Battle of Las Queseras del Medio
The Battle of Las Queseras del Medio was an important battle of the Venezuelan War of Independence. It took place on April 2,1819, the forces of José Antonio Páez consisted of 153 lancers, who were llaneros. They were pitted against more than 1,000 Spanish cavalry, the battle is noted for a phrase of Páez’s that became famous, ¡Vuelvan Caras. –although some sources state that he actually said ¡Vuelvan, Carajo. ), together the llaneros of Paez and Bolívars troops numbered about 3,000 men. The army of Spanish General Pablo Morillo, which was stationed across the river at Las Queseras del Medio, Paez took command of 153 llaneros and with their horses crossed the river swimming to a point some two miles above Morillos encampment. Upon reaching the protection of the river bank on the opposite side, Páez formed his men into six or seven platoons. Páez and his men retreated in the direction where one of Bolivars infantry units was stationed, Morillos cavalry tried to surround Páez by flanking him on both sides. Páez ordered one of his platoons to attack the infantry in the center, the purpose of this action was to force the two flanking cavalry columns to come together, at which moment Páez would pull back his men to avoid being enveloped.
The maneuver was executed and with great speed, creating pandemonium in the royalists ranks. Carajo being a word in Spanish but was embellished for euphemistic purposes. The Spanish cavalry, turned around in panic and fled, Spanish casualties amounted to 400 dead, while Páez lost 8 men in the action. After the battle Bolívar awarded Páez and his men with the Cruz de los Libertadores, pedro Camejo had been involved in this battle as one of Páezs lancers. Narciso López had fought on the Spanish side of this battle, Las Queseras del Medio Batalla de Las Queseras del Medio Batalla de Las Queseras del Medio
Battle of Lake Maracaibo
The engagement was won by the Republican forces, and was the last battle of the Venezuelan War of Independence and the larger Spanish American wars of independence. The Republican ships were part of the forces of Gran Colombia led by Simón Bolívar. The Battle of Carabobo of 1821 is usually seen in the historiography as the battle for Venezuelan independence. 24 July is a holiday of Zulia State in Venezuela. During this Naval Battle, the Republican squadron was led by Admiral José Prudencio Padilla against the Royalist forces commanded by Ángel Laborde. After three brief encounters with the Spanish squadron, the Republican fleet went to the port of Moporo, on 17 July Royalist commander Laborde sent to Padilla an offer of friendship which was rejected. The following days were spent in war preparations as the two commanders prepared their ships, gathered supplies, and trained their crews in anticipation of the coming combat. On the afternoon of 23 July the Royalists moved to the west coast of the lake between Captain Chico and Bella Vista and anchored in line of battle.
At 15,04, they placed the sign of approaching the opponent, however raised have been answered by all vessels, to show thereby that nothing remained to be done. At 15,45, Royalist fleet squadrons opened fire on the Patriots, when broken bowsprits the Independent brig, threw themselves over the San Carlos, and began the approach, phase which decided the victory for Republicans. As a result of the Republican attack, many Royalist vessels were destroyed, some Royalists, in a most desperate situation, cut their anchor cables and tried to set sail and escape, but failed and the larger vessels were captured. Most of the crew of the San Carlos jumped into the water, the brig-schooner Esperanza was destroyed by an explosion. Ultimately, only three managed to escape, seeking shelter by the Fort of San Carlos. Republican losses included 8 officers and 36 crew killed, with 14 officers and 150 crew wounded, Royalist casualties were higher, with 69 officers and 368 soldiers and sailors taken prisoner. At days end, Admiral Padilla ordered his squad to make anchor where they had fought, soon he moved to the Port of Altagracia to repair the damage to the ships.
For his part, Commander Laborde was able to pass by the fort and reach the bar, the two hours of fierce combat that decided the battle paved the way for negotiations between the Republicans and the Spanish Captain General of Venezuela Francisco Tomás Morales. The last Spanish forces left Venezuelan territory on 5 August, a racconto of the battle José Prudencio Padilla
Colombian Declaration of Independence
The Colombian Declaration of Independence refers to the events of July 20,1810, in Santa Fe de Bogota, in the Spanish colonial Viceroyalty of New Granada. They resulted in the establishment of a Junta de Santa Fe that day, the experience in self-government eventually led to the creation of the Republic of Gran Colombia. However, the Spanish colonies in the Americas were forbidden to trade with countries and their colonies, such as Great Britain and British North America. Spain was their source of goods and merchandise, although it was unable to fulfill the trade demands of its colonies. Another major tension was the policy of excluding Criollos, or locally born whites, charles IV was not very interested in exercising political power, leaving such duties to his ministers, especially the disliked Manuel Godoy. Charles IV was more interested in pursuing the arts and science, an example of Josephs policies was the abolition of the Spanish Inquisition. However, the population rejected the new king and opposition, led by the priesthood and patriots.
Eventually an emergency government in the form of a Supreme Central Junta was formed in Spain, most of the authorities in the Americas swore allegiance to the new Supreme Central Junta. The Supreme Central Junta ordered the election of one representative each of the main cities of the Spanish American viceroyalties by their cabildos. In addition the cabildos were to draft instructions for the representative to present to the Supreme Central Junta, the Memorandum of Offences was drafted by Camilo Torres Tenorio in his capacity as legal advisor to the Santa Fe de Bogotá cabildo. In it he criticized the Spanish Monarchys policy of excluding Criollos from high posts in the Americas, justice is founded upon that principle and upon granting everyone that which is his. He true fraternal union between European Spaniards and Americans… can never exist except upon the basis of justice and equality. Although the draft expressed many of common sentiments of Criollos at the time and probably was discussed by prominent members of the capitals society and it would be published for the first time only in 1832.
As the military situation in Spain deteriorated, many Spanish Americans desired to establish their own juntas, a movement to set up a junta in neighboring Caracas in 1808 was stopped by the Captain-General with arrests of the conspirators. In the Royal Audiencia of Charcas juntas were established in Charcas, in mid-1810 news arrived that the Supreme Central Junta had dissolved itself in favor of a regency. In response to the new crisis and Criollos in the Americas established juntas that continued to swear allegiance to King Ferdinand VII. The next incident happened in Caracas, on April 19,1810, the mantuanos, together with military and eclessiatic authorities, declared autonomy, again swearing loyalty to Ferdinand VII, but rejecting the viceroyalty. The Cadiz Board of government decided to order the destitution of Amar y Borbon, sending a notification with the royal visitor Antonio Villavicencio, on May 22 in Cartagena de Indias, the Cartagena Board of government was created with similar terms to the previous one
It is the fifth-largest city in Colombia and the second largest in the region, after Barranquilla. The urban area of Cartagena is the fifth-largest urban area in the country, economic activities include the maritime and petrochemicals industries, as well as tourism. The city was founded on June 1,1533, and named after Cartagena, settlement in the region around Cartagena Bay by various indigenous people dates back to 4000 BC. During the Spanish colonial period Cartagena served a key role in administration and expansion of the Spanish empire and it was a center of political and economic activity due to the presence of royalty and wealthy viceroys. In 1984, Cartagenas colonial walled city and fortress were designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site, archaeologists estimate that around 4000 BC, the formative culture was located near the boundary between the present-day departments of Bolívar and Sucre. In this area, archaeologists have found the most ancient ceramic objects of the Americas, archaeological investigations date the decline of the Puerto Hormiga culture and its related settlements to around 3000 BC.
The Monsú culture appears to have inherited the Puerto Hormiga cultures use of the art of pottery and to have developed an economy of agriculture. The Monsú peoples diet was based mostly on shellfish and fresh, the development of the Sinú society in what is today the departments of Córdoba and Sucre, eclipsed these first developments around the Cartagena Bay area. Until the Spanish colonization, many derived from the Karib, Malibu. In the late pre-Columbian era, the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta was home to the Tayrona people, around 1500 the area was inhabited by different tribes of the Carib language family, more precisely the Mocanae sub-family. Among these, according to the earliest documents available, the Kalamari had preeminence, rodrigo de Bastidas traveled to the Pearl Coast and the Gulf of Uraba in 1500-01. On 14 Feb.1504, Ferdinand V contracted Juan de la Cosas voyage to Uraba, Juan de la Cosa died in 1510, after an armed confrontation with indigenous people, before he could get possession of the Gulf of Urabá area.
They preferred the better known Hispaniola and Cuba, De Nicuesa and De Ojeda noted the existence of a big bay on the way from Santo Domingo to Urabá and the Panama isthmus, and that encouraged Bastidas to investigate. Under contract to Queen Joanna of Castile, Pedro de Heredia invaded the Bay of Cartagena with three ships,150 men, and 22 horses, on 14 Jan.1533 and he soon found the village of Calamari abandoned. Proceeding onwards to Turbaco, where Juan de la Cosa had been mortally wounded 13 years earlier, using India Catalina as a guide, Heredia embarked on a three month exploration expedition. He returned to Calamari in April 1533 with gold pieces, including a gold porcupine weighing 132 pounds. In expeditions, Heredia raided the Sinú tombs and temples of gold and his rule as governor of Cartagena lasted 22 years, before perishing on his return to Spain in 1544. Cartagena was founded on June 1,1533 by the Spanish commander, Pedro de Heredia, the town was named after Cartagena, where most of Heredias sailors had resided
Viceroyalty of New Granada
The Viceroyalty of New Granada was the name given on 27 May 1717, to the jurisdiction of the Spanish Empire in northern South America, corresponding to modern Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela. The territory corresponding to Panama was incorporated in 1739, in addition to these core areas, the territory of the Viceroyalty of New Granada included Guyana, southwestern Suriname, parts of northwestern Brazil, and northern Peru. Sporadic attempts at reform were directed at increasing efficiency and centralizing authority, the rough and diverse geography of northern South America and the limited range of proper roads made travel and communications within the viceroyalty difficult. The Wayuu had never subjugated by the Spanish. The two groups were in a more or less permanent state of war, there had been rebellions in 1701,1727,1741,1757,1761 and 1768. In 1718, Governor Soto de Herrera called them barbarians, horse thieves, worthy of death, without God, without law, of all the Indians in the territory of Colombia, the Wayuu were unique in having learned the use of firearms and horses.
In 1769 the Spanish took 22 Wayuus captive, in order to put them to work building the fortifications of Cartagena, the reaction of the Wayuus was unexpected. On 2 May 1769, at El Rincón, near Riohacha, they set their village afire, burning the church, the Spanish immediately dispatched an expedition from El Rincón to capture the Wayuus. At the head of this force was José Antonio de Sierra, the Guajiros recognized him and forced his party to take refuge in the house of the curate, which they set afire. Sierra and eight of his men were killed and this success was soon known in other Guajiro areas, and more men joined the revolt. According to Messía, at the peak there were 20,000 Wayuus under arms, many had firearms acquired from English and Dutch smugglers, sometimes even from the Spanish. This enabled the rebels to take all the settlements of the region. According to the authorities, more than 100 Spaniards were killed, many cattle were taken by the rebels. The Spaniards took refuge in Riohacha and sent urgent messages to Maracaibo, Santa Marta and Cartagena, the rebels themselves were not unified.
Sierras relatives among the Indians took up arms against the rebels to avenge his death, a battle between the two groups of Wayuus was fought at La Soledad. That and the arrival of the Spanish reinforcements caused the rebellion to fade away, New Granada was estimated to have 4,345,000 inhabitants in 1819. With the dissolution of Gran Colombia, the states of Ecuador, the Republic of New Granada, with its capital at Bogotá, lasted from 1831 to 1856. The name Colombia reappeared in the United States of Colombia, the new name for the country having been introduced by a government after a civil war
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Battle of Carabobo
The Battle of Carabobo,24 June 1821, was fought between independence fighters, led by Venezuelan General Simón Bolívar, and the Royalist forces, led by Spanish Field Marshal Miguel de la Torre. Bolívars decisive victory at Carabobo led to the independence of Venezuela, there were several events that led to the Battle of Carabobo. Francisco Miranda, famed patriot that tried to free many Latin American countries alongside Simón Bolívar, had control of Caracas from 1810 to 1812. The Spanish took back control and Miranda was handed to the royalists because Bolívar, in one of his most questionable decisions of his life, Bolívar fled from Venezuela, after which he organized the Admirable Campaign in 1813 and re-established the Second Republic of Venezuela. Bolívar would lose Venezuela again in 1814 and he would re-establish the Venezuelan Republic one more time before uniting with the New Granada to form the Gran Colombia union. In 1820, an armistice was made between the Spanish, under General Pablo Morillo, and the Patriots, under Bolívar, during the years after he fled from Venezuela, Bolívar spent a lot of time regrouping his forces.
He stationed his men on Lake Maracaibo, an area that was occupied by the loyalists, Bolívar had numerical superiority over the loyalists but it would still be a challenge. The Royalists occupied the leading from Valencia to Puerto Cabello. As Bolívars force of 6,500 approached the Royalist position, Bolívar divided his force and sent half on a flanking maneuver through rough terrain, Bolívar led the attack through the center while Gen. José Antonio Páez went around to the right flank. But before they would do it, the 2 Spanish field guns fired on the lines, Gen. Miguel de la Torre, commander of the Spanish, split his force and sent half to deal with this flank attack. Hitting the Patriots, led by the Apure Braves Battalion, with musket fire, the Venezuelan infantry failed and retreated, but the men of the British Legions, among them many members of the former Kings German Legion, fought hard and took the hills. They played very pivotal roles in several of the battles and were very crucial in this battle.
The legion troops were led by Colonel Thomas Ilderton Ferrier and they defended strategically important hills while being greatly outnumbered and low on supplies. Col. Ferrier was among the dead, Bolívar praised the Legion troops and called them the Saviors of my Fatherland and said that they had distinguished themselves among other armies. Páez, watching him in retreat, told him that he was a coward, to which, with his breath, Camejo responded, No. My general, I have to tell you goodbye, because now I am dead, the Spanish infantry formed squares and fought to the end under the attack of the Patriot cavalry, but one battalion retreated in the face of the enemy. The rout was so bad that only some 400 of one infantry regiment managed to reach safety at Puerto Cabello, with the main Royalist force in Venezuela crushed, independence was ensured. The victory was a hard won one for the independence forces, both Ambrosio Plaza and Manuel Cedeno, commanders of the 2nd and 3rd Divisions, were killed in the battle by the enemy
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a transcontinental country largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and it shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Honduras, Jamaica and the Dominican Republic. It is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, the territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous peoples including the Muisca, the Quimbaya and the Tairona. The Spanish arrived in 1499 and initiated a period of conquest and colonization ultimately creating the Viceroyalty of New Granada, independence from Spain was won in 1819, but by 1830 the Gran Colombia Federation was dissolved. What is now Colombia and Panama emerged as the Republic of New Granada, the new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation, and the United States of Colombia, before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in 1886.
Since the 1960s the country has suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict, Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, and thereby possesses a rich cultural heritage. Cultural diversity has influenced by Colombias varied geography. The urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains. Colombian territory encompasses Amazon rainforest, tropical grassland and both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines, ecologically, it is one of the worlds 17 megadiverse countries, and the most densely biodiverse of these per square kilometer. Colombia is a power and a regional actor with the fourth-largest economy in Latin America, is part of the CIVETS group of six leading emerging markets and is an accessing member to the OECD. Colombia has an economy with macroeconomic stability and favorable growth prospects in the long run. The name Colombia is derived from the last name of Christopher Columbus and it was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but especially to those portions under Spanish and Portuguese rule.
The name was adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819. When Venezuela and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, New Granada officially changed its name in 1858 to the Granadine Confederation. In 1863 the name was changed, this time to United States of Colombia. To refer to country, the Colombian government uses the terms Colombia. Owing to its location, the present territory of Colombia was a corridor of early human migration from Mesoamerica, the oldest archaeological finds are from the Pubenza and El Totumo sites in the Magdalena Valley 100 km southwest of Bogotá. These sites date from the Paleoindian period, at Puerto Hormiga and other sites, traces from the Archaic Period have been found