Chorography is the art of describing or mapping a region or district, and by extension such a description or map. This term derives from the writings of the ancient geographer Pomponius Mela and Ptolemy, its resonances of meaning have varied at different times. Richard Helgerson states that chorography defines itself by opposition to chronicle and it is the genre devoted to place, and chronicle is the genre devoted to time. Darrell Rohl prefers a broad definition of the representation of space or place, in his text of the Geographia, Ptolemy defined geography as the study of the entire world, but chorography as the study of its smaller parts—provinces, cities, or ports. Its goal was an impression of a part, as one makes an image of just an ear or an eye. Ptolemys most recent English translators, render the term as regional cartography, ptolemys text was rediscovered in the west at the beginning of the fifteenth century, and the term chorography was revived by humanist scholars. An early instance is a map of Britain in an early fifteenth-century manuscript.
John Dee in 1570 regarded the practice as an underling, the term came to be used, for written descriptions of regions. These regions were extensively visited by the writer, who combined local topographical description, summaries of the historical sources, the most influential example was probably William Camdens Britannia, which described itself on its title page as a Chorographica descriptio. William Harrison in 1587 similarly described his own Description of Britaine as an exercise in chorography, a late example was William Greys Chorographia, a survey of the antiquities of the city of Newcastle upon Tyne. Even before Camdens work appeared, Andrew Melville in 1574 had referred to chorography, the term continued to be used for maps and map-making, particularly of sub-national or county areas. By the beginning of the century the term had largely fallen out of use in all these contexts. In practice, the term is rarely found in English by this date. However, its use was revived for a time in the late nineteenth century by the geographer Ferdinand von Richthofen.
He regarded chorography as a specialization within geography, comprising the description through field observation of the traits of a given area. The term is now widely used by historians and literary scholars to refer to the early modern genre of topographical. Antiquarianism Cartography Khôra Chorology English county histories Regional geography Brayshay, Mark, no Historie So Meete, gentry culture and the development of local history in Elizabethan and early Stuart England. Forms of Nationhood, the Elizabethan Writing of England, speculum Britanniae, regional study and science in Britain to 1700
India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China and Bhutan to the northeast, in the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire.
The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in 2015, the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River.
The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. C. E and it is traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. Gaṇarājya is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for republic dating back to the ancient times, hindustan is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. C. E. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety
Philip V of Spain
Before his reign, Philip occupied an exalted place in the royal family of France as a grandson of King Louis XIV. His father, the Grand Dauphin, had the strongest genealogical claim to the throne of Spain when it became vacant in 1700. It was well known that the union of France and Spain under one monarch would upset the balance of power in Europe, Philip was the first member of the House of Bourbon to rule as king of Spain. The sum of his two reigns,45 years and 21 days, is the longest in modern Spanish history and he was a younger brother of Louis, Duke of Burgundy, the father of Louis XV of France. At birth, Philip was created Duke of Anjou, a title for younger sons in the French royal family. He would be known by name until he became the king of Spain. Philip was tutored with his brothers by François Fénelon, Archbishop of Cambrai, the three were educated by Paul de Beauvilliers. In 1700 the King Charles II of Spain died childless and his will named the turning 17-year-old Philip, grandson of Charles half-sister Maria Theresa, the first wife of Louis XIV, as his successor.
Upon any possible refusal, the crown of Spain would be offered next to Philips younger brother, Philip had the better genealogical claim to the Spanish throne, because his Spanish grandmother and great-grandmother were older than the ancestors of the Archduke Charles of Austria. However, the Austrian branch claimed that Philips grandmother had renounced the Spanish throne for herself and this was countered by the French branchs claim that it was on the basis of a dowry that had never been paid. After the Royal Council decided to accept the provisions of the will of Charles II naming Philip king of Spain, the ambassador, along with his son, knelt before Philip and made a long speech in Spanish which Philip did not understand, although Louis XIV did. Philip only learned to speak Spanish, on 2 November 1701 the almost 18 year old Philip married the 13-year-old Maria Luisa of Savoy, as chosen by his grandfather King Louis XIV, by an old man of 63. She was the daughter of Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy, there was a proxy ceremony at Turin, the capital of the Duchy of Savoy, and another one at Versailles on 11 September.
As queen of Spain, Maria Luisa proved very popular with her subjects and she served as regent for her husband on several occasions. Her most successful term was when Philip was away touring his Italian domains for nine months in 1702, in 1714, she died at the age of 26 from tuberculosis, a devastating emotional blow to her husband. The actions of Louis XIV heightened the fears of the English, the Dutch, however, a second act of the French king justified a hostile interpretation, pursuant to a treaty with Spain, Louis occupied several towns in the Spanish Netherlands. This was the spark that ignited the powder keg created by the issues of the War of the League of Augsburg. Almost immediately the War of the Spanish Succession began, inside Spain, the Crown of Castile supported Philip of France
New Spain was a colonial territory of the Spanish Empire, in the New World north of the Isthmus of Panama. It was established following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire in 1521, after 1535 the colony was governed by the Viceroy of New Spain, an appointed minister of the King of Spain, who ruled as monarch over the colony. The capital of New Spain was Mexico City and it developed highly regional divisions, which reflect the impact of climate, the presence or absence of dense indigenous populations, and the presence or absence of mineral resources. The areas of central and southern Mexico had dense indigenous populations with complex social, silver mining not only became the engine of the economy of New Spain, but vastly enriched Spain, and transformed the global economy. New Spain was the New World terminus of the Philippine trade, although New Spain was a dependency of Spain, it was a kingdom not a colony, subject to the presiding monarch on the Iberian Peninsula. Every privilege and position, economic political, or religious came from him and it was on this basis that the conquest and government of the New World was achieved.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain was established in 1535 in the Kingdom of New Spain and it was the first New World viceroyalty and one of only two in the Spanish empire until the 18th century Bourbon Reforms. The Spanish Empire comprised the territories in the north overseas Septentrion, from North America, to the west of the continent, New Spain included the Spanish East Indies. To the east of the continent, it included the Spanish West Indies and this was not occupied by many Spanish settlers and were considered more marginal to Spanish interests than the most densely populated and lucrative areas of central Mexico. To shore up its claims in North America starting in the late 18th century, Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest explored and claimed the coast of what is now British Columbia and Alaska. The indigenous societies of Mesoamerica brought under Spanish control were of unprecedented complexity, the societies could provide the conquistadors, especially Hernán Cortés, a base from which the conquerors could become autonomous, or even independent, of the Crown.
As a result, the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain, since the time of the Catholic Monarchs, central Iberia was governed through councils appointed by the monarch with particular jurisdictions. Thus, the creation of the Council of the Indies became another, the crown had set up the Casa de Contratación in 1503 to regulate contacts between Spain and its overseas possessions. A key function was to gather information about navigation to make trips less risky and they were accompanied by maps of the area discussed, many of which were drawn by indigenous artists. The Francisco Hernández Expedition, the first scientific expedition to the New World, was sent to gather information medicinal plants, an earlier Audiencia had been established in Santo Domingo in 1526 to deal with the Caribbean settlements. That Audiencia, housed in the Casa Reales in Santo Domingo, was charged with encouraging further exploration, management by the Audiencia, which was expected to make executive decisions as a body, proved unwieldy.
Therefore, in 1535, King Charles V named Don Antonio de Mendoza as the first Viceroy of New Spain. After the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire in 1532 opened up the vast territories of South America to further conquests, the Crown established an independent Viceroyalty of Peru there in 1540
Ternate is an island in the Maluku Islands of eastern Indonesia. It was the center of the former Sultanate of Ternate and it is off the west coast of the larger island of Halmahera. The city has a population of just under 200,000 on some 111.39 km2, like its neighbouring island, Ternate is a visually dramatic cone-shape. The two are ancient Islamic sultanates with a history of bitter rivalry. The islands were once the single major producer of cloves. In the precolonial era, Ternate was the dominant political and economic power over most of the Spice Islands of Maluku, Ternate City is the largest town in the province of North Maluku, within which the island constitutes a municipality. It is, however, no longer the capital, a title now held by the town of Sofifi on Halmahera. The Ternate Essay was an account of evolution by natural selection written on the island by Alfred Russel Wallace in 1858. Darwin at once responded by publishing Wallaces essay alongside his own accounts of the theory, Ternate is dominated by the volcanic Mount Gamalama.
An 1840 eruption destroyed most houses, recent eruptions occurred in 1980,1983,1994 and 2011. During the 2011 eruption, Indonesia closed an airport near the volcano for several days following ash emissions that reached 2,000 metres into the atmosphere. The foothills are home to groves of trees, and climbs to the peak of the volcano can be made. The airport lies along the northeast coastline, hiri island is a volcanic cone lying off the northern tip of Ternate. Crocodile-infested crater Tolire Lake lies in the northwest and is bordered by sheer cliffs, Ternate beaches include Sulamadaha and Jouburiki in the west, and the beach at the village of Kastela in the southeast. Ternate is governed as Ternate City within the province of North Maluku, connections are via Makassar, and Manado via Sorong. In addition there are flights to Jakarta on Batavia Air, Sriwijaya Air. Greater Ternate City spreads 10 kilometres from the airport to Bastiong port, the commercial centre stretches 2 km from the bus terminal near Fort Oranye to Ahmad Yani Port where Pelni ships arrive.
It is the largest town in North Maluku province, the current Sultans Palace, built in 1796, is partly a museum
Chinese Filipinos (Filipino, Tsinoy or Intsik, are Filipinos of Chinese descent, mostly born and raised in the Philippines. Chinese Filipinos are one of the largest overseas Chinese communities in Southeast Asia, There are approximately 1.5 million Filipinos with pure Chinese ancestry, or around 1. 8% of the population. In addition, Sangleys — Filipinos with at least some Chinese ancestry — comprise a minority of the Philippine population. Chinese Filipinos are represented in all levels of Philippine society and are integrated politically and economically, the term Chinese Filipino may or may not be hyphenated. The website of the organization Kaisa para sa Kaunlaran omits the hyphen, the Chicago Manual of Style and the APA, among others, recommend dropping the hyphen. When used as an adjective, Chinese Filipino may take on a form or may remain unchanged. Chinese Filipino, Filipino Chinese, or Philippine Chinese -- refers to Chinese people with Philippine nationality and this includes Filipino Chinese who live and/or are born in the UK and are often referred to us britsinoy.
Lan-nang, Lán-lâng, Bân-lâm, Hokkienese -- a Hokkien term referring to Chinese Filipinos whose ancestry is from Fujian province, keńg-tang-lâng, Cantonese -- a Hokkien term referring to Chinese Filipinos whose ancestry is from Guangdong province. Chinese mestizo -- refers to people who are of mixed Chinese, a common phenomenon in the Philippines, those with 75% Chinese ancestry are considered to be Chinese Filipino, rather than Chinese mestizo. Mainland Chinese, Mainlander -- refers to Chinese people with Chinese nationality and were born in China, Taiwanese -- refers to Chinese people with Republic of China nationality and were born in Taiwan. Tornatras or Torna atras -- refers to people who are of varying mixtures of Chinese, indigenous Filipino, or simply Filipino, is used in this article to refer to the Austronesian inhabitants prior to the Spanish Conquest of the islands. During the Spanish Colonial Period, the term Indio was used, the Chinese Filipinos has always been one of the largest ethnic groups in the country with Chinese immigrants comprising the largest group of immigrant settlers in the Philippines.
They are one of the three ethnic groupings in the Philippines, Christian Filipinos, Muslim Filipinos and Chinese Filipinos. Today, most Chinese Filipinos are locally born, the rate of intermarriage between Chinese settlers and indigenous Filipinos is among the highest in Southeast Asia, exceeded only by Thailand. However, intermarriages occurred mostly during the Spanish colonial period because Chinese immigrants to the Philippines up to the 19th century were predominantly male and it was only in the 20th century that Chinese women and children came in comparable numbers. Today, Chinese Filipino male and female populations are practically equal in numbers and these Chinese mestizos, products of intermarriages during the Spanish colonial period, often opted to marry other Chinese or Chinese mestizos. Generally, Chinese mestizos is a term referring to people with one Chinese parent, by this definition, the ethnically Chinese Filipinos comprise 1. 8% of the population. Ethnic Chinese sailed around the Philippine Islands from the 9th century onward and Filipino interactions initially commenced as bartering and item exchanges done on Chinese sampans
Sothebys /ˈsʌðəbiz/ is a British multinational corporation headquartered in New York City. One of the worlds largest brokers of fine and decorative art, real estate, the company’s services range from corporate art services to private sales. Sothebys is the fourth oldest auction house in continuous operation. As of December 2011, the company had 1,446 employees worldwide and it is the worlds largest art business with global sales in 2011 totalling $5.8 billion. Sothebys was established on 11 March 1744 in London, the American holding company was initially incorporated in August 1983 in Michigan. In June 2006, Sothebys Holdings, Inc. reincorporated in the State of Delaware and was renamed Sothebys, in July 2016, Chinese insurance giant Taikang Life became Sothebys largest shareholder. Three Swedish auction houses are older and Sothebys great rival in London and New York. The current business dates back to 1804, when two of the partners of the business left to set up their own book dealership. After Baker’s death in 1778, his estate was divided between Leigh and John Sotheby, George Leigh died unmarried in 1816, but not before endeavouring to secure his succession by recruiting Samuel E Leigh into the business.
Under the Sotheby family, the house extended its activities to auctioning prints, medals. John Wilkinson, Sothebys Senior Accountant, became the company’s new CEO, the business did not seek to auction fine arts in general until much later, their first major success in this field being the sale of a Frans Hals painting for nine thousand guineas as late as 1913. In 1917, Sothebys relocated from 13 Wellington Street to 34-35 New Bond Street and they soon came to rival Christies as leaders of the London auction market, which had become the most important for art. In 1955, Sothebys opened an office at Bowling Green, New York City, in 1964, Sothebys purchased Parke-Bernet, the largest auctioneer of fine art in the United States. In the following year, Sothebys moved to 980 Madison Avenue, Sothebys became a U. K. public company in 1977. The auction house closed its Madison Avenue galleries at East 76th Street, the Los Angeles galleries were sold and auctions of West Coast material moved to New York.
In the following year, a group of investors purchased and privatized Sothebys, Sothebys was initially incorporated as Sothebys Holdings, Inc. in Michigan in August 1983. Taubman took Sothebys public in 1988, listing the shares on the New York Stock Exchange. In June 2006, Sothebys Holdings, Inc. reincorporated in the State of Delaware and was renamed Sothebys shortly after, with private transactions constituting an essential and increasingly profitable business segment, through the years Sothebys has bought art galleries and helped dealers finance purchases
The term was used as an ethnic/racial category in the casta system that was in use during the Spanish Empires control of their New World colonies. Mestizos are usually considered to be mixed Spaniards by the crown of Spain, the term mestizaje - taking as its root mestizo or mixed - is the Spanish word for miscegenation, the general process of mixing ancestries. To avoid confusion with the usage of the term mestizo. In colonial Venezuela, pardo was more commonly used instead of mestizo, pardo means being mixed without specifying which mixture, it was used to describe anyone born in the Americas whose ancestry was a mixture of European and Black African. In colonial Brazil most of the population was mestiço in the original Iberian definition of the word. In the Philippines, which was a colony of Spain, the term came to refer to a Filipino with any foreign ancestry especially whites. In Canada, the Métis people is a community composed of those who possess combined European, in Saint Barthélemy, the term mestizo refers to people of mixed European and East Asian ancestry.
The Spanish word mestizo is from Latin mixticius, meaning mixed and its usage has been documented as early as 1275, to refer to the offspring of an Egyptian and a Jew. This term was first documented in English in 1582 and it is related to the particular racial identity of historical non-white Amerindian-descended Hispanic and Latino American communities in an American context. In English-speaking Canada, Canadian Métis, as a loanword from French, refers to persons of mixed French, in the United States, Métis Americans and Mestizo Americans are two distinct racial and ethno-racial identities, as reflected in the use of French and Spanish loanwords, respectively. The latter was listed as a mestizo de sangley in birth records of the 19th century, with sangley as a reference to the Hokkiense word for business. Mestizo, mestiço, métis, mestís, meticcio, mestee, in the Spanish colonial period, the Spanish developed an extremely vast complex system of racial hierarchy, which was used for social control and which determined a persons standing in society.
There were three categories of race during the initial period of colonization of the Americas by the Spanish, White Spaniard, Amerindian. During the Spanish colonial era, a myriad of terms were created to differentiate these racial mixtures, by the end of the colonial period in 1821, over one hundred sub-categories of possible variations of mixture existed, but official church and civil records were maintained with few categories. Church baptismal and marriage registers and civil records used the terms español, mestizo and indio. As time went on, a system of hierarchy, the sistema de castas or the sociedad de castas developed where society was divided based on race, wealth. Mestizo – a person of mixed White European and Amerindian ancestry, in theory, and as depicted in eighteenth-century Mexican casta paintings, español status could be attained by people of mixed origin who consistently had intermarried with Europeans. Such cases might include the offspring of a parent and one Peninsular or criollo parent
The Philippine peso is the official currency of the Philippines. It is subdivided into 100 céntimos, as a former colony of the United States, the country used English on its currency, with the word peso appearing on notes and coinage until 1967. Since the adoption of Filipino language for banknotes and coins, the term piso is now used, the peso is usually denoted by the symbol ₱. Other ways of writing the Philippine peso sign are PHP, PhP, Php, P$, the ₱ symbol was added to the Unicode standard in version 3.2 and is assigned U+20B1. The symbol can be accessed through some word processors by typing in 20b1 and pressing the Alt and this symbol is unique to the Philippines as the symbol used for the peso in countries like Mexico and other former colonies of Spain in Latin America is $. The Philippine coins and banknotes are minted and printed at the Security Plant Complex of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas in Quezon City, the inconvenience of barter however led to the use of some objects as a medium of exchange.
The teston became the de facto unit of trade between Spaniards and Filipinos before the founding of Manila in 1574, the native Tagalog name for the coin was salapi. The monetary situation in the Philippine Islands was chaotic due to the circulation of many types of coins, with differing purity and weights, value equivalents of the different monetary systems were usually difficult to comprehend and hindered trade and commerce. An attempt to remedy the confusion was made in 1848. Overseeing the conversion was Fernándo Norzagaray y Escudero, governor general in the period 1857-60, conversion to the decimal system with the peso fuerte as the unit of account solved the accounting problem, but did little to remedy the confusion of differing circulating coinage. The mint was inaugurated on March 19,1861, despite the mintage of gold and silver coins and South and Central American silver still circulated widely. The Isabelline peso, more known as the peso fuerte, was a unit of account divided into 100 céntimos.
Its introduction led to the Philippines brief experiment with the gold standard, the peso fuerte was a unit of exchange equivalent to 1.69 grams of gold,0.875 fine, equivalent to ₱1,390.87. Coin production at the Casa de Moneda de Manila began in 1861 with gold coins of three denominations,4 pesos,2 pesos, and 1 peso. On March 5,1862, Isabel II granted the mint permission to produce silver fractional coinage in denominations of 10,20, minting of these coins started in 1864, with designs similar to the Spanish silver escudo. The coin, which was to be known as the Spanish-Filipino peso, was minted in Madrid in 1897. The specifications of the coin was 25 grams of silver.900 fine and this configuration was used in the creation of the Puerto Rican provincial peso in 1895 giving both coins the equivalency of 5 pesetas. The new monetary standard finally established the peso as 25 grams silver,0.900 fine, the Spanish-Filipino peso remained in circulation and were legal tender in the islands until 1904, when the American authorities demonetized them in favor of the new US-Philippine peso
Mindanao is the second largest and southernmost major island in the Philippines. It is the name of one of the three groups in the country, consisting of the island of Mindanao and smaller outlying islands. As of the 2010 census, the population itself is 20,281,545 people, while the Mindanao island group has 21,968,174 inhabitants. Davao City is the most populous city in Mindanao hosting 1,632,991 people, followed by Zamboanga City, Cagayan de Oro City, the island has seen a communist insurgency as well as armed Moro separatist movements. Mindanao is considered the food basket of the Philippines, eight of the top 10 agri-commodities exported from the Philippines come from here. Mindanao is dubbed with the monikers The Philippines Land of Promise, although many attempts made, it was never occupied by Spain for their 333 years of stay in Luzon and Visayas. Yet during Spains defeat and Treaty of Paris in 1898, they illegally included by coordinates Mindanao, evidence of human occupation dates back tens of thousands of years.
In prehistoric times the Negrito people arrived, sometime around 1500 BC, Austronesian peoples spread throughout the Philippines and far beyond. Native people of the Maluku Islands refer the island as Maluku Besar, the evidence of old stone tools in Zamboanga del Norte may indicate a late Neolithic presence. Ceramic burial jars, both unglazed and glazed, as well as Chinese celadons, have found in caves, together with shell bracelets, beads. Many of the objects are from the Yuan and Ming periods. Evidently, there was a history of trade between the Subanon and the Chinese long before the latter’s contact with Islam. In the Classic epoch of Philippine history, the people of Mindanao were heavily exposed to Hindu and Buddhist influence and beliefs from Indonesia, artifacts found from this era include the Golden kinnara, Golden Tara, and the Ganesh pendant. These cultural traits passed through Mindanao into the Visayas and Luzon, in coastal areas, the Hindu-Buddhist cultural revolution was strongest, whereas in interior parts, influences were indigenized into local animist beliefs and customs and appeared more subtly.
The Darangen epic of the Maranao people harkens back to this era as the most compete local version of the Ramayana. The Maguindanao at this had strong Hindu beliefs, evidenced by the Ladya Lawana epic saga that survives to the modern day. The Rajahnate of Butuan, a kingdom mentioned in Chinese records as a tributary state in the 10th century AD, was concentrated along the northeastern coast of the island around Butuan. The coming of Islam happened in the 14th century, the first mosque in the Philippines was built in the mid-14th century in the town of Simunul
National Museum of the Philippines
The institution operates numerous branch museums throughout the country. The National Museum began as Insular Museum of Ethnology, Natural History and it was subsequently transferred to the Department of Interior as the Bureau of Ethnological Survey after the passage of the Philippine Commission Act No.841 in 1903. This new bureau was responsible for the Philippine participation in the Louisiana Purchase Exposition of 1904, after the exposition, it was abolished as a separate bureau and was renamed the Philippine Museum. The National Museum went through the division and distribution of its functions to other government agencies, the Philippine Legislature passed Act No. The latter was transformed into an independent unit under the Office of the Secretary of Agriculture, the Japanese Occupation brought back the divisions under the National Museum of the Philippines as provided by Philippine Republic Executive Order No. 94, but the museum lost a part of its collection during the Liberation of Manila when the Legislative Building was destroyed by American artillery.
Fortunately, the Legislative Building was immediately restored through the American reparation funds bringing the back to its operations. The museum’s role in growth was recognized as contributing to government’s desire for national development. It was revitalized in 1966 when President Ferdinand Marcos signed Republic Act No.4846 or the Cultural Properties, with its new powers, it was able to strengthen its cultural mandate by declaring properties and sites of historical and cultural value to the nation. The educational mandate was strengthened because it was able to inform the public of the researches it conducted, the National Museum of Fine Arts, formerly called the National Art Gallery, is housed in the old Legislative Building. The building was intended as a public library as proposed in Daniel Burnhams 1905 Plan for Manila. Designed by Ralph Harrington Doane, the American consulting architect of the Bureau of Public Works, construction of the building began in 1918 and completed in 1921.
The façade of the building had classical features using stylized Corinthian columns, ornamentation, on July 16,1926, the building was formally inaugurated. During the World War II, the building was heavily damaged, after the war, it was rebuilt albeit less ornate and less detailed. During the Martial Law era, the Legislative Building was closed down, the building holds the countrys National Art Gallery, natural sciences and other support divisions. It is located in the Agrifina Circle, Rizal Park, Manila next to the main National Museum building which is the National Museum for Fine Arts, the building was the former headquarters of the Department of Finance. The National Museum of Natural History will have a hexagonal DNA tower structure in its center which will be the base for the ventilating roof-dome of the whole building, living trees will be planted within the interior of the building. It was expected to be finished in the last quarter of 2015, the building started on construction on 1974 and completed 9 months after