EN 417 is a European Standard concerning non-refillable metallic cartridges for liquefied petroleum gases. The standard specifies material, construction and marking requirements for cartridges with or without a valve, for use with portable appliances which comply with the requirements of EN 521; the term is used colloquially to refer to cartridges with the 7/16" UNEF threaded valve used on disposable butane and butane/isobutane/propane mix cartridges used in some backpacking stoves. The correct name for this is the manufacturer's designation; this informal use is improper, as the EN 417 standard applies to cartridges that do not have a Lindal valve, such as the valveless pierceable Epigas canisters used in Europe. The Lindal valve, unlike of course a pierceable canister, should seal itself if the fuel container is unscrewed from the equipment to which it is attached. However, the self-sealing action cannot be relied upon as a safety feature. Among suppliers of gas cylinders and camp stoves are Epigas, GoSystem, Brunton, Snow Peak, Campingaz.
"BS EN 417:1992". Standardsdirect.org. Retrieved 2014-11-10. "Lindal B188 valve". Lindal. Retrieved 2014-12-14. "FAQ - Stoves". Bushwalkingsw.org.au. Retrieved 2017-11-02
IBM 3480 Family
The 3480 tape format is a magnetic tape data storage format developed by IBM. The tape is packaged in a 4 in × 5 in × 1 in cartridge; the cartridge contains a single reel. Because of their speed, reliability and low media cost, these tapes and tape drives are still in high demand. A hallmark of the genre is transferability. Tapes recorded with one tape drive are readable on another drive if the tape drives were built by different manufacturers. Tape drives conforming with the IBM 3480 product family specification were manufactured by a variety of vendors from 1984 to 2004. Core manufacturers included IBM, Fujitsu, M4 Data, Overland Data, StorageTek and Victor Data Systems. Various models of these tape drives were marketed under other brands, including DEC, MP Tapes, Plasmon, Qualstar and Xcerta. IBM 3490E tape drives as members of the 3480 Product Family. Tape drives built for the 3480 were designed for IBM System/370 computers. Therefore, the first 3480 tape drives communicated through a tag interface.
Models were able to take advantage of ESCON and high voltage SCSI interfaces. The advent of the SCSI interface made it possible to connect 3480 family tape drives to personal computers, which enabled mainframe-to-PC data exchange; the first 3480 tape drives were introduced in 1984. The IBM 3480 was the first tape drive to employ magnetoresistive heads and the first to use chromium dioxide tape, it was distinguished by a high data transfer rate: 3 megabytes per second. This was because it was able to read and write linear data across 18 recording tracks or 38,000 bytes per inch of tape. IBM's prior technology employed 9 recording tracks with a data density of 6,250 bytes per inch of tape, so the 3480 format was greeted as a major breakthrough; the IBM 3480 cartridge stored 200 megabytes in a modest 4 in × 5 in cartridge compared to the previous technology's 140 megabytes on a 10.5-inch diameter reel of 1⁄2-inch tape. The 3480 and its successors are streaming drives; the 3480 was a disaster, because it would underrun as the 3 MB/s bus and tag channels and the 3 MB/s drives could not feed the 3MB/s second tape drives because of various interferences such as seeks.
The streaming drives would have to stop, back up and restart, reducing throughput to under 200 KB/s. While IBM offered 3480 tape drives with bus and tag interfaces, other manufacturers sold models with SCSI interfaces. In 1986, IBM added a hardware-based data compression option: Improved Data Recording Capability. A 3480 tape drive with IDRC could record up to 400 megabytes on a single tape; the 3480 IDRC format is commonly known as the 3490 recording format. A 3480 tape drive with IDRC uses the same data cartridges as a standard 3480 tape drive, it can write standard 3480 tapes. IBM introduced the 3490E tape drive in 1991, its 36-track head was able to record 800 megabytes of data on a single tape. The IDRC option allowed it to record up to 2400 megabytes on a single extended tape; the last 36-track tape drive manufacturer, VDS, discontinued production late in 2004, after IBM announced that it would no longer supply 36-track thin film tape heads. 3490E tape drives were available from a variety of manufacturers with bus and tag, ESCON, or high voltage SCSI interfaces, were capable of data transfer speeds up to 20MB per second.
3490E data cartridges are the same dimensions as 3480 cartridges and the tape media is the same only longer. 3490E tape is optimized for 36-track recording heads, instead of 18-track recording heads. Some 3480 tape drives can record on 3490E media; some 3490E tape drives are able to read tapes recorded by 3480 tape drives. Others can write tapes that can be read by 3480 tape drives, but many 3490E tape drives can only read/write 36-track tapes. Evolution of the IBM 3480 Product Family The 3480 magnetic tape format family has been superseded by the IBM 3590 "Magstar" magnetic tape format, distinguished by much higher transfer rates and densities. Tape head sizes at this writing: 128-track, 256-track and 384-track; the 3590 format was succeeded by the IBM 3592 "Jaguar" format. IBM IBM 3480 magnetic tape subsystem IBM 3490E magnetic tape subsystem enhanced capability Fifty years of storage innovationFujitsu Fujitsu M2488E General Read/Write Compatibility Matrix PC Magazine's Magstar Reference A brief history of tapeECMA Standards 12.7mm 18-track tape 12.7mm 18-track tape - Extended Format 12.7mm 36-track tape
A washing machine is a device used to wash laundry. The term is applied to machines that use water as opposed to dry cleaning or ultrasonic cleaners; the user adds laundry detergent, sold in liquid or powder form to the wash water. Laundering by hand involves soaking, beating and rinsing dirty textiles. Before indoor plumbing, the washerwoman or housewife had to carry all the water used for washing and rinsing the laundry. Water for the laundry would be hand carried, heated on a fire for washing poured into the tub; that made the warm soapy water precious. Removal of soap and water from the clothing after washing was a separate process. First, soap would be rinsed out with clear water. After rinsing, the soaking wet clothing would be formed into a roll and twisted by hand to extract water; the entire process occupied an entire day of hard work, plus drying and ironing. It is often used in washbasins. Clothes washer technology developed as a way to reduce the manual labor spent, providing an open basin or sealed container with paddles or fingers to automatically agitate the clothing.
The earliest machines were hand-operated and constructed from wood, while machines made of metal permitted a fire to burn below the washtub, keeping the water warm throughout the day's washing. The earliest special-purpose mechanical washing device was the washboard, invented in 1797 by Nathaniel Briggs of New Hampshire. By the mid-1850s steam-driven commercial laundry machinery were on sale in the UK and US. Technological advances in machinery for commercial and institutional washers proceeded faster than domestic washer design for several decades in the UK. In the United States there was more emphasis on developing machines for washing at home, though machines for commercial laundry services were used in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; the rotary washing machine was patented by Hamilton Smith in 1858. As electricity was not available until at least 1930, some early washing machines were operated by a low-speed, single-cylinder hit-and-miss gasoline engine. After the items were washed and rinsed, water had to be removed by twisting.
To help reduce this labor, the wringer/mangle machine was developed. As implied by the term "mangle," these early machines were quite dangerous if powered and not hand-driven. A user's fingers, arm, or hair could become entangled in the laundry being squeezed, resulting in horrific injuries. Safer mechanisms were developed over time, the more hazardous designs were outlawed; the mangle used two rollers under spring tension to squeeze water out of clothing and household linen. Each laundry item would be fed through the wringer separately; the first wringers were hand-cranked, but were included as a powered attachment above the washer tub. The wringer would be swung over the wash tub so that extracted wash water would fall back into the tub to be reused for the next load; the modern process of water removal by spinning did not come into use until electric motors were developed. Spinning requires a constant high-speed power source, was done in a separate device known as an "extractor". A load of washed laundry would be transferred from the wash tub to the extractor basket, the water spun out in a separate operation.
These early extractors were dangerous to use, since unevenly distributed loads would cause the machine to shake violently. Many efforts were made to counteract the shaking of unstable loads, such as mounting the spinning basket on a free-floating shock-absorbing frame to absorb minor imbalances, a bump switch to detect severe movement and stop the machine so that the load could be manually redistributed. What is now referred to as an automatic washer was at one time referred to as a "washer/extractor", which combined the features of these two devices into a single machine, plus the ability to fill and drain water by itself, it is possible to take this a step further, to merge the automatic washing machine and clothes dryer into a single device, called a combo washer dryer. The first English patent under the category of Washing machines was issued in 1691. A drawing of an early washing machine appeared in the January 1752 issue of The Gentleman's Magazine, a British publication. Jacob Christian Schäffer's washing machine design was published 1767 in Germany.
In 1782, Henry Sidgier issued a British patent for a rotating drum washer, in the 1790s Edward Beetham sold numerous "patent washing mills" in England. One of the first innovations in washing machine technology was the use of enclosed containers or basins that had grooves, fingers, or paddles to help with the scrubbing and rubbing of the clothes; the person using the washer would use a stick to press and rotate the clothes along the textured sides of the basin or container, agitating the clothes to remove dirt and mud. This crude agitator technology was hand-powered, but still more effective than hand-washing the clothes. More advancements were made to washing machine technology in the form of the rotative drum design; these early design patents consisted of a drum washer, hand-cranked to make the wooden drums rotate. While the technology was simple enough, it was a milestone in the history of washing machines, as it introduced the idea of "powered" washing drums; as metal drums st
Cartridge Creek is a creek near Fresno, California. It terminates in the Middle Fork Kings River; the creek is part of Kings Canyon National Park. A pass above the headwaters of the creek has an old sheep trail over it; the creek was named by Frank Lewis while on a hunting trip in the 1870s. The following quote records the event: "While hunting with a young friend, Harrison Hill, I wounded a bear and told him to finish it, he became excited and threw all the shells out of his Winchester without firing a shot."
Digital Linear Tape
Digital Linear Tape is a magnetic tape data storage technology developed by Digital Equipment Corporation from 1984 onwards. In 1994, the technology was purchased by Quantum Corporation, who manufactured drives and licensed the technology and trademark. A variant with higher capacity is called Super DLT; the lower cost "value line" was manufactured by Benchmark Storage Innovations under license from Quantum. Quantum acquired Benchmark in 2002. In 2007 Quantum stopped developing DLT drives, shifting its strategy to LTO. DEC launched the TK50 tape drive for the MicroVAX II and PDP-11 minicomputers in 1984; this used 22-track CompacTape I cartridges. The TK50 was superseded in 1987 by the TK70 drive and the 48-track CompacTape II cartridge, capable of storing 294 MB. In 1989, the CompacTape III format was introduced, increasing the number of tracks to 128 and capacity to 2.6 GB. Drives into the early 1990s improved the data density of the DLTtape III cartridge, up to 10 GB; the DLTtape IV cartridge was introduced by Quantum in 1994, with increased tape length and data density offering 20 GB per tape.
Super DLTtape capable of up to 110 GB, was launched in 2001. DLT uses linear serpentine recording with multiple tracks on half-inch wide tape; the cartridges contain a single reel and the tape is pulled out of the cartridge by means of a leader tape attached to the take-up reel inside the drive. The drive leader tape is buckled to the cartridge leader during the load process. Tape speed and tension are controlled electronically via the reel motors; the tape is guided by 4 to 6 rollers. Tape material is metal particle tape. SDLT adds an optical servo system that reads servo patterns on the back of the tape to keep the data tracks on the front of the tape aligned with the read/write heads; this is important for newer tape media, which have thin, dense data tracks. DLT7000 and 8000 tilt the head forward and backward to reduce crosstalk between adjacent tracks through azimuth. All DLT drives support hardware data compression; the often-used compression factor of 2:1 is optimistic and only achievable for text data.
Media are guaranteed for 30 years of data retention under specified environmental conditions. VStape is made by Sony. All other companies/brands are contractors and/or resellers of these companies. A new naming convention took effect in 2005, calling the performance line DLT-S and the value line DLT-V. DLT includes Write Once Read Many capability. In February 2007, Quantum stopped developing the next generations of DLT drives after insufficient market acceptance of the S4 and V4 drives, shifting its drive strategy to LTO. A DLTtape IV can support DLT1/DLT-VS 80 for full functions. Once the media has been written to or formatted in a DLT4000 drive, the media cannot be written to or formatted in a DLT1/DLT-VS80 drive unless it is degaussed but it can be read; this is because the DLT1/VS series use a different recording format, not supported by the other family. Tapes written in value series drives can be read in higher end drives of a similar vintage, so long as the drive's technical specifications contain interoperability options.
Symmetric Phase Recording DLTtape Handbook, Quantum, 2001. DLT Roadmap at dlttape.com Obituary of Dr. Fred Hertrich, "father" of DLT ECMA 197 Specification of DLT 2. ECMA 209 Specification of DLT 3. ECMA 231 Specification of DLT 4. ECMA 258 Specification of DLT 3-XT. ECMA 259 Specification of DLT 5. ECMA 286 Specification of DLT 6. ECMA 320 Specification of SDLT-1
A cartridge heater is a tube-shaped, heavy-duty, industrial Joule heating element used in the process heating industry custom manufactured to a specific watt density, based on its intended application. Compact designs are capable of reaching a watt density of up to 50W/cm² while some specialty high temperature designs can reach 100w/cm². Cartridge heaters are found useful in many applications, such as: Seal bars Torpedo heaters for injection molding Injection molding manifolds Mass spectrometry Rubber molding Food production Immersion tank heating HVAC compressors Fuel cells Semiconductors Medical devices Sensor measurement devices Extrusion Die casting Hot melt adhesives Heat staking / hole punch Plastic welding Fluid heating 3D Printers Construction of a cartridge heater may be divided in 7 main parts: Heating coil Insulation Sheath Sealing Termination Lead wire type Watt density The heating coil is the actual resistance, where the electrical load occurs; the most common type of metal alloy used for this purpose is a nickel-chromium mixture known as nichrome.
The nichrome wire is wound around a ceramic core, the number of spirals per inch vary according to the requested watt density. Potential from an alternating current source, which can either be 2 phase or 3 phase, flows through the coiled nichrome wire, heating up the wire, which in turn, heats the cartridge heater sheath. Insulation is used to prevent the nichrome coil contacting the sheath, an event that would ground the resistance and could produce a catastrophic short-circuit, resulting in a melted sheath and a major equipment failure. Damage can be mitigated by installing a ground fault interrupting circuit. To prevent the coil from touching the sheath, the coil is inserted into the sheath, filled with magnesium oxide. To ensure the MgO fills the empty space between the sheath and the coil, the cartridge heater is filled under vibration; the sheath is the part of the cartridge heater which makes contact with the material or substance to be heated. Several metal alloys are used, depending on the type of application, such as acidic or corrosive environments.
The most common types of sheaths are 304 stainless steel, 316 stainless steel, incoloy 800. Incoloy has the highest temperature rating, is considered a superalloy. After the cartridge heater has been filled with MgO, a seal is applied to the open end of the cartridge heater; this prevents the coil and the MgO from coming out, as well as preventing contaminants such as plastic debris, air, or moisture from entering the heater. Since cartridge heaters are installed in a wide variety of machines, manufacturers must design the heaters to meet certain clearances; the cartridge heaters might be terminated in a right angle. Manufacturers must be careful that the leads are not exposed to temperatures higher than the maximum rating for the lead wire. In order to prevent lead wire damage from temperature, movement or contamination, the lead wire can be protected with a metal conduit, braided metal or silicone sleeves. Depending on the clearance and the design of the machine where the cartridge heater will be inserted, the type of wire used will vary.
Fiberglass is the used for cartridge heaters and other high-temperature applications, such as automotive wiring harnesses and industrial equipment. Other variants used are silicone silicone rubber; some of the more common cartridge heater customizations include: Internal Thermocouples Flanges Threaded Bushings Epoxy Seals Leadwire Termination Options Mica Tape Leads Stainless-Steel Braid or Armor Lead Area Sealing Distributed Wattage No-Heat Sections Three-Phase Construction Dual Voltage Zoned Heaters Square Cartridge Heaters Sheath Materials Resistência Cartucho רוקח תנורי חימום
Quarter inch cartridge tape is a magnetic tape data storage format introduced by 3M in 1972, with derivatives still in use as of 2016. QIC comes in a rugged enclosed package of aluminum and plastic that holds two tape reels driven by a single belt in direct contact with the tape; the tape was 1⁄4-inch wide and anywhere from 300 to 1,500 feet long. Data is written linearly along the length of the tape in one track, or it is serialized and written "serpentine" one track at a time, the drive reversing direction at the end of the tape, each track's data written in the opposite direction to its neighbor. Since the introduction of QIC, it has been used and many variations exist. There is a QIC trade association that publishes QIC standards which include interfaces and logical formats. To a large extent it was the efficiency and openness of this organization which encouraged hardware and software developers to use this type of drive and media; the QIC cartridge is distinguished from other types of tape cartridges by the fact that it contains an endless drive belt, moved at a uniform speed by a motorised capstan.
Since the belt is in contact with the tape, this ensures both that the tape moves at uniform speed, that neutral tension is maintained at all times. This is in contrast to cassette tapes or DATs where the tape is moved past the head by a capstan and pinch wheel, but the takeup reel is driven by a servo motor or slipping clutch; the tape in a QIC cartridge is not physically attached to the reels and is never unwound. This is again different from other cassettes or cartridges, which have some form of clip anchoring on at least one end of the tape. To ensure that the tape is never unwound, each end has a small beginning or end of tape hole, detected by an optical sensor, an "early warning" hole further from each end. If a defective drive—for example with fluff in a sensor—winds the tape past the BOT or EOT marker, the tape will detach from the spool and the cartridge will be unusable unless it is reattached; the design of the QIC tape cartridge is robust: the aluminium baseplate is 1⁄10-inch thick, the robust plastic cover can withstand abuse and impacts that would damage other tape formats.
However, because the tape is belt-driven, seeking back and forth can cause the tape to become unevenly tensioned. It is therefore necessary to periodically retension the cartridge; this is accomplished by winding the tape from beginning to end and back in one operation, allowing the belt to equalize itself. For newer QIC drives that use a SCSI interface, there is a SCSI "RETENSION" command; when the cartridge gets old, the belt may not provide enough friction to turn the takeup spool smoothly. When this happens, the tape will need to be replaced. In some cases a cartridge must be formatted before use; the capability to do this is in the drive rather than the host computer. The first QIC tape format was the 5 7⁄8 inches by 3 7⁄8 inches Data Cartridge format with two internal belt-driven reels and a metal base; the original product, the DC300, holds 200 kilobytes. Various QIC DC recording formats have appeared over the years, including: QIC-11: a four-track format giving 20 MB on a 450 ft DC300XL cartridge QIC-24: nine-track, 45 MB or 60MB on a 450 or 600 ft cartridge QIC-120: 15-track, 125 MB, DC6150 cartridge QIC-150: 18-track, 150 MB, DC6150 cartridge QIC-525: 26-track, 525 MB on a 1020 ft DC6525 cartridge QIC-1350: 30-track, 1.35GB on a DC9135 cartridgeOther QIC DC standards include the QIC-02 and QIC-36 drive interface standards.
QIC DC drives use the QIC-104/111 SCSI and QIC-121 SCSI-2 interfaces. Other Data Cartridge look-alike: 3M DC600HC a preformatted format with 16 tracks on 600 foot DC 600A and with software-based EOT/BOT detection. HP used these in the HP914x type of cartridge drives. Don't try to format or write these on something which isn't compatible - they are not regular data cartridges at all; that cartridge doesn't have a visible-by-eye EOT/BOT marker so a regular QIC drive will unspool the tape from the wheel. Demagnetize them will destroy them; the smaller Minicartridge form-factor was introduced. This is small enough to fit in a 3.5 in drive bay. QIC-40 20 tracks DC2000 mini-cartridge 205 ft. 40MB 20 tracks DC2000XL mini-cartridge 307½ ft. 60MB QIC-80 28 tracks DC2080 mini-cartridge 205 ft. 80MB 28 tracks DC2120 mini-cartridge 307½ ft. 120MBThe QIC-40 and QIC-80 were designed to use the same floppy disk controller as a standard floppy drive, with MFM or RLL encoding. Travan is an evolution of the QIC Minicartridge format, sold for personal computer use.
This version, developed by 3M, uses a wider tape to give higher capacities. SLR is Tandberg Data's name for its line of high-capacity QIC data cartridge drives; as of 2005, Tandberg was the only manufacturer of SLR/QIC drives in the world. The largest SLR drive can hold 70 GB of data. A variant from Sony that uses a wider.315 inch tape and increases the recording density. QIC-Wide drives are backwards compatible with QIC tapes. QIC Extra, a modification to support longer tapes and thus more data by the Verbatim Corporation, was made possible by making the cartridges physically longer to accommodate larger spools. In many cases a standard QIC drive and backup package can use the extended length to store additional data, however in some cases an attempt to reformat a QIC-EX cartridge fails since the time taken to traverse the extra length triggers a timeout in the drive or controlling software intended to det