Australian Recording Industry Association
The Australian Recording Industry Association is a trade group representing the Australian recording industry, established in 1983 by six major record companies, EMI, Festival, CBS, RCA, WEA and Universal replacing the Association of Australian Record Manufacturers, formed in 1956. It oversees the collection and distribution of music licenses and royalties; the association has more than 100 members, including small labels run by one to five people, medium size organisations and large companies with international affiliates. ARIA is administered by a Board of Directors comprising senior executives from record companies, both large and small; as of October 2010, the directors were Denis Handlin, George Ash, Mark Poston, Sebastian Chase, David Vodica and Tony Harlow. In 1956, the Association of Australian Record Manufacturers was formed by Australia's major record companies, it was replaced in 1983 by the Australian Recording Industry Association, established by the six major record companies operating in Australia, EMI, Festival Records, CBS, RCA, WEA and Polygram.
It included smaller record companies representing independent acts/labels and has over 100 members. By 1997, the six major labels provided 90% of all recordings made in Australia. ARIA is administered by a Board of Directors comprising senior executives from record companies, both large and small; as of October 2010, the directors were Denis Handlin, George Ash, Mark Poston, Sebastian Chase, David Vodica and Tony Harlow. Australian TV pop music show Countdown presented its own annual awards ceremony, Countdown Music and Video Awards, co-produced by Carolyn James during 1981–1984 in collaboration with ARIA. ARIA provided peer voting for some awards, while Countdown provided coupons in the related Countdown Magazine for viewers to vote for populist awards. At the 1985 Countdown awards ceremony, held on 14 April 1986, fans of INXS and Uncanny X-Men scuffled during the broadcast and as a result ARIA decided to hold their own awards. Since 2 March 1987, ARIA administered its own peer-voted ARIA Music Awards, to "recognise excellence and innovation in all genres of Australian music" with an annual ceremony.
Included in the same awards ceremonies, it established the ARIA Hall of Fame in 1988 and has held separate annual ceremonies since 2005. The ARIA Hall of Fame "honours Australian musicians' achievements have had a significant impact in Australia or around the world". In February 2004, the Australian Record Industry Association announced its own legal action against Kazaa, alleging massive copyright breaches; the trial began on 29 November 2004. On 6 February 2005, the homes of two Sharman Networks executives and the offices of Sharman Networks in Australia were raided under a court order by ARIA to gather evidence for the trial. In 2006, ARIA formed sponsorship deals with Motorola and Nova and changed the appearance and conduct of the charting. Motorola took naming-rights sponsorship seeing the charts referred to in the media as the Motorola ARIA Charts. ARIA, have commented that as part of the same marketing printed charts would be reintroduced into media retailing shops and their website would be redesigned.
As part of the deal Nova began broadcasting the charted singles in reverse order on a Sunday afternoon show before it was released on the ARIA charts website. The ARIA Charts is the main Australian music sales charts, issued weekly by the Australian Recording Industry Association; the charts are a record of albums in various genres. All charts are compiled from data of both digital sales from retailers in Australia. A music single or album qualifies for a platinum certification if it exceeds 70,000 copies shipped to retailers and a gold certification for 35,000 copies shipped; the diamond certification was created for albums in November 2015 to mark 500,000 sales/shipments. For music DVDs, a gold accreditation represented 7,500 copies shipped, with a platinum accreditation representing 15,000 units shipped. Prior to ARIA taking on the role of certification authority in 1983, the music industry used the following certification levels: The ARIA No. 1 Chart Awards were established in 2002 to recognise Australian recording artists, who reached number one on the ARIA albums and music DVDs charts.
The ARIA Music Awards is an annual series of awards nights celebrating the Australian music industry. The event has been held annually since 1987. Like most recording industry associations, ARIA has been criticised for fighting copyright infringement matters aggressively, although in Australia this has taken the form of aggressive advertising campaigns in cinemas directly preceding movies; this criticism is stauncher in Australia due to the absence of an equivalent Digital Millennium Copyright Act or state crimes acts which establish copyright infringement as a crime. In February 2004, the Australian Record Industry Association took legal action against Kazaa, alleging massive copyright breaches; the trial began on 29 November 2004. On 6 Febr
In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
"Doctor Jones" is a song by Danish dance-pop group Aqua. Released as the band's fifth single overall, it was the follow-up to their most successful song "Barbie Girl" in many regions. "Doctor Jones" was a pop-oriented hit which sold well across the globe and ended the assumptions that Aqua would be a one-hit wonder. "Doctor Jones" was released around the world in a number of months, with the first release being in October 1997. Most of the releases would be in November 1997, with it hitting the charts in Japan and mainland Europe in that month. December 1997 saw the Australian release achieve a successful chart placing at No. 1 for seven consecutive weeks, before the song made its impact in the UK in February of the following year. There, it became the group's second number one single; the song can be heard in the 1998 Disney film I'll Be Home for Christmas. Allie Henderson sings along with the song while riding in a car through Colorado; the music video implies the song is based around the Indiana Jones character from the film series of the same name, with René Dif playing Jones and rescuing his fellow band members from a stereotypical voodoo tribe.
The title logo is written in a similar form to that of the Indiana Jones logo. There is a shot of airplane's flight path over a map, used in the film series; the lyric "Dr. Jones, wake up now" may be a reference to Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom where Short Round implores Indiana Jones to "wake up" after being brainwashed by the blood of Kālī Ma, or during a scene on an airplane when Willie Scott says, "Calling Dr. Jones, wake up!". The video was one of five Aqua-videos directed by Peder Pedersen, who would spoof the Indiana Jones-movies again in his computer-animated short film Lego Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Brick. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Søren Nystrøm Rasted is a Danish musician, singer and record producer. He plays keyboard and sings backing vocals, he is one of the four members of Danish eurodance group Aqua, was married to the Aqua vocalist Lene Nystrøm. Rasted and Claus Norreen were voted, in the US, two of the ten best pop songwriters/producers who have come out of the Scandinavian pop scene. On 25 August 2001, Rasted married fellow Aqua band member Lene Nystrøm, with the ceremony being held in Las Vegas. In 2004 the couple moved to Denmark from London. Together, they have a daughter, a son, Billy, it was reported in April 2017. Rasted was a member of the Danish pop-dance group Aqua, he and his fellow band member Claus wrote and produced the three Aqua albums Aquarium and Megalomania. Aqua was formed in 1994 and split up in 2001, but reunited in 2008; the band sold more than 28 million records worldwide, appeared in the Guinness Book of Records as the only debut band with three "self penned" Number One hits in the UK. In 2004 Rasted released the spoken word album Lazyboy TV under the name Lazyboy.
The album included the singles "Facts of Life", "Inhale Positivity" and "Underwear Goes Inside the Pants". Rasted has worked as producer and songwriters on various Danish artists such as Sort Sol writing their "Holler High". Rasted worked with Jon on "Right Here Next to You" and "This Side Up", he wrote the single "Teardrops in Heaven" for Sanne Salomonsen, The single "Det bedste til sidst" for X-Factor winner Linda, the single for Mathias Pachler "Mit Et & Alt". In 2006 Rasted wrote and arranged music for "Det Kgl Teater", the music for the Royal Danish Opera ballet American Mixtures. Rasted is a member of the Danish band Hej Matematik, he has made various TV scores and film scores. In 2009 Rasted produced the Aqua songs for the "Best of" album: "Back to the 80's", "Live Fast - Die Young" and "My Mamma Said". in 2011 Rasted wrote and produced with Claus Norreen, Rene Dif and Lene Nystrøm the Aqua album "MEGALOMANIA". In 2012 Rasted started the Label "LabelLand" distributed by ArtPeople. In 2012 Rasted and Nicolaj Rasted did the songs and the score music for the Jonatan Spang movie "Talenttyven".
In 2012 Rasted recorded the first Lazyboy track in 7 years, "2012 Shift Happens". with Aqua 1996 Roses are red 1997 My Oh My 1997 Aquarium - 1997 Barbie Girl 1997 Dr. Jones 1997 Goodmorning Sunshine 1997 Lollipop/Candyman U. S. Version 1998 Turn Back Time 1998 Diddnt I 1998 Aquarium - The Remixes - 2000 Cartoon Heroes 2000 Aquarius - 2000 Around the world 2000 Bumble bees 2000 We belong to the sea 2000 Freaky Friday - For the U. S. Motion Picture 2000 Halloween 2009 Back to the 80s 2009 My Mamma Said 2009 Aqua - Best of - 2011 How R U Doin'? 2011 Playmate To JesusFor Jon 2002 Right here next to you 2002 This side up 2002 EndlesslyFor Sort Sol 2003 Holler High 2003 Golden WonderFor Sanne Salomonsen 2003 Teardrops in heavenFor Lene 2003 ScreamFor Linda 2009 Bedste til sidst with Lazyboy 2004 Facts of life 2004 Underwear goes inside the pants 2004 LazyboyTV 2004 Inhale Positivity 2004 It's all about love 2012 2012 - Shift Happenswith Hej Matematik 2007 Gymnastik 2007 Centerpubben 2008 Du og Jeg 2008 Walkmand 2008 Vi Burde Ses Noget Mere 2009 Party I Provinsen 2010 Alt Går Op I 6 2010 Legendebørn 2010 Kato på maskinerne 2011 The Loser Sign 2012 Livet i Plastik 2012 Det blir en go dag.
Feat. Ankerstjerne 2012 Sikke en festfor Mathias Pachler 2012 Mit Et & AltSocre songs for the soundtrack to the motion picture Talenttyven 2012 Ovre mig 2012 Jo-Ann Hej Matematik LazyB Søren Rasted at AllMusic Søren Rasted discography at Discogs
Aqua is a Danish-Norwegian dance group, best known for their 1997 breakthrough single "Barbie Girl". The group formed in 1989 and achieved huge success around the globe in the late 1990s and early 2000s; the group released three albums: Aquarium in 1997, Aquarius in 2000 and Megalomania in 2011. The group sold an estimated 33 million albums and singles, making them the most profitable Danish band ever. In their prime, Aqua's singles managed to chart top ten in a number of countries where European pop acts would not succeed, including the United States, Brazil and Japan; the group managed to top the UK Singles Chart with three of their singles. The group caused controversy with the double entendres in their "Barbie Girl" single, with the Barbie doll makers Mattel filing a lawsuit against the group; the lawsuit was dismissed by a judge in 2002, who ruled "The parties are advised to chill."The band's members are vocalists Lene Nystrøm and René Dif, keyboardist Søren Rasted, guitarist Claus Norreen.
During their split, Nystrøm, Dif and Rasted all achieved solo chart success, Norreen continued in the music industry remixing other artists' material. At a press event on 26 October 2007, the group announced a reunion tour, as well as the release of a compilation album featuring new material, their third album, was released on 3 October 2011. Aqua's history together dates back to 1989, they were called Joyspeed. Claus and Søren met in 1989, throughout the early 1990s, they started writing songs together. At that time, René was working in the Netherlands as a club DJ, Søren and Claus were starting out as producers. Søren and Claus were hired to produce a soundtrack. For some of the songs they hired René; the three were brought in to make part of the soundtrack for a little-known film titled Frække Frida og de frygtløse spioner. The recording of the soundtrack began in 1993. After getting along well, the trio decided. A few months after the film was released, René spotted Lene Nystrøm singing on the Norway–Denmark ferry, M/S Peter Wessel.
He approached her and hired her as the lead singer of Joyspeed renamed Aqua. The formation of Joyspeed was on the basis that both Claus and Søren would do the production for the group, with René rapping and Lene performing the main vocals. A small Swedish record label signed them in 1994, their first single "Itzy Bitzy Spider" was released in Sweden; the single failed to become popular, after one week at the lower end of the Swedish charts, it disappeared completely. The four were canceled their contract with the record label. With a new manager and no record deal, the group started over, began to develop their famous bubblegum pop sound; the four began to produce and write melodic, catchy European pop songs, attracting the attention of major label Universal Music Denmark. They renamed themselves Aqua, choosing the name seen on a poster for an aquarium in their dressing room, accepted Universal Music Denmark's offer of a recording contract in 1996; the group's first release under their new name was "Roses Are Red", a dance song with a distinct pop sound.
It was released in Denmark in September 1996, was expected to break into the Danish top ten. The single far surpassed all expectations set by the label and stayed in the charts for over two months selling enough copies to be certified platinum; the success of the single was further proven when Aqua received a nomination for "Best Danish Dance Act", although the group did not win. The instant success of "Roses Are Red" proved to Aqua that their new sound was popular with the public, as a result their follow-up single followed the same formula. Titled "My Oh My", the single again featured catchy lyrics paired with a melodic beat. Upon its release in February 1997, "My Oh My" broke all Danish sales records by being certified gold within six days; the single went straight to number one in Denmark, made Aqua a household name in the country. The first two singles proved to Universal Music Denmark that Aqua was a marketable group, as a result the label looked to start marketing their music across the continent.
Aqua released their debut album Aquarium in Denmark on 26 March 1997. The album contained 11 tracks, including their first two singles and their upcoming third single "Barbie Girl". Universal Music Group had by now begun to market the group in other countries, releasing "Roses Are Red" in Japan in February 1997 and in various countries across Europe in late 1996; the single had proven popular everywhere it was sold, convincing Universal that the group should not just focus on the Danish market, but instead on the general European market. Aqua released their third single "Barbie Girl" in May 1997; the song, at first glance, appears to be about the popular children's doll Barbie. However, at second glance, the song contains several sexual overtones, such as "You can brush my hair, undress me everywhere", "You can touch, you can play", "Kiss me here, touch me there, hanky-panky"; this caused some controversy upon its release in Denmark, but despite the controversy and partly due to it, it still sold well and made number one in the charts.
The song was so popular that it was played on radio stations which did not air dance music. Universal Music decided to ignore complaints about the double meanings in "Barbie Girl", released the single around the world in September and October 1997; the release was successful, making number one in the United Kingdom for four weeks, in Australia for three weeks, managing to make the top ten o
"Barbie Girl" is a song by the Danish-Norwegian dance-pop group Aqua. It was released in May 1997 as Aquarium; the song was written by Søren Rasted, Claus Norreen, René Dif, Lene Nystrøm, was produced by Johnny Jam, Delgado and Norreen. It was written; the song topped the charts worldwide in European countries such as the UK, where it was a number-one hit for three weeks. It was on top of the charts in Australia for the same length of time, debuted and peaked at number 7 on the US Billboard Hot 100 on 6 September 1997, where it remains Aqua's biggest hit single, their only one to reach the top 20 of the Billboard Hot 100, it is Aqua's most popular work. The song was performed as the interval act in the Eurovision Song Contest 2001, became the subject of the controversial lawsuit Mattel v. MCA Records; the lyrics of the song are about Barbie and Ken, the dolls made by Mattel. Both the song and its music video feature Lene Nystrøm as René Dif as Ken; as such, the lyrics drew the ire of Barbie's corporate owners, a lawsuit was filed by Mattel.
A footnote on the back of the Aquarium CD case stated that "The song'Barbie Girl' is a social comment and was not created or approved by the makers of the doll." Stephen Thomas Erlewine from AllMusic called the song "one of those inexplicable pop culture phenomena" and "insanely catchy," describing it as "a bouncy warped Euro-dance song that sends up femininity and Barbie dolls."The song was voted the fourth "Best Number One of All Time" in a VH1 poll, was featured in spot number 32 on the network's "Most Awesomely Bad Songs... Ever" countdown. In an unrelated VH1 countdown, "VH1's 100 Greatest One-Hit Wonders", the song ranked number 88; the song won the 1998 NME Award for Worst Single. In 1999, it was placed as the fourteenth worst music video on the MTV special Lame 25. In 2007, Rolling Stone named "Barbie Girl" as one of the "20 Most Annoying Songs", MuchMoreMusic ranked the song number 27 on a list of "50 Guilty Pleasures". In 2009, Blender ranked the song number 33 on their list of the "50 Worst Songs Ever".
In 2011, Rolling Stone readers voted it the number one most annoying song of the 1990s. "Barbie Girl" has sold more than 8 million copies worldwide. In the United States, the song debuted at number seven on the Billboard Hot 100, it debuted at number five on the Hot Singles Sales chart. It has sold 1.84 million copies in the United Kingdom as of April 2017, making it the thirteenth best-selling single in the UK. The music video was directed by Peter Stenbæk. In December 2000, toy manufacturer Mattel sued Aqua's record label. Mattel claimed that "Barbie Girl" violated their trademark and turned her into a sex object, referring to her as a "Blonde Bimbo", they alleged the song had violated their copyrights and trademarks of Barbie, that its lyrics had tarnished the reputation of their trademark and impinged on their marketing plan. Aqua claimed that Mattel injected their own meanings into the song's lyrics and MCA Records was not about to let their hit single be suppressed without a fight, they contested Mattel's claims and countersued for defamation after Mattel had likened MCA to a bank robber.
The lawsuit filed by Mattel was dismissed by the lower courts, this dismissal was upheld, though Mattel took their case up to the Supreme Court of the United States, but that appeal was rejected. In 2002, a Court of Appeals ruled the song was protected as a parody under the trademark doctrine of nominative use and the First Amendment to the United States Constitution; the case was dismissed. In 2009, Mattel released a series of advertisements and a promotional music video of the song, with modified lyrics, as part of a new marketing strategy brought in to revive sales; as the interval act during the 2001 Eurovision Song Contest, Aqua performed a medley of their singles alongside percussion ensemble Safri Duo. There were several complaints due to the profanity used during the performance, both at the beginning and end of "Barbie Girl"; these are the formats and track listings of major single releases of "Barbie Girl". Credits adapted from liner notes of the "Barbie Girl" CD Aquarium. Written by Norreen, Nystrøm, Rasted Performed by Norreen, Rasted Vocals by Nystrøm, Dif Hair and make-up by Fjodor Øxenhave Styling by Aqua, Bjarne Lindgreen Artwork by Peter Stenbæk Photo by Robin Skoldborg Produced and mixed by Norreen, Delgado, Rasted The song has been covered by several artists throughout years.
Girls' Generation's Jessica Jung covered this song as her solo performance during the first Asian concert tour Girls' Generation 1st Asia Tour: Into the New World. The Swedish artist Loke Nyberg did a new version of this song for the Swedish radio show Morgonpasset, he interprets the song as criticism of today's beauty ideals. In 2013, Ludacris sampled the song in his single "Party Girls" featuring Wiz Khalifa and Cashmere Cat. In 2016, Caramella Girls released a version called "Candy Girl" on iTunes, as well as a YouTube music video. There are many parodies of the song, including by German duo Lynne & Tessa, who made a lip-synched internet video of the song in 2006), on British Indian sketch comedy show Goodness Gracious Me, where a versio
Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1950s. The terms "popular music" and "pop music" are used interchangeably, although the former describes all music, popular and includes many diverse styles. "Pop" and "rock" were synonymous terms until the late 1960s, when they became differentiated from each other. Although much of the music that appears on record charts is seen as pop music, the genre is distinguished from chart music. Pop music is eclectic, borrows elements from other styles such as urban, rock and country. Identifying factors include short to medium-length songs written in a basic format, as well as common use of repeated choruses, melodic tunes, hooks. David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop music as "a body of music, distinguishable from popular and folk musics". According to Pete Seeger, pop music is "professional music which draws upon both folk music and fine arts music". Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music.
The music charts contain songs from a variety of sources, including classical, jazz and novelty songs. As a genre, pop music is seen to develop separately. Therefore, the term "pop music" may be used to describe a distinct genre, designed to appeal to all characterized as "instant singles-based music aimed at teenagers" in contrast to rock music as "album-based music for adults". Pop music continuously evolves along with the term's definition. According to music writer Bill Lamb, popular music is defined as "the music since industrialization in the 1800s, most in line with the tastes and interests of the urban middle class." The term "pop song" was first used in 1926, in the sense of a piece of music "having popular appeal". Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the 1920s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country and hillbilly music. According to the website of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, the term "pop music" "originated in Britain in the mid-1950s as a description for rock and roll and the new youth music styles that it influenced".
The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that while pop's "earlier meaning meant concerts appealing to a wide audience since the late 1950s, pop has had the special meaning of non-classical mus in the form of songs, performed by such artists as the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, ABBA, etc." Grove Music Online states that " in the early 1960s,'pop music' competed terminologically with beat music, while in the US its coverage overlapped with that of'rock and roll'". From about 1967, the term “pop music” was used in opposition to the term rock music, a division that gave generic significance to both terms. While rock aspired to authenticity and an expansion of the possibilities of popular music, pop was more commercial and accessible. According to British musicologist Simon Frith, pop music is produced "as a matter of enterprise not art", is "designed to appeal to everyone" but "doesn't come from any particular place or mark off any particular taste". Frith adds that it is "not driven by any significant ambition except profit and commercial reward and, in musical terms, it is conservative".
It is, "provided from on high rather than being made from below... Pop is not a do-it-yourself music but is professionally produced and packaged". According to Frith, characteristics of pop music include an aim of appealing to a general audience, rather than to a particular sub-culture or ideology, an emphasis on craftsmanship rather than formal "artistic" qualities. Music scholar Timothy Warner said it has an emphasis on recording and technology, rather than live performance; the main medium of pop music is the song between two and a half and three and a half minutes in length marked by a consistent and noticeable rhythmic element, a mainstream style and a simple traditional structure. Common variants include the verse-chorus form and the thirty-two-bar form, with a focus on melodies and catchy hooks, a chorus that contrasts melodically and harmonically with the verse; the beat and the melodies tend to be simple, with limited harmonic accompaniment. The lyrics of modern pop songs focus on simple themes – love and romantic relationships – although there are notable exceptions.
Harmony and chord progressions in pop music are "that of classical European tonality, only more simple-minded." Clichés include the barbershop quartet-style blues scale-influenced harmony. There was a lessening of the influence of traditional views of the circle of fifths between the mid-1950s and the late 1970s, including less predominance for the dominant function. Throughout its development, pop music has absorbed influences from other genres of popular music. Early pop music drew on the sentimental ballad for its form, gained its use of vocal harmonies from gospel and soul music, instrumentation from jazz and rock music, orchestration from classical music, tempo from dance music, backing from electronic music, rhythmic elements from hip-hop music, spoken passages from rap. In the 1960s, the majority of mainstream pop music fell in two categories: guitar and bass groups or singers