only those who voted for a certain candidate; the terms precinct and election district are more common in American English. In Australia and New Zealand, electoral districts are called electorates, however elsewhere the term electorate refers to the body of voters.
In India electoral districts are referred to as "Nirvachan Kshetra" in Hindi, which can be translated to English as "electoral area" though the official English translation for the term is "constituency". The term "Nirvachan Kshetra" is used while referring to an electoral district in general irrespective of the legislature; when referring to a particular legislatorial constituency, it is referred to as "Kshetra" along with the name of the legislature, in Hindi. Electoral districts for municipal or other local bodies are called "wards". In Canada, districts are colloquially called ridings. Local electoral districts are sometimes called wards, a term which designates administrative subdivisions of a municipality. In local government in the Republic of Ireland voting districts are called "electoral areas". District magnitude is the number of representatives elected from a given district to the same legislative body. A single-member district has one representative. Voting systems that seek proportional representation inherently require multi-member districts, the larger the district magnitude the more proportional a system will tend to be Non-proportional systems may use multi-member districts, as in the House of Commons until 1950, Singapore's Group Representation Constituency, or the New Hampshire House of Representatives.
Under proportional representation systems, district magnitude is an important determinant of the makeup of the elected body. With a larger number of winners, candidates are able to represent proportionately smaller minorities; the geographic distribution of minorities affects their representation - an unpopular nationwide minority can still secure a seat if they are concentrated in a particular district. District magnitude can sometimes vary within the same system during an election. In the Republic of Ireland, for instance, national elections to Dáil Éireann are held using a combination of 3, 4, 5 member districts. In Hong Kong, the magnitude ranged from 3 to 5 in 1998, when the current electoral system was introduced for Legislative Council geographical constituency elections, will range from 5 to 9 in the forthcoming election in September 2012; the only democracies with one single nationwide electoral district and no other territorial correctors are Fiji, The Netherlands, Mozambique, South Africa and Serbia.
Main articles: Apportionment and RedistrictingApportionment is the process of allocating a number of representatives to different regions, such as states or provinces. Apportionment changes are accompanied by redistricting, the redrawing of electoral district boundaries to accommodate the new number of representatives; this redrawing is necessary under single-member district systems, as each new representative requires their own district. Multi-member systems, vary depending on other rules. Ireland, for example, redraws its electoral districts after every census while Belgium uses its existing administrative boundaries for electoral districts and instead modifies the number of representatives allotted to each. Israel and the Netherlands avoid the need for apportionment by electing legislators at-large. Apportionment is done on the basis of population. Seats in the United States House of Representatives, for instance, are reapportioned to individual states every 10 years following a census, with some states that have grown in population gaining seats.
By contrast, seats in the Cantonal Council of Zürich are reapportioned in every election based on the number of votes cast in each district, only made possible by use of multi-member districts, the House of Peoples of Bosnia and Herzegovina, by contrast, is apportioned without regard to population. Malapportionment occurs when voters are under- or over-represented due to variation in district population. Given the complexity of this process, softwa
A. N. R. Robinson
The Hon. Arthur Napoleon Raymond Robinson SC, OCC, TC, was the third President of Trinidad and Tobago, serving from 19 March 1997 to 17 March 2003, he was Trinidad and Tobago's third Prime Minister, serving in that capacity from 18 December 1986 to 17 December 1991. He is internationally recognized for his proposal that led to the founding of the International Criminal Court. Robinson was the first active politician to be elected to the Presidency, was the first presidential candidate, not elected unopposed. President Robinson sparked controversy in his term in office when he refused to appoint certain Senators recommended by Prime Minister Basdeo Panday following the elections in 2000 and in 2001 when he appointed the Leader of the Opposition Patrick Manning to the position of Prime Minister after a tied election. Robinson was born in Tobago in 1926 to Isabella Robinson, he was educated at Castara Methodist School and Bishop's High School where he obtained a Higher School Certificate with distinction in Latin and competed for an Island Scholarship.
He obtained a Bachelor of Laws degree from London University as an external student. In 1951 he left for the United Kingdom where he was called to the bar at Inner Temple and obtained a degree in philosophy and economics from St. John's College, Oxford. Robinson returned to Tobago where he practised as a Barrister-at-Law. Robinson married Patricia Rawlins and had two children and Ann-Margaret. Robinson was a founding member of the People's National Movement and served in the parliament of the West Indies Federation between 1958 and 1960. In 1961 he was elected to the Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago where he served as member of parliament for Tobago, he was the country's first Minister of Finance. Following the Black Power Revolution in 1970, Robinson resigned from the PNM and formed the Action Committee of Dedicated Citizens which joined forced with the Democratic Labour Party to contest the 1971 General Elections. After the 1971 election, the ACDC became the Democratic Action Congress which won both Tobago seats in the 1976 General Elections.
As leader as the DAC, Robinson worked for internal self-government for Tobago, culminating in the passage of the Tobago House of Assembly Act in 1980. Robinson resigned from Parliament to contest the Tobago House of Assembly elections, became the Chairman of the Assembly following victory by the DLP, he had proposed the idea of the International Court. In 1981 Robinson allied with the United Labour Front, under the leadership of Basdeo Panday, the Tapia House Movement, under the leadership of Lloyd Best, to form the National Alliance for Reconstruction, it entered into an alliance with the Organisation for National Reconstruction, under the leadership of Karl Hudson-Phillips, to fight the Trinidad and Tobago local elections, 1983. Building on this victory the four parties combined to form the National Alliance for Reconstruction. ANR Robinson went on to become Prime Minister through the National Alliance For Reconstruction. However, shortly after assuming the Prime Ministership, he dismissed Mr. Basdeo Panday, Mr. John Humphrey, Mr Kelvin Ramnath from Cabinet.
However, Robinson subsequently lost the 1991 elections. He rejoined the UNC Administration as a coalition member representing the NAR. Mr Panday offered to nominate him to become the next Head of State, i.e. the President of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Robinson was instrumental in the creation of the International Criminal Court. In 1989, he asked Benjamin Ferencz and Robert Kurt Woetzel to assist in drafting a proposal for the UN General Assembly to ask the UN's International Law Commission to study the possibility of creating the ICC; the resolution was presented on behalf of Trinidad and Tobago at the UN General Assembly in June 1989, leading to the adoption of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court in July 1998 and creation of the ICC in July 1, 2002. During the 1990 coup d'état attempt by the Jamaat al Muslimeen and much of his cabinet were held hostage for six days by gunmen under the leadership of Yasin Abu Bakr; when instructed to order the army to stop firing on the Red House, where they were held hostage, Robinson instead instructed them to "attack with full force," an action which led to him getting beaten by his captors.
He was shot in his leg. Robinson suffered from a number of ailments including a stroke and prostate complications and was hospitalised at the St Clair Medical Hospital after he complained of feeling unwell. Following an illness of several months, he died at St Clair Medical Centre at about 6:00 am on 9 April 2014; the death was confirmed by National Security Minister Gary Griffith, who added that a state funeral was being planned. In reaction, Prime Minister Kamla Persad-Bissessar said that he was "one of our nation's outstanding sons...but the legacy he leaves behind shall live on to inspire today's and tomorrow's generations." In May 2011 for his great service to this country, the airport in Tobago was renamed the, replacing the name'Crown Point International Airport'. In November 2011, A. N. R. Robinson was the recipient of Tobago's highest award, the Tobago Medal of Honour. During the investiture of President Thomas Boni Yayi of Benin as a titled Yoruba chieftain on 20 December 2008, the reigning Ooni of Ile-Ife
United Press International
United Press International is an international news agency whose newswires, news film, audio services provided news material to thousands of newspapers, magazines and television stations for most of the 20th century. At its peak, it had more than 6,000 media subscribers. Since the first of several sales and staff cutbacks in 1982, the 1999 sale of its broadcast client list to its rival, the Associated Press, UPI has concentrated on smaller information-market niches. Formally named "United Press Associations" for incorporation and legal purposes, but publicly known and identified as United Press or UP, the news agency was created by the 1907 uniting of three smaller news syndicates by the Midwest newspaper publisher E. W. Scripps, it was headed by Hugh Baillie from 1935 to 1955. At the time of his retirement, UP had 2,900 clients in the United States, 1,500 abroad. In 1958, it became United Press International after absorbing the International News Service in May; as either UP or UPI, the agency was among the largest newswire services in the world, competing domestically for about 90 years with the Associated Press and internationally with AP, Reuters and Agence France-Presse.
At its peak, UPI had more than 2,000 full-time employees. With the rising popularity of television news, the business of UPI began to decline as the circulation of afternoon newspapers, its chief client category, began to fall, its decline accelerated after the 1982 sale of UPI by the Scripps company. The E. W. Scripps Company controlled United Press until its absorption of William Randolph Hearst's smaller competing agency, INS, in 1958 to form UPI. With the Hearst Corporation as a minority partner, UPI continued under Scripps management until 1982. Since its sale in 1982, UPI has changed ownership several times and was twice in Chapter 11 bankruptcy reorganization. With each change in ownership came deeper service and staff cutbacks and changes of focus and a corresponding shrinkage of its traditional media customer base. Since the 1999 sale of its broadcast client list to its one-time major rival, the AP, UPI has concentrated on smaller information market niches, it no longer services media organizations in a major way.
In 2000, UPI was purchased by News World Communications, an international news media company founded in 1976 by Unification Church leader Sun Myung Moon. It now maintains a news website and photo service and electronically publishes several information product packages. Based on aggregation from other sources on the Web and gathered by a small editorial staff and stringers, UPI's daily content consists of a newsbrief summary service called "NewsTrack," which includes general, sports, science and entertainment reports, "Quirks in the News." It sells a premium service, which has deeper coverage and analysis of emerging threats, the security industry, energy resources. UPI's content is presented in text and photo formats, in English and Arabic. UPI's main office is in the Miami metropolitan area and it maintains office locations in five other countries and uses freelance journalists in other major cities. Beginning with the Cleveland Press, publisher E. W. Scripps created the first chain of newspapers in the United States.
Because the recently reorganized Associated Press refused to sell its services to several of his papers, most of them evening dailies in competition with existing AP franchise holders, in 1907 Scripps merged three smaller syndicates under his ownership or control, the Publishers Press Association, the Scripps-McRae Press Association, the Scripps News Association, to form United Press Associations, with headquarters in New York City. Scripps had been a subscriber to an earlier news agency named United Press, that existed in the late 1800s in cooperation with management of the original New York-based AP and in existential competition with two Chicago-based organizations using the AP name. Drawing lessons from the battles between the earlier United Press and the various AP's, Scripps required that there be no restrictions on who could buy news from his news service, he made the new UP service available to anyone, including his competitors. Scripps hoped to make a profit from selling that news to papers owned by others.
At that time and until World War II, most newspapers relied on news agencies for stories outside their immediate geographic areas. Despite strong newspaper industry opposition, UP started to sell news to the new and competitive radio medium in 1935, years before competitor AP, controlled by the newspaper industry, did likewise. Scripps' United Press was considered "a scrappy alternative" news source to the AP. UP reporters were called "Unipressers" and were noted for their fiercely aggressive and competitive streak. Another hallmark of the company's culture was little formal training of reporters, they were weaned on UP's famous and well-documented slogan of "Get it first, but FIRST, get it RIGHT." Despite controversy, UP became a common training ground for generations of journalists. Walter Cronkite, who started with United Press in Kansas City, gained fame for his coverage of World War II in Europe and turned down Edward R. Murrow's first offer of a CBS job to stay with UP, but who went on to anchor the CBS Evening News, once said, "I felt every Unipresser got up in the morning saying,'This is the day I'm going to be
Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island country, the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean. It is situated 130 kilometres south of Grenada off the northern edge of the South American mainland, 11 kilometres off the coast of northeastern Venezuela, it shares maritime boundaries with Barbados to the northeast, Grenada to the northwest, Guyana to the southeast, Venezuela to the south and west. The island of Trinidad was a Spanish colony from the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1498 until Spanish governor Don José María Chacón surrendered the island to a British fleet under the command of Sir Ralph Abercromby in 1797. During the same period, the island of Tobago changed hands among Spanish, French and Courlander colonisers more times than any other island in the Caribbean. Trinidad and Tobago were ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens as separate states and unified in 1889. Trinidad and Tobago obtained independence in 1962 and became a republic in 1976.
As of 2015, the sovereign state of Trinidad and Tobago had the third highest GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity in the Americas after the United States and Canada. It is recognised by the World Bank as a high-income economy. Unlike most of the English-speaking Caribbean, the economy is industrial with an emphasis on petroleum and petrochemicals. Trinidad and Tobago is known for its Carnival and Diwali celebrations and as the birthplace of steelpan, the limbo, music styles such as calypso, soca and chutney. Historian E. L. Joseph claimed that Trinidad's Amerindian name was Cairi or "Land of the Humming Bird", derived from the Arawak name for hummingbird, ierèttê or yerettê. However, other authors dispute this etymology with some claiming that cairi does not mean hummingbird and some claiming that kairi, or iere means island. Christopher Columbus renamed it "La Isla de la Trinidad", fulfilling a vow made before setting out on his third voyage of exploration. Tobago's cigar-like shape may have given it its Spanish name and some of its other Amerindian names, such as Aloubaéra and Urupaina, although the English pronunciation is /təˈbeɪɡoʊ/, rhyming with lumbago, "may go".
Trinidad and Tobago are islands situated between 10° 2' and 11° 12' N latitude and 60° 30' and 61° 56' W longitude. At the closest point, Trinidad is just 11 kilometres from Venezuelan territory. Covering an area of 5,128 km2, the country consists of the two main islands and Tobago, numerous smaller landforms, including Chacachacare, Huevos, Gaspar Grande, Little Tobago, St. Giles Island. Trinidad is 4,768 km2 in area with an average length of 80 kilometres and an average width of 59 kilometres. Tobago has an area of about 300 km2, or 5.8% of the country's area, is 41 km long and 12 km at its greatest width. Trinidad and Tobago lie on the continental shelf of South America, are thus geologically considered to lie in South America; the terrain of the islands is a mixture of plains. The highest point in the country is found on the Northern Range at El Cerro del Aripo, 940 metres above sea level; as the majority of the population lives on the island of Trinidad, this is the location of most major towns and cities.
There are four major municipalities in Trinidad: Port of Spain, the capital, San Fernando and Chaguanas. The main town in Tobago is Scarborough. Trinidad is made up of a variety of soil types, the majority being heavy clays; the alluvial valleys of the Northern Range and the soils of the East–West Corridor are the most fertile. The Northern Range consists of Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous metamorphic rocks; the Northern Lowlands consist of younger shallow marine clastic sediments. South of this, the Central Range fold and thrust belt consists of Cretaceous and Eocene sedimentary rocks, with Miocene formations along the southern and eastern flanks; the Naparima Plains and the Nariva Swamp form the southern shoulder of this uplift. The Southern Lowlands consist of Miocene and Pliocene sands and gravels; these overlie oil and natural gas deposits north of the Los Bajos Fault. The Southern Range forms the third anticlinal uplift, it consists of several chains of hills, most famous being the Trinity Hills.
The rocks consist of sandstones, shales and clays formed in the Miocene and uplifted in the Pleistocene. Oil sands and mud volcanoes are common in this area; the climate is tropical. There are two seasons annually: the dry season for the first five months of the year, the rainy season in the remaining seven of the year. Winds are dominated by the northeast trade winds. Unlike most of the other Caribbean islands, both Trinidad and Tobago have escaped the wrath of major devastating hurricanes, including Hurricane Ivan, the most powerful storm to have passed close to the islands in recent history, in September 2004. In the Northern Range, the climate is different in contrast to the sweltering heat of the plains below. With constant cloud and mist cover, heavy rains in the mountains, the temperature is much cooler. Record temperatures for Trinidad and Tobago are 39 °C for the high in Port of Spain, a low of 12 °C; because Trinidad and Tobago lies
United National Congress
The United National Congress is one of the two major political parties in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago and one of the main parties in the current opposition. It was founded by a lawyer and former trade unionist; the UNC was formed as the result of a split in the ruling National Alliance for Reconstruction in 1988. After spending six years in opposition, the UNC won control of the government in 1995. In the 2000 general elections, the UNC won an absolute majority in the Parliament. In 2001, a split in the party caused the UNC to lose its parliamentary majority and control of the government. Between 1991 and 1995, again from 2001 to 2010, the UNC was the Parliamentary Opposition party. In May 2010, the UNC returned to government as the majority party in the People's Partnership. With this victory, the UNC's political leader, Kamla Persad-Bissessar was sworn in as Prime Minister of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, the first woman to hold this position; the UNC has been supported by a majority of Hindu Trinidadian and Tobagonians, Indo-Trinidadian and Tobagonians, the different minorities of the country.
The UNC is colloquially called the Indian party or the Hindu Party. The party symbol is the rising sun above the Trinity Hills; the party was founded on 30 April 1989 following a split in the ruling National Alliance for Reconstruction. In that split 6 MPs all of whom were former members of the United Labour Front left the NAR to form the Caucus for Love and Brotherhood 1988, chaired by Dr. Rampersad Parasram. CLUB 88 evolved into the United National Congress with Panday as leader and Dr. Rampersad Parasram as its first chairman. Panday had been the leader of the United Labour Front The UNC won 13 seats in the 1991 General Elections and became the official opposition, it won a 14th seat in a by-election and gained another in 1995 when Ralph Maraj defected from the PNM. In 1995 Hulsie Bhaggan, MP for Chaguanas left the party to form the Movement for Progress; the UNC formed the Government of Trinidad and Tobago between 1995- 2001 and was returned to government in May 2010 in partnership with the Congress of the People, NJAC, MSJ and TOP.
Mrs. Kamla Persad Bissessar is Opposition leader. In General Elections held in 1995 the UNC won 17 of 36 seats, formed a coalition government with the National Alliance for Reconstruction which won 2 seats. In exchange for his support, NAR political leader ANR Robinson was first appointed Minister Extraordinaire and elected President in 1997. Two PNM MPs supported the UNC as independent members; this gave the UNC an absolute majority, led to deterioration in relations with the NAR. In the 2000 elections the UNC won 19 seats forming the government outright. However, internal party elections in 2001 highlighted a rift in the party with Panday and Attorney-General Ramesh Lawrence Maharaj in effect fielding rival slates. Maharaj's slate termed itself'Team Unity'. Panday was not challenged as Political Leader but Maharaj's slate won 21 of the 24 other executive posts. Maharaj himself was elected as the new Deputy Leader; this did not translate into increased prestige for Maharaj in the government as Panday refused to recommend Maharaj as Acting Prime Minister in his absence.
Maharaj countered by initiating investigations into charges of corruption by Panday and his supporters. Panday reduced the ministerial portfolios of Maharaj and his supporters; this led to the defection of Maharaj. This led to the calling of early elections in 2001 in which the UNC were reduced to 18 seats in the House of Representatives; the opposition People's National Movement, which won 18 seats, was called upon to form the government. At the last legislative elections, 7 October 2002, the party won 46.5% of popular votes and 16 out of 36 seats in the House of Representatives. This made it the opposition in parliament to the ruling People's National Movement government, which held the other 20 seats. In April 2005, the UNC was further weakened when Pointe-à-Pierre MP Gillian Lucky and San Juan MP Fuad Khan declared themselves to be "independent UNC members" and relocated to the Opposition backbenches. On 31 May 2005, Basdeo Panday, together with his wife Oma, former UNC MP Carlos John and party financier Ishwar Galbaransingh were arrested for bribery.
Basdeo Panday remained in prison for eight days. On 2 September 2005, Panday announced that he would be willing to hand over party leadership to Winston Dookeran if Panday could remain on as party chairman; as a result of negotiations between the two, Dookeran was nominated unopposed for the post of Political Leader and Panday was nominated unopposed for the party Chairmanship. However, both fielded rival slates for the remaining 16 executive posts. On 2 October, Basdeo Panday's slate won 12 of the posts including two of the three deputy leader positions and the vice-chairmanship. Dookeran's slate won the 4 remaining posts. Members of the slate backed by Dookeran have called for Basdeo Panday to step down as Leader of the Opposition. Gerald Yetming, MP for St. Joseph joined the Opposition back benches in protest of Basdeo Panday's failure to relinquish the position of Leader of the Opposition. In February 2006, Panday announced. Maharaj was to