Karanas are the 108 key transitions in the classical Indian dance described in 4th Chapter named "Tandava Lakshana" of Natya Shastra. Karana is a Sanskrit verbal noun, meaning "doing". Natya Shastra states that Karanas are the framework for the "margi" productions which are supposed to spiritually enlighten the spectators, as opposed to the "desi" productions which can only entertain the spectators. "One who performs well this Karana dance created by Maheswara will go free from all sins to the abode of this deity" states Natya Shastra Some of the well-known interpretations of karanas are by Dr. Padma Subramanyam that were based on 108 brief movement phrases describing specific leg, hip and arm movements accompanied by hasta mudras described in the Natya shastra and other scriptures, from depictions of the movements in sculpture in five South Indian temples, notably the Chidambaram temple which contains depictions of the full set. Dr. Padma Subrahmanyam has written a book called Karanas-Common dance codes of India and Indonesia, based on her research of karanas from the temples of Prambanan, Kumbakonam, Chidambaram and Vriddhachalam.
In the 20th century she was the first dancer to reconstruct the Karanas as movements, which were considered to be mere poses earlier. Some other Bharatanatyam gurus, such as Adyar Lakshman as well as the Kuchipudi gurus Vempati Chinna Satyam and C. R. Acharya have attempted to reconstruct all the 108 karanas, which were significantly different from Padma Subrahmanyam's interpretations so much so that on the chari level there was no agreement as to whose interpretation is correct. Due to the significant variations in the depictions, most traditional Bharatanatyam schools considered Padma Subrahmanyam's style which incorporated Karanas as incorrect, which forced her to name her own style as Bharatanrityam rather than Bharatanatyam. Many of Padma Subrahmanyam's disciples such as Sujatha Mohan, Uma Sriram, Jayashree Rajagopalan, Dominique Delorme and others are teaching the 108 karanas based on Dr. Padma's research. There used to be devadasis who performed all the 108 karanas, but now in most contemporary Bharatanatyam or Odissi schools only a small number of karanas and their derivatives have been transmitted by parampara up to date.
Apart from that, performing of the same karana differ across different classical Indian styles. As regards the exact technique, there are no established standards and no universally agreed upon interpretations of the texts and sculptures. 1) Talapuṣpapuṭam 2) Vartitam 3) Valitōrukam 4) Apaviddam 5) Samanakam 6) Līnam 7) Swastikarēchitam 8) Manḍalaswastikam 9) Nikuṭṭakam 10) Ardhanikuṭṭam 11) Kaṭīchinnam 12) Ardharēchitam 13) Vakśaswastikam 14) Unmattam 15) Swastikam 16) Pṛṣṭhaswastikam 17) Dikswastikam 18) Alātam 19) Kaṭīsamam 20) Ākśiptarēchitam 21) Vikśiptākśiptam 22) Ardhaswastikam 23) Añchitam 24) Bhujaṅgatrāsitam 25) Ūrdhvajānu 26) Nikuñchitam 27) Mattalli 28) Ardhamattalli 29) Rēchitanikuṭṭam 30) Pādāpaviddakam 31) Valitam 32) Gūrṇitam 33) Lalitam 34) Daṇḍapakśam 35) Bhujaṅgatrastarēchitam 36) Nūpuram 37) Vaiṣākharēchitam 38) Bhramaram 39) Chaturam 40) Bhujaṅgāñchitam 41) Daṇḍarēchitam 42) Vṛśchikakuṭṭitam 43) Kaṭībhrāntam 44) Latāvṛśchikam 45) Chinnam 46) Vṛśchikarēchitam 47) Vṛśchikam 48) Vyamsitam 49) Pārśvanikuṭṭakam 50) Lalāṭatilakam 51) Krāntam 52) Kuñchitam 53) Chakramaṇḍalam 54) Urōmaṇḍalam 55) Ākśiptam 56) Talavilāsitam 57) Argaḷam 58) Vikṣiptam 59) Āvartam 60) Dōlāpādam 61) Vivṛttam 62) Vinivṛttam 63) Pārśvakrāntam 64) Niṣumbhitam 65) Vidyutbhrāntam 66) Atikrāntam 67) Vivartitakam 68) Gajakrīḍitam 69) Talasamsphoṭitam 70) Garuḍaplutam 71) Gaṇḍasūchī 72) Parīvṛttam 73) Pārśvajānu 74) Gṛdrāvalīnakam 75) Sannatam 76) Sūchī 77) Ardhasūchī 78) Sūchīviddham 79) Apakrāntam 80) Mayūralalitam 81) Sarpitam 82) Danḍapādam 83) Harinaplutam 84) Prēnkōlitam 85) Nitambam 86) Skalitam 87) Karihastam 88) Prasarpitam 89) Simhavikrīḍitam 90) Simhākarṣitam 91) Udvṛttam 92) Upaśṛtam 93) Talasaṅghaṭṭitam 94) Janitam 95) Avahittakam 96) Nivēśam 97) Ēlakākrīditam 98) Ūrūdvṛttam 99) Madaskalitam 100) Viṣṇukrāntam 101) Sambhrāntam 102) Viśkhambam 102) Udghaṭṭitam 104) Vṛśabhakrīḍitam 105) Lōlitam 106) Nāgāpasarpitam 107) Śakaṭāsyam 108) Gaṅgāvataranam Kuchipudi Padma Subrahmanyam, "Bharatha Natyam - Classical Dance of the Ancient Tamils.
The Role of Dance Sculptures in Tamilnad P. Subrahmanyam's introduction, with pictures illustrating 108 karanas
Capoeira is an Afro-Brazilian martial art that combines elements of dance and music. It was developed by African slaves in Brazil at the beginning of the 16th century, it is known for its quick and complex maneuvers, predominantly using power and leverage across a wide variety of kicks and other techniques. The most accepted origin of the word capoeira comes from the Tupi words ka'a e pûer, referring to the areas of low vegetation in the Brazilian interior where fugitive slaves would hide. A practitioner of the art is called a capoeirista. On 26 November 2014, capoeira was granted a special protected status as "intangible cultural heritage" by UNESCO. Capoeira's history begins with the beginning of African slavery in Brazil. Since the 16th century, Portuguese colonists began exporting enslaved Africans to their colonies, coming from Angola. Brazil, with its vast territory, received most of the enslaved Africans 40% of all enslaved Afrricans sent through the Atlantic Ocean; the early history of capoeira is recorded by historians such as Dr. Desch-Obi.
The ancestor tradition originated from Angola and was called N'golo/Engolo. The purpose was religious as it both provided a link to the afterlife and enabled a person to channel their ancestors into their dance. For example, during the dance, a person might become possessed by an ancestor in the past, talented at N'golo; this could be applied to a martial setting in both combat and warfare, called N'singa/ensinga. During the Atlantic slave trade, this tradition transferred around the Americas. A large amount of Angolans were sent to Madagascar during the slave trade and it still survives today as Moringue/ Moring. In the 16th century, Portugal had claimed one of the largest territories of the colonial empires, but lacked people to colonize it workers. In the Brazilian colony, the Portuguese, like many European colonists, chose to use slavery to build their economy. In its first century, the main economic activity in the colony was the production and processing of sugar cane. Portuguese colonists created large sugarcane farms called "engenhos" "engines", which depended on the labor of slaves.
Slaves, living in inhumane conditions, were forced to work hard and suffered physical punishment for small misbehaviors. Although slaves outnumbered colonists, rebellions were rare because of the lack of weapons, harsh colonial law, disagreement between slaves coming from different African cultures, lack of knowledge about the new land and its surroundings. Capoeira originated within as a product of the Angolan tradition of "Engolo" but became applied as a method of survival, known to slaves, it was a tool with which an escaped slave unequipped, could survive in the hostile, unknown land and face the hunt of the capitães-do-mato, the armed and mounted colonial agents who were charged with finding and capturing escapees. As Brazil became more urbanised in the 17th and 18th century, the nature of capoeira stayed the same, however compared to the United States, the nature of slavery differed. Since many slaves worked in the cities and were most of the time outside the master's supervision, they would be tasked with finding work to do and in return they would pay the master any money they made.
It is here where capoeira was common as it created opportunities for slaves to practice during and after work. Though tolerated until the 1800s, this became criminalised after due to its association with being African, as well as a threat to the current ruling regime. Soon several groups of enslaved persons who liberated themselves gathered and established settlements, known as quilombos, in far and hard to reach places; some quilombos would soon increase in size, attracting more fugitive slaves, Brazilian natives and Europeans escaping the law or Christian extremism. Some quilombos would grow to an enormous size. Everyday life in a quilombo offered freedom and the opportunity to revive traditional cultures away from colonial oppression. In this kind of multi-ethnic community threatened by Portuguese colonial troops, capoeira evolved from a survival tool to a martial art focused on war; the biggest quilombo, the Quilombo dos Palmares, consisted of many villages which lasted more than a century, resisting at least 24 small attacks and 18 colonial invasions.
Portuguese soldiers sometimes said that it took more than one dragoon to capture a quilombo warrior since they would defend themselves with a strangely moving fighting technique. The provincial governor declared "it is harder to defeat a quilombo than the Dutch invaders." In 1808, the prince and future king Dom João VI, along with the Portuguese court, escaped to Brazil from the invasion of Portugal by Napoleon's troops. Exploited only for its natural resources and commodity crops, the colony began to develop as a nation; the Portuguese monopoly came to an end when Brazilian ports opened for trade with friendly foreign nations. Those cities grew in importance and Brazilians got permission to manufacture common products once required to be imported from Portugal, such as glass. Registries of capoeira practices existed since the 18th century in Rio de Janeiro, Salv
An aerial cartwheel or side aerial is an acrobatic move in which a cartwheel is executed without touching hands to the floor. During execution of a standard cartwheel, the performer's body is supported by the hands while transitioning through the inverted orientation, whereas an aerial cartwheel performer is airborne while inverted. To compensate for lack of support from the hands, leg momentum is employed to keep the performer airborne until the leading foot touches down. Aerial cartwheels can be executed from a stationary, standing position. Aerial cartwheels are known by various other names, including side flip, side somersault, no-hands cartwheels, or aerials. Aerial cartwheels are performed in gymnastics, acro dance, free running and martial arts such as wushu and capoeira. In a martial arts context, the aerial cartwheel is visually interesting but of little value to combatants, it is seen in martial arts exhibitions and movies, but used in sparring matches and fights. Tucked aerial, in which legs are tucked, resulting in faster rotation.
This is similar to the capoiera skill Aú sem Mão. Side somi, similar to a tucked aerial, but the legs are held in the tucked position and there is a 90-degree rotation. Axe to aerial, in which a leg is raised to shoulder or head height and swung down, whereupon it becomes the leading leg of an aerial. A variant of this where the practitioner lands in the splits was popularized by Willem Stockton and was called by some the Willem Aerial. Aeriola known as a reverse aerial, is an aerial preceded by a backward step, resulting in backward travel during the aerial. Barani known as a free round-off, in which legs are brought together in mid-air, landing on both feet. Gardiner known as aerial switch, in which the trailing leg swings ahead of the leading leg so as to become the first to land. Aerial to the splits. Most aerial variants can terminate in the splits. Start out as if to do an ordinary cartwheel, but throw your first leg into the air with extra momentum in order to give yourself the necessary rotation.
Push up off the other leg, twisting your shoulders towards the ground, complete the turn. The move becomes easier with increasing flexibility. Front aerial Somersault
In gymnastics, the floor refers to a specially prepared exercise surface, considered an apparatus. It is used by both male and female gymnasts; the event in gymnastics performed on floor is called floor exercise. The English abbreviation for the event in gymnastics scoring is FX. A spring floor is used in all of gymnastics to provide more bounce. Cheerleading uses spring floors for practice; the sprung floor used for indoor athletics, however, is designed to reduce bounce. The apparatus originated as a'free exercise' for men similar to the floor exercise of today, it wasn't until 1948. Most competitive gymnastics floors are spring floors, they contain springs and/or a rubber foam and plywood combination which make the floor bouncy, soften the impact of landings, enable the gymnast to gain height when tumbling. Floors have designated perimeters—the "out of bounds" area is always indicated by a border of white tape or a differently colored mat; the allowed time for a floor exercise is up to 70 seconds for males and up to 90 seconds for females.
Unlike men, women always perform routines to music. Measurements of the apparatus are published by the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique in the Apparatus Norms brochure; the dimensions are the same for female competitors. Performance area: 1,200 centimetres x 1,200 centimetres ± 3 centimetres Diagonals: 1,697 centimetres ±5 centimetres Border: 100 centimetres Safety zone: 200 centimetres Floor exercise routines last up to 90 seconds; the routine is choreographed in advance, is composed of acrobatic and dance elements. This event, above all others, allows the gymnast to express her personality through her dance and musical style; the moves that are choreographed in the routine must be precise, in sync with the music and entertaining. At the international elite level of competition, the composition of the routine is decided by the gymnast and her coaches. Many gymnasiums and national federations hire special choreographers to design routines for their gymnasts. Well-known gymnastics choreographers include Lisa Luke, Adriana Pop, Nancy Roche, Geza Pozar.
Others opt to choreograph their FX routines in-house. Some gymnasts adopt a new FX every year, it is not uncommon for coaches to modify a routine's composition between meets if it is used for an extended length of time. It is uncommon for gymnasts to use more than one different FX routine in the same season but it is not unheard of, like at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta for instance, Russian Dina Kotchetkova's routine in the FX event finals had different music and composition than that of her all-around exercise; the music used for the routine is the choice of the gymnast and her coaches. It may be of any known musical style and played with any instrument, but it may not include spoken words or sung lyrics of any kind. Vocalization is allowed, it is the responsibility of the coach to bring the music to every competition on CD. Scores are based on difficulty, demonstration of required elements, overall performance quality. Deductions are taken for poor form and execution, lack of required elements, falls.
The gymnast is expected to use the entire floor area for her routine, to tumble from one corner of the mat to the other. Steps outside the designated perimeters of the floor incur deductions; the gymnast will incur a deduction if there are lyrics in the music. For detailed information on score tabulation, please see the Code of Points article Routines can include up to four tumbling lines, several dance elements and leaps. A floor routine must consist of at least: Connection of two dance elements Saltos forward/sideways and backward Double saltos Saltos with a minimum of one full twist A floor exercise for men is made up of acrobatic elements, combined with other gymnastic elements of strength and balance and handstands; the routine must be choreographed forming a harmonious rhythmic exercise using the whole floor area. The whole routine may last no longer than 70 seconds; as with other gymnastic events, scores are based on difficulty and overall performance quality. Deductions are taken for lack of flexibility, not using the whole floor area, pausing before tumbling lines, using the same diagonal more than twice.
Handstand skills must show gymnasts' intent clearly. A floor routine should contain at least one element from all element groups: I. Non-acrobatic elements II. Acrobatic elements forward III. Acrobatic elements backwards, & Arabian elementsThe dismount can come from any element group other than group I. Floor exercises is a category in the rhythmic gymnastics, but it considers only the youngest gymnasts, up to 10 years old, who perform their routines freehand, which means without any apparatus, their length and content is still specified and differs in each age category. Acro dance, which incorporates many FX elements in a dance context. Gym floor cover Performance surface Sprung floor Wushu, which uses a floor. Acrobatic gymnastics Tumbling Drills The 2006 Code of Points US Gym Net's glossary of floor skills US Gym Net's glossary of hops and leaps FM Online - Floor Instructions Description of gymnastics technique by animation
The balance beam is a rectangular artistic gymnastics apparatus, as well as the event performed using the apparatus. Both the apparatus and the event are sometimes referred to as "beam"; the English abbreviation for the event in gymnastics scoring is BB. The beam is a small, thin beam, raised from the floor on a leg or stand at both ends; the balance beam is only performed by female gymnasts. Beams are made of leather like material. Beams are only 4 inches wide. Balance beams used in international gymnastics competitions must conform to the guidelines and specifications set forth by the International Gymnastics Federation Apparatus Norms brochure. Several companies sell beams, including AAI, Janssen Fritsen and Acromat. Most gymnastics schools purchase and use balance beams that meet the FIG's standards, but some may use beams with carpeted surfaces for practice situations. While learning new skills, gymnasts work on floor beams that have the same dimensions and surface of regulation apparatus, but are set a short distance from or on the ground.
They may work on medium beams, mini beams, road beams, or lines on a mat. The beam surface was plain polished wood. In earlier years, some gymnasts competed on a beam made of basketball-like material. However, this type of beam was banned due to its extreme slipperiness. Since the 1980s, beams have been covered in suede. In addition, they are now sprung to accommodate the stress of high-difficulty tumbling and turns and poses. Measurements of the apparatus are published by the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique in the Apparatus Norms brochure. Height: 125 centimetres Length: 500 centimetres Width: 10 centimetres In the early days of women's artistic gymnastics, beam was based more in dance than in tumbling. Routines at the elite level were composed with combinations of leaps, dance poses, handstands and walkovers. In the 1960s, the most difficult acrobatic skill performed by the average Olympic gymnast was a back handspring. Balance beam difficulty began to increase in the 1970s. Olga Korbut and Nadia Comăneci pioneered aerial skills on beam.
The change was facilitated by the transition from wooden beams to safer, less slippery models with suede-covered surfaces. By the mid-1980s, top gymnasts performed flight series and multiple aerial elements on beam. Today, balance beam routines still consist of a mixture of acrobatic skills, dance elements and poses, but with greater difficulty, it is an individual medal competition in the Olympics. For detailed information on score tabulation, please see the Code of Points article. A beam routine must consist of: A connection of two dance elements, one a leap, jump, or hop with legs in 180 degree split A full turn on one foot One series of two acrobatic skills Acrobatic elements in different directions A dismountThe gymnast may mount the beam using a springboard or from the mat; the routines can last up to 90 seconds. Several aspects of the performance determine the gymnast's final mark. All elements in the routine, as well as all errors, are noted by the judges. Deductions are taken for all errors made while on the beam, including lapses in control, balance checks, poor technique and execution, failure to fulfill the required Code of Points elements.
Falls automatically incur a deduction depending on the level. The gymnast may wear special beam shoes if she so chooses, she may chalk her hands and/or feet for added stability on the apparatus. Small markings may be placed on the beam. Once the exercise has started, the gymnast's coach may not interfere in any way; the only time the gymnast may be accompanied on the podium is in the case of a mount involving a springboard. In this instance, the coach may step in to remove the springboard from the area. In the event of a fall, once the athlete is on her feet, she has 10 seconds to remount the beam and continue the routine. If she does not return to the beam within this time limit, she is not permitted to continue. Under FIG rules, the maximum allowed; the routine is timed on the scoreboard timer, visible to both the gymnast and judges. In addition, a warning tone or bell is sounded 1:20 into the exercise. If the gymnast has not left the beam by 1:30, another bell is sounded, a score deduction is incurred, 0.1.
Apparatus description at the FIG website History of the balance beam US Gym Net's glossary of beam skills