The goad is a traditional farming implement, used to spur or guide livestock oxen, which are pulling a plough or a cart. It is a type of long stick with a pointed end known as the cattle prod; the word is from Old English gād. In Oedipus the King, the play by Sophocles, the biological father of Oedipus, tried to kill his son with a goad when they accidentally met at a juncture of three roads, they did not know at the time that they were son. Oedipus explains to Jocasta, his mother and wife, what took place: "When in my journey I was near those three roads, there met me a herald, a man seated in a carriage drawn by colts, as thou hast described. In anger, I struck him who pushed me aside. -- the driver. Yet was he paid with interest. Goads in various guises are used as iconographic devices and may be seen in the'elephant goad' or'ankusha' in the hand of Ganesha, for example. According to the biblical passage Judges 3:31, Shamgar son of Anath killed six hundred Philistines with an ox goad. Tischler and McHenry in discussing the biblical account of'goad' hold: In the early days, before Israel had its own metal industries, farmers had to rely on the Philistines to sharpen their goads, as well as other metal tools, the plowshares and mattocks and axes.
The image of prodding the reluctant or lazy creature made this a useful metaphor for sharp urging, such as the prick of conscience, the nagging of a mate, or the "words of the wise," which are "firmly embedded nails" in human minds. Saint Paul, recounting the story of his conversion before King Agrippa, told of a voice he heard saying ‘Saul, why are you persecuting Me? It is hard for you to kick against the goads.’ Some versions of the actual account of his conversion earlier in the Acts of the Apostles use the same phrase. In the Latin alphabet, the letter L is derived from the Semitic crook or goad which stood for /l/; this may have been based on an Egyptian hieroglyph, adapted by Semites for alphabetic purposes. Pollack, in discussing'Lamed, Path 22' the path from Gevurah to Tiferet, Justice, in the pathworking of the esoteric Kabbalah, states: We switch sides now and bring the power of Gevurah to the center. Lamed means'goad' and in particular an ox-goad, as if we use the power of Gevurah to goad that Aleph ox, the silent letter, into a more tangible physical existence in the heart of the tree.
Lamed begins the Hebrew words for both "learn" and "teach," and so encompasses the most Kabbalist of activities, study. Kabbalah has never been a path of pure sensation, but always has used study to goad us into higher consciousness. Lamed, alone of the Hebrew alphabet, reaches above the height of all the other letters. Through learning we extend ourselves above ordinary awareness. Crosier Ankusha Goading @ TheFreeDictionary
Carucage was a medieval English land tax introduced by King Richard I in 1194, based on the size—variously calculated—of the estate owned by the taxpayer. It was a replacement for the danegeld, last imposed in 1162, which had become difficult to collect because of an increasing number of exemptions. Carucage was levied just six times: by Richard in 1194 and 1198; the taxable value of an estate was assessed from the Domesday Survey, but other methods were employed, such as valuations based on the sworn testimony of neighbours or on the number of plough-teams the taxpayer used. Carucage never raised as much as other taxes, but helped to fund several projects, it paid the ransom for Richard's release in 1194, after he was taken prisoner by Leopold V, Duke of Austria. Carucage was an attempt to secure new sources of revenue in order to supplement and increase royal income in a time when new demands were being made on royal finances. Although derived from the older danegeld, carucage was an experiment in revenue collection, but it was only levied for specific purposes, rather than as a assessed tax.
New was the fact collections were imposed with the consent of the barons. However, the main flow of royal income was from other sources, carucage was not collected again after 1224. In medieval England there was no clear separation between the treasury; the main sources of royal income were the royal estates, feudal rights and fees and other profits from the judicial courts. In 1130, the records of revenues paid into the treasury show that about 40% came from royal estates, 16% from feudal rights, 14% from taxes, 12% from the judicial courts. By 1194 revenue from the land came to about 37% of the total, about 25% came from feudal rights, taxation raised about 15%, income from judicial sources about 11%. English taxation after the Norman Conquest of 1066 was based on the geld or danegeld, a national tax paid by all free men, those who were not serfs or slaves; the geld was based on the number of hides of land owned by the taxpayer, could be demanded by the king and assessed at varying levels without the need for consultation with the barons or other subjects.
During King Henry I's reign, an increasing number of exemptions, the difficulties encountered in collecting the geld, lowered its importance to the Exchequer—the treasury of England. It is unclear whether the geld was collected at all during the reign of Henry's successor, King Stephen. Stephen's successor, King Henry II, collected the geld only twice, once in 1155 and again in 1161–1162; the geld was unpopular, after 1162 Henry may have felt it politically expedient to stop collecting it. Most information about the carucage comes from the financial records associated with its collection, but there is no detailed description of the way it was collected or assessed, unlike the account of the workings of the Exchequer given in the Dialogue Concerning the Exchequer, written in about 1180. Government records such as the Pipe Rolls, the Memoranda Rolls, other financial records, some of which are specific to the carucage, have survived, include records of assessments and receipts for the sums collected.
There are occasional references to the tax in medieval chronicles, supplementing the information found in the financial records. Under Henry's son, King Richard I, a new land tax was collected, the first since 1162, it was organised by Hubert Walter, the Justiciar of England, in charge of governing England while the king was gone. Like the geld, the carucage was based on the amount of land owned, thus targeting free men rather than serfs, who owned no land and were therefore exempt. First collected in 1194, the first land tax collected in England since the geld, carucage was based on the size of the estate as measured in either hides or carucates; the original property assessment of the carucage was based on the Domesday Survey, a survey of land holdings in England, completed by 1087. Collected again in 1198, called the "great carucage", it was assessed at a rate of 2 shillings per carucate, but an additional 3 shillings per carucate was imposed; this 1198 collection was to provide the king with money for his military campaigns in France, raised about £1,000.
A number of fines were subsequently imposed on taxpayers for evading payment, suggesting that the 1198 tax was not successful. According to the late 12th century chronicler Roger of Howden, the main source for information on the 1198 carucage, assessments were carried out in county by a commission of two royal officials working in each hundred; each of these commissions included two local knights who would take sworn testimonies in each village from four villagers and the bailiffs or estate officials of those barons holding land in the village. The resulting assessments were recorded, the sheriff, or chief royal official of the county, would receive the money and forward it to the treasury. Estate holders in the area were responsible for the payments from their estates, when they were handed to the Exchequer a special procedure was followed to record the pay
Old English, or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the mid-5th century, the first Old English literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman conquest of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman, a relative of French; this is regarded as marking the end of the Old English era, as during this period the English language was influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English. Old English developed from a set of Anglo-Frisian or Ingvaeonic dialects spoken by Germanic tribes traditionally known as the Angles and Jutes; as the Anglo-Saxons became dominant in England, their language replaced the languages of Roman Britain: Common Brittonic, a Celtic language, Latin, brought to Britain by Roman invasion. Old English had four main dialects, associated with particular Anglo-Saxon kingdoms: Mercian, Northumbrian and West Saxon.
It was West Saxon that formed the basis for the literary standard of the Old English period, although the dominant forms of Middle and Modern English would develop from Mercian. The speech of eastern and northern parts of England was subject to strong Old Norse influence due to Scandinavian rule and settlement beginning in the 9th century. Old English is one of the West Germanic languages, its closest relatives are Old Frisian and Old Saxon. Like other old Germanic languages, it is different from Modern English and difficult for Modern English speakers to understand without study. Old English grammar is similar to that of modern German: nouns, adjectives and verbs have many inflectional endings and forms, word order is much freer; the oldest Old English inscriptions were written using a runic system, but from about the 9th century this was replaced by a version of the Latin alphabet. Englisc, which the term English is derived from, means'pertaining to the Angles'. In Old English, this word was derived from Angles.
During the 9th century, all invading Germanic tribes were referred to as Englisc. It has been hypothesised that the Angles acquired their name because their land on the coast of Jutland resembled a fishhook. Proto-Germanic *anguz had the meaning of'narrow', referring to the shallow waters near the coast; that word goes back to Proto-Indo-European *h₂enǵʰ- meaning'narrow'. Another theory is that the derivation of'narrow' is the more connection to angling, which itself stems from a Proto-Indo-European root meaning bend, angle; the semantic link is the fishing hook, curved or bent at an angle. In any case, the Angles may have been called such because they were a fishing people or were descended from such, therefore England would mean'land of the fishermen', English would be'the fishermen's language'. Old English was not static, its usage covered a period of 700 years, from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in the 5th century to the late 11th century, some time after the Norman invasion. While indicating that the establishment of dates is an arbitrary process, Albert Baugh dates Old English from 450 to 1150, a period of full inflections, a synthetic language.
Around 85 per cent of Old English words are no longer in use, but those that survived are basic elements of Modern English vocabulary. Old English is a West Germanic language, it came to be spoken over most of the territory of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which became the Kingdom of England. This included most of present-day England, as well as part of what is now southeastern Scotland, which for several centuries belonged to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria. Other parts of the island – Wales and most of Scotland – continued to use Celtic languages, except in the areas of Scandinavian settlements where Old Norse was spoken. Celtic speech remained established in certain parts of England: Medieval Cornish was spoken all over Cornwall and in adjacent parts of Devon, while Cumbric survived to the 12th century in parts of Cumbria, Welsh may have been spoken on the English side of the Anglo-Welsh border. Norse was widely spoken in the parts of England which fell under Danish law. Anglo-Saxon literacy developed after Christianisation in the late 7th century.
The oldest surviving text of Old English literature is Cædmon's Hymn, composed between 658 and 680. There is a limited corpus of runic inscriptions from the 5th to 7th centuries, but the oldest coherent runic texts date to the 8th century; the Old English Latin alphabet was introduced around the 9th century. With the unification of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms by Alfred the Great in the 9th century, the language of government and literature became standardised around the West Saxon dialect. Alfred advocated education in English alongside Latin, had many works translated into the English language. In Old English, typical of the development of literature, poetry arose before prose, but King Alfred the Great chiefly inspired the growth of prose. A literary standard, dating from the 10th century, arose under the influence of Bishop Æthelwold of Winchester, was followed by such writers as the prolific Ælfric of Eynsham. Th
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in Roman Catholic Western Europe during the Middle Ages. In this region it served as the primary written language, though local languages were written to varying degrees. Latin functioned as the main medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of the Church, as the working language of science, literature and administration. Medieval Latin represented, in essence, a continuation of Classical Latin and Late Latin, with enhancements for new concepts as well as for the increasing integration of Christianity. Despite some meaningful differences from Classical Latin, Medieval writers did not regard it as a fundamentally different language. There is no real consensus on the exact boundary where Late Latin Medieval Latin begins; some scholarly surveys begin with the rise of early Ecclesiastical Latin in the middle of the 4th century, others around 500, still others with the replacement of written Late Latin by written Romance languages starting around the year 900.
The terms Medieval Latin and Ecclesiastical Latin are used synonymously, though some scholars draw distinctions. Ecclesiastical Latin refers to the form, used by the Roman Catholic Church, whereas Medieval Latin refers more broadly to all of the forms of Latin used in the Middle Ages; the Romance languages spoken in the Middle Ages were referred to as Latin, since the Romance languages were all descended from Classical, or Roman, Latin itself. Medieval Latin had an enlarged vocabulary, which borrowed from other sources, it was influenced by the language of the Vulgate, which contained many peculiarities alien to Classical Latin that resulted from a more or less direct translation from Greek and Hebrew. Greek provided much of the technical vocabulary of Christianity; the various Germanic languages spoken by the Germanic tribes, who invaded southern Europe, were major sources of new words. Germanic leaders became the rulers of parts of the Roman Empire that they conquered, words from their languages were imported into the vocabulary of law.
Other more ordinary words were replaced by coinages from Vulgar Latin or Germanic sources because the classical words had fallen into disuse. Latin was spread to areas such as Ireland and Germany, where Romance languages were not spoken, which had never known Roman rule. Works written in those lands where Latin was a learned language, having no relation to the local vernacular influenced the vocabulary and syntax of medieval Latin. Since subjects like science and philosophy, including Argumentation theory and Ethics, were communicated in Latin, the Latin vocabulary that developed for them became the source of a great many technical words in modern languages. English words like abstract, communicate, matter and their cognates in other European languages have the meanings given to them in medieval Latin; the influence of Vulgar Latin was apparent in the syntax of some medieval Latin writers, although Classical Latin continued to be held in high esteem and studied as models for literary compositions.
The high point of the development of medieval Latin as a literary language came with the Carolingian renaissance, a rebirth of learning kindled under the patronage of Charlemagne, king of the Franks. Alcuin was an important writer in his own right. Although it was developing into the Romance languages, Latin itself remained conservative, as it was no longer a native language and there were many ancient and medieval grammar books to give one standard form. On the other hand speaking there was no single form of "medieval Latin"; every Latin author in the medieval period spoke Latin as a second language, with varying degrees of fluency and syntax. Grammar and vocabulary, were influenced by an author's native language; this was true beginning around the 12th century, after which the language became adulterated: late medieval Latin documents written by French speakers tend to show similarities to medieval French grammar and vocabulary. For instance, rather than following the classical Latin practice of placing the verb at the end, medieval writers would follow the conventions of their own native language instead.
Whereas Latin had no definite or indefinite articles, medieval writers sometimes used forms of unus as an indefinite article, forms of ille as a definite article or quidam as something like an article. Unlike classical Latin, where esse was the only auxiliary verb, medieval Latin writers might use habere as an auxiliary, similar to constructions in Germanic and Romance languages; the accusative and infinitive construction in classical Latin was replaced by a subordinate clause introduced by quod or quia. This is identical, for example, to the use of que in similar constructions in French. In every age from the late 8th century onwards, there were learned writers who were familiar enough with classical syntax to be aware that these forms and usages were "wrong" and resisted their use, thus the Latin of a theologian like St Thomas Aquinas or of an erudite clerical historian such as William of Tyre tends to avoid most of the characteristics described above, showing its p
Tillage is the agricultural preparation of soil by mechanical agitation of various types, such as digging and overturning. Examples of human-powered tilling methods using hand tools include shovelling, mattock work and raking. Examples of draft-animal-powered or mechanized work include ploughing, rolling with cultipackers or other rollers and cultivating with cultivator shanks. Small-scale gardening and farming, for household food production or small business production, tends to use the smaller-scale methods, whereas medium- to large-scale farming tends to use the larger-scale methods. Tillage, deeper and more thorough is classified as primary, tillage, shallower and sometimes more selective of location is secondary. Primary tillage such as ploughing tends to produce a rough surface finish, whereas secondary tillage tends to produce a smoother surface finish, such as that required to make a good seedbed for many crops. Harrowing and rototilling combine primary and secondary tillage into one operation.
"Tillage" can mean the land, tilled. The word "cultivation" has several senses that overlap with those of "tillage". In a general context, both can refer to agriculture. Within agriculture, both can refer to any kind of soil agitation. Additionally, "cultivation" or "cultivating" may refer to an narrower sense of shallow, selective secondary tillage of row crop fields that kills weeds while sparing the crop plants. Tilling was first performed via human labor. Hoofed animals could be used to till soil by trampling; the wooden plow was invented. It could be pulled with human labor, or by mule, ox, water buffalo, or similar sturdy animal. Horses are unsuitable, though breeds such as the Clydesdale were bred as draft animals; the steel plow allowed farming in the American Midwest, where tough prairie grasses and rocks caused trouble. Soon after 1900, the farm tractor was introduced, which made modern large-scale agriculture possible. Primary Tillage is conducted after the last harvest, when the soil is wet enough to allow plowing but allows good traction.
Some soil types can be plowed dry. The objective of primary tillage is to attain a reasonable depth of soft soil, incorporate crop residues, kill weeds, to aerate the soil. Secondary tillage is any subsequent tillage, in order to incorporate fertilizers, reduce the soil to a finer tilth, level the surface, or control weeds. Reduced tillage leaves between 15 and 30% crop residue cover on the soil or 500 to 1000 pounds per acre of small grain residue during the critical erosion period; this may involve the use of field cultivators, or other implements. See the general comments below to see how they can affect the amount of residue. Intensive tillage leaves less than 15% crop residue cover or less than 500 pounds per acre of small grain residue; this type of tillage is referred to as conventional tillage but as conservational tillage is now more used than intensive tillage, it is not appropriate to refer to this type of tillage as conventional. Intensive tillage involves multiple operations with implements such as a mold board, and/or chisel plow.
A finisher with a harrow, rolling basket, cutter can be used to prepare the seed bed. There are many variations. Conservation tillage leaves at least 30% of crop residue on the soil surface, or at least 1,000 lb/ac of small grain residue on the surface during the critical soil erosion period; this slows water movement. Additionally, conservation tillage has been found to benefit predatory arthropods that can enhance pest control. Conservation tillage benefits farmers by reducing fuel consumption and soil compaction. By reducing the number of times the farmer travels over the field, farmers realize significant savings in fuel and labor. In most years since 1997, conservation tillage was used in US cropland more than intensive or reduced tillage. However, conservation tillage delays warming of the soil due to the reduction of dark earth exposure to the warmth of the spring sun, thus delaying the planting of the next year's spring crop of corn. No-till - Never use a plow, etc. again. Aims for 100% ground cover.
Strip-Till - Narrow strips are tilled where seeds will be planted, leaving the soil in between the rows untilled. Mulch-till Rotational Tillage - Tilling the soil every two years or less often. Ridge-Till Zone tillage is form of modified deep tillage in which only narrow strips are tilled, leaving soil in between the rows untilled; this type of tillage agitates the soil to help reduce soil compaction problems and to improve internal soil drainage. It is designed to only disrupt the soil in a narrow strip directly below the crop row. In comparison to no-till, which relies on the previous year’s plant residue to protect the soil and aides in postponement of the warming of the soil and crop growth in Northern climates, zone tillage creates a 5-inch-wide strip that breaks up plow pans, assists in warming the soil and helps to prepare a seedbed; when combined with cover crops, zone tillage helps replace lost organic matter, slows the deterioration of the soil, improves soil drainage, increases soil water and nutrient holding capacity, allows necessary soil organisms to survive.
It has been used on farms in the mid-west and west for over 40 years and is used on more than 36% of the U. S. farmland. Some specific states where zone tillage is in prac
Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar or different types of crops in the same area in sequenced seasons. It is done, it helps in reducing crop yield. Growing the same crop in the same place for many years in a row depletes the soil of certain nutrients. With rotation, a crop that leaches the soil of one kind of nutrient is followed during the next growing season by a dissimilar crop that returns that nutrient to the soil or draws a different ratio of nutrients. In addition, crop rotation mitigates the buildup of pathogens and pests that occurs when one species is continuously cropped, can improve soil structure and fertility by increasing biomass from varied root structures. Crop cycle is used in both organic farming systems. Agriculturalists have long recognized that suitable rotations—such as planting spring crops for livestock in place of grains for human consumption—make it possible to restore or to maintain a productive soil. Middle Eastern farmers practiced crop rotation in 6000 BC without understanding the chemistry, alternately planting legumes and cereals.
In the Bible, chapter 25 of the Book of Leviticus instructs the Israelites to observe a "Sabbath of the Land". Every seventh year they would not till, prune or control insects. Under a two-field rotation, half the land was planted in a year. In the next year, the two fields were reversed. From the times of Charlemagne, farmers in Europe transitioned from a two-field crop rotation to a three-field crop rotation. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 20th century, Europe's farmers practised three-field rotation, dividing available lands into three parts. One section was planted in the autumn followed by spring oats or barley; the three fields were rotated in this manner so that every three years, a field would rest and be fallow. Under the two-field system, if one has a total of 600 acres of fertile land, one would only plant 300 acres. Under the new three-field rotation system, one would plant 400 acres, but the additional crops had a more significant effect than mere quantitative productivity.
Since the spring crops were legumes, they increased the overall nutrition of the people of Northern Europe. Farmers in the region of Waasland pioneered a four-field rotation in the early 16th century, the British agriculturist Charles Townshend popularised this system in the 18th century; the sequence of four crops, included a fodder crop and a grazing crop, allowing livestock to be bred year-round. The four-field crop rotation became a key development in the British Agricultural Revolution; the rotation between arable and ley is sometimes called ley farming. George Washington Carver studied crop-rotation methods in the United States, teaching southern farmers to rotate soil-depleting crops like cotton with soil-enriching crops like peanuts and peas. In the Green Revolution of the mid-20th century the traditional practice of crop rotation gave way in some parts of the world to the practice of supplementing the chemical inputs to the soil through topdressing with fertilizers, adding ammonium nitrate or urea and restoring soil pH with lime.
Such practices aimed to increase yields, to prepare soil for specialist crops, to reduce waste and inefficiency by simplifying planting and harvesting. A preliminary assessment of crop interrelationships can be found in how each crop: contributes to soil organic matter content, provides for pest management, manages deficient or excess nutrients, how it contributes to or controls for soil erosion. Crop choice is related to the goal the farmer is looking to achieve with the rotation, which could be weed management, increasing available nitrogen in the soil, controlling for erosion, or increasing soil structure and biomass, to name a few; when discussing crop rotations, crops are classified in different ways depending on what quality is being assessed: by family, by nutrient needs/benefits, and/or by profitability. For example, giving adequate attention to plant family is essential to mitigating pests and pathogens. However, many farmers have success managing rotations by planning sequencing and cover crops around desirable cash crops.
The following is a simplified classification based on crop purpose. Many crops which are critical for the market, like vegetables, are row crops. While the most profitable for farmers, these crops are more taxing on the soil. Row crops have low biomass and shallow roots: this means the plant contributes low residue to the surrounding soil and has limited effects on structure. With much of the soil around the plant exposed to disruption by rainfall and traffic, fields with row crops experience faster break down of organic matter by microbes, leaving fewer nutrients for future plants. In short, while these crops may be profitable for the farm, they are nutrient depleting. Crop rotation practices exist to strike a balance between short-term profitability and long-term productivity. A great advantage of crop rotation comes from the interrelationship of nitrogen-fixing crops with nitrogen-demanding crops. Legumes, like alfalfa and clover, collect available nitrogen from the soil in nodules on their root structure.
When the plant is harvested, the biomass of uncollected roots breaks down, making the stored nitrogen available to
Scottish or Scots units of measurement are the weights and measures peculiar to Scotland which were nominally replaced by English units in 1685 but continued to be used in unofficial contexts until at least the late 18th century. The system was based on the ell and boll and firlot; this official system coexisted with local variants for the measurement of land area. The system is said to have been introduced by David I of Scotland, although there are no surviving records until the 15th century when the system was in normal use. Standard measures and weights were kept in each burgh, these were periodically compared against one another at "assizes of measures" during the early years of the reign of a new monarch. There was considerable local variation in many of the units, the units of dry measure increased in size from 1400 to 1700; the Scots units of length were technically replaced by the English system by an Act of the Parliament of Scotland in 1685, the other units by the Treaty of Union with England in 1706.
However many continued to be used locally during the 19th centuries. The introduction of the Imperial system by the Weights and Measures Act 1824 saw the end of any formal use in trade and commerce, although some informal use as customary units continued into the 20th century. "Scotch measure" or "Cunningham measure" was brought to parts of Ulster in Ireland by Ulster Scots settlers, used into the mid-19th century. Scottish inch As in England. A fraudulent smaller inch of 1⁄42 of an ell is recorded.foot 12 inches.yard 36 inches. Used except with English units, although it appears in an Act of Parliament from 1432: "The king's officer, as is foresaid, shall have a horn, each one a red wand of three-quarters of a yard at least."ell The ell was the basic unit of length, equal to 37 inches. The "Barony ell" of 42 inches was used as the basis for land measurement in the Four Towns area near Lochmaben, Dumfriesshire.fall 6 ells, or 222 inches. Identical to the Scots rod and raip. Scots mile 320 varied from place to place.
Obsolete by the 19th century. A number of conflicting systems were used for area, sometimes bearing the same names in different regions, but working on different conversion rates; because some of the systems were based on what land would produce, rather than the physical area, they are listed in their own section. Please see individual articles for more specific information; because fertility varied in many areas, production was considered a more practical measure. For information on the squared units, please see the appropriate articles in the length section square inch square ell square fall rood acre Eastern Scotland: oxgang = the area an ox could plough in a year ploughgate = 8 oxgangs dauch = 4 ploughgates In western Scotland, including Galloway: markland = 8 ouncelands ounceland = 20 pennylands pennyland = basic unit. Chalder boll equal to 4 firlots firlot peck lippie or forpetWeight equivalents of one boll are given in a trade dictionary of 1863 as follows: Flour 140 pounds. Nipperkin was used, but not part of this more formal set.
Standard Measures of Scotland before 1707: Weight was measured according to "troy measure" and "tron measure", which were standardised in 1661. In the Troy system these bore the same name as imperial measures. Drop ounce pound stone Various local measures all existed using local weighing stones. See the weight meanings of the boll under the dry volume section, above. Units of measurement Systems of measurement History of measurement Scottish coinage Scottish pronunciation Tron Collins Encyclopedia of Scotland Weights and Measures, by D. Richard Torrance, SAFHS, Edinburgh, 1996, ISBN 1-874722-09-9 This article incorporates text from "Dwelly's Gaelic Dictionary". Scottish National Dictionary and Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue Weights and Measures in Scotland: A European Perspective R. D. Connor, et al. National Museum of Scotland and Tuckwell Press, NMSE Publishing, 2004, ISBN 1-901663-88-4 Scottish Weights and Measures on Scottish Archive network