Laconia is a region of Greece in the southeastern part of the Peloponnese peninsula. Its administrative capital is Sparta; the word laconic is derived from the name of the region by analogy—to speak in a concise way, as the Spartans were reputed by the Athenians to do. Laconia is bordered by Messenia to the west and Arcadia to the north and is surrounded by the Myrtoan Sea to the east and by the Laconian Gulf and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it encompasses a large part of the Mani Peninsula. The Mani Peninsula is in the west region of Lakonia; the islands of Kythira and Antikythera lie to the south, but they administratively belong to the Attica regional unit of islands. The island, situated between the Laconian mainland and Kythira, is part of Laconia; the Eurotas is the longest river in the prefecture. The valley of the Eurotas is predominantly an agricultural region that contains many citrus groves, olive groves, pasture lands, it is the location of the largest orange production in the Peloponnese and in all of Greece.
Lakonia, a brand of orange juice, is based in Amykles. The main mountain ranges are the Parnon in the northeast. Taygetus, known as Pentadaktylos throughout the Middle Ages, is west of Sparta and the Eurotas valley, it is the highest mountain in Laconia and the Peloponnese and is covered with pine trees. Two roads join the Messenia and Laconia prefectures: one is a tortuous mountain pass through Taygetus and the other bypasses the mountain via the Mani district to the south; the stalactite cave, Dirou, a major tourist attraction, is located south of Areopolis in the southwest of Laconia. Laconia has a Mediterranean climate with hot summers. Snow is rare on the coast throughout the winter but is common in the mountains. Evidence of Neolithic settlement in southern Laconia has been found during excavations of the Alepotrypa cave site. In ancient Greece, this was the principal region of the Spartan state. For much of classical antiquity the Spartan sphere of influence expanded to Messenia, whose inhabitants were enslaved.
Significant archaeological recovery exists at the Vaphio-tomb site in Laconia. Found here is advanced Bronze Age art as well as evidence of cultural associations with the contemporaneous Minoan culture on Crete. Laconia saw several battles. From the early-2nd century BC until 395 AD, it was a part of the Roman Empire. In the medieval period, Laconia formed part of the Byzantine Empire. Following the Fourth Crusade, it was conquered by the Frankish Principality of Achaea. In the 1260s, the Byzantines recovered Mystras and other fortresses in the region and managed to evict the Franks from Laconia, which became the nucleus of a new Byzantine province. By the mid-14th century, this evolved into the Despotate of Morea, held by the last Greek ruling dynasty, the Palaiologoi. With the fall of the Despotate to the Ottomans in 1460, Laconia was conquered as well. With the exception of a 30-year interval of Venetian rule, Laconia remained under Ottoman control until the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence of 1821.
Following independence, Sparta was selected as the capital of the modern prefecture, its economy and agriculture expanded. With the incorporation of the British-ruled Ionian Islands into Greece in 1864, Elafonissos became part of the prefecture. After World War II and the Greek Civil War, its population began to somewhat decline, as people moved from the villages toward the larger cities of Greece and abroad. In 1992, a devastating fire ruined the finest olive crops in the northern part of the prefecture, affected the area of Sellasia along with Oinountas and its surrounding areas. Firefighters and planes battled for days to put out the horrific fire; the Mani portion along with Gytheio became famous in Greece for filming episodes of Vendetta, broadcast on Mega Channel throughout Greece and abroad on Mega Cosmos. In early 2006, flooding ruined olive and citrus crops as well as properties and villages along the Eurotas river. In the summer 2006, a terrible fire devastated a part of the Mani Peninsula, ruining forests and numerous villages.
The regional unit, Laconia, is subdivided into five municipalities. These are: East Mani Elafonisos Eurotas Monemvasia Sparta As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, regional unit Laconia was created out of the former prefecture Laconia; the prefecture had the same territory as the present regional unit. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below. Epidavros Limira Province – Molaoi Gytheio Province – Gytheio Lacedaemonia Province – Sparti Oitylo Province – AreopoliNote: Provinces no longer hold any legal status in Greece. 1907: 87,106 1991: 95,696 2001: 94,918 2011: 89,138The main cities and towns of Laconia are: Sparti 17,408 Gytheio 4,717 Neapoli 3,130 Skala 3,089 Greek National Road 39, Tripoli – Sparti – Gytheio Greek National Road 82, Pylos – Kalamata – Sparti Greek National Road 86, Gytheio – Monemvasia Molaoi to Leonidi Road, E, NE FLY FM 89,7. POLITIA 90,7 – ΠΟΛΙΤΕΙΑ 90.7 Radio Sparti – 92.7 FM Radiofonias Notias Lakonias – 93.5 Star FM – 94.7 Ellada TV – UHF 43, Sparta TV Notias Lakonias – Molaoi Λακωνικός Τύπος Ελεύθερη Άποψη Νέα Σπάρτη Παρατηρητής της Λακωνίας List of settlements in Laconia List of traditional Greek place names Laconic phrase
Hesychius of Alexandria
Hesychius of Alexandria was a Greek grammarian who in the 5th or 6th century AD, compiled the richest lexicon of unusual and obscure Greek words that has survived by absorbing the works of earlier lexicographers. The work, titled "Alphabetical Collection of All Words", includes more than 50,000 entries, a copious list of peculiar words and phrases, with an explanation of their meaning, with a reference to the author who used them or to the district of Greece where they were current. Hence, the book is of great value to the student of the Greek dialects, while in the restoration of the text of the classical authors and of such writers as Aeschylus and Theocritus, who used many unusual words, its value can hardly be exaggerated. Hesychius is important, not only for Greek philology, but for studying lost languages and obscure dialects and in reconstructing Proto-Indo-European. Many of the words that are included in this work are not found in surviving ancient Greek texts. Hesychius' explanations of many epithets and phrases reveal many important facts about the religion and social life of the ancients.
In a prefatory letter Hesychius mentions that his lexicon is based on that of Diogenianus, but that he has used similar works by the grammarian Aristarchus of Samothrace, Heliodorus and others. Hesychius was not a Christian. Explanations of words from Gregory Nazianzus and other Christian writers are interpolations; the lexicon survives in one corrupt 15th-century manuscript, preserved in the library of San Marco at Venice. The best edition is by Moriz Wilhelm Constantin Schmidt, but no complete comparative edition of the manuscript has been published since it was first printed by Marcus Musurus in Venice, 1514. A modern edition has been published under the auspices of the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen, begun by Kurt Latte and completed by Peter Allan Hansen and Ian C. Cunningham. Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, 1898. Eleanor Dickey, Ancient Greek Scholarship 88-90 Greek Wikisource has original text related to this article: Hesychius' lexicon The new continuation of Latte's edition: Vol. III, Vol. IV Hesychii Alexandrini lexicon, Friderico Ritschelio, typis Maukij, 1864.
Hesychii glossographi discipulus et epiglōssistēs russus in sec. XII-XIII.: e Codice Vindobonensi graecorussica omnia, additus aliis pure graecis, et trium aliorum Cyrilliani lexici codicum speciminibus: aliisque miscellaneis philologici maxime et slavistici argumenti, Bartholomaeus Kopilar, Vindobonae, 1839, prostat apud G. Gerold
A caryatid is a sculpted female figure serving as an architectural support taking the place of a column or a pillar supporting an entablature on her head. The Greek term karyatides means "maidens of Karyai", an ancient town of Peloponnese. Karyai had a temple dedicated to the goddess Artemis in her aspect of Artemis Karyatis: "As Karyatis she rejoiced in the dances of the nut-tree village of Karyai, those Karyatides, who in their ecstatic round-dance carried on their heads baskets of live reeds, as if they were dancing plants". An atlas or telamon is a male version of a caryatid, i.e. a sculpted male statue serving as an architectural support of a column. Some of the earliest known examples were found in the treasuries of Delphi, dating to about the 6th century BC, but their use as supports in the form of women can be traced back earlier, to ritual basins, ivory mirror handles from Phoenicia, draped figures from archaic Greece; the best-known and most-copied examples are those of the six figures of the Caryatid Porch of the Erechtheion on the Acropolis at Athens.
One of those original six figures, removed by Lord Elgin in the early 19th century, is now in the British Museum in London. The Acropolis Museum holds the other five figures; the five originals that are in Athens are now being exhibited in the new Acropolis Museum, on a special balcony that allows visitors to view them from all sides. The pedestal for the Caryatid removed to London remains empty. From 2011 to 2015, they were cleaned by a specially constructed laser beam, which removed accumulated soot and grime without harming the marble's patina; each Caryatid was cleaned in place, with a television circuit relaying the spectacle live to museum visitors. Although of the same height and build, attired and coiffed, the six Caryatids are not the same: their faces, stance and hair are carved separately, their bulky, intricately arranged hairstyles serve the crucial purpose of providing static support to their necks, which would otherwise be the thinnest and structurally weakest part. The Romans copied the Erechtheion caryatids, installing copies in the Forum of Augustus and the Pantheon in Rome, at Hadrian's Villa at Tivoli.
Another Roman example, found on the Via Appia, is the Townley Caryatid. In Early Modern times, the practice of integrating caryatids into building facades was revived, in interiors they began to be employed in fireplaces, which had not been a feature of buildings in Antiquity and offered no precedents. Early interior examples are the figures of Hercules and Iole carved on the jambs of a monumental fireplace in the Sala della Jole of the Doge's Palace, about 1450. In the following century Jacopo Sansovino, both sculptor and architect, carved a pair of female figures supporting the shelf of a marble chimneypiece at Villa Garzoni, near Padua. No architect mentioned the device until 1615, when Palladio's pupil Vincenzo Scamozzi included a chapter devoted to chimneypieces in his Idea della archittura universale; those in the apartments of princes and important personages, he considered, might be grand enough for chimneypieces with caryatid supporters, such as one he illustrated and a similar one he installed in the Sala dell'Anticollegio in the Doge's Palace.
In the 16th century, from the examples engraved for Sebastiano Serlio's treatise on architecture, caryatids became a fixture in the decorative vocabulary of Northern Mannerism expressed by the Fontainebleau School and the engravers of designs in Antwerp. In the early 17th century, interior examples appear in Jacobean interiors in England. Caryatids remained part of the German Baroque vocabulary and were refashioned in more restrained and "Grecian" forms by neoclassical architects and designers, such as the four terracotta caryatids on the porch of St Pancras New Church, London. Many caryatids lined up on the facade of the 1893 Palace of the Arts housing the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago. In the arts of design, the draped figure supporting an acanthus-grown basket capital taking the form of a candlestick or a table-support is a familiar cliché of neoclassical decorative arts; the John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art in Sarasota has caryatids as a motif on its eastern facade. In 1905 American sculptor Augustus Saint Gaudens created a caryatid porch for the Albright-Knox Art Gallery in Buffalo, New York in which four of the eight figures represented a different art form, Painting and Music.
Auguste Rodin's 1881 sculpture Fallen Caryatid Carrying her Stone shows a fallen caryatid. Robert Heinlein described this piece in Stranger in a Strange Land: "Now here we have another emotional symbol... for three thousand years or longer, architects have designed buildings with columns shaped as female figures... After all those centuries it took Rodin to see that this was work too heavy for a girl... Here is this poor little caryatid who has tried—and failed, fallen under the load.... She didn't give up, Ben; the origins of the term are unclear. It is first recorded in the Latin form caryatides by the Roman architect Vitruvius, he stated in
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred. The Oxford Dictionary of English defines deity as "a god or goddess". C. Scott Littleton defines a deity as "a being with powers greater than those of ordinary humans, but who interacts with humans, positively or negatively, in ways that carry humans to new levels of consciousness, beyond the grounded preoccupations of ordinary life". In the English language, a male deity is referred to as a god, while a female deity is referred to as a goddess. Religions can be categorized by. Monotheistic religions accept only one deity, polytheistic religions accept multiple deities. Henotheistic religions accept one supreme deity without denying other deities, considering them as aspects of the same divine principle. Although most monotheistic religions traditionally envision their God as omnipotent, omniscient and eternal, none of these qualities are essential to the definition of a "deity" and various cultures conceptualized their deities differently.
Monotheistic religions refer to God in masculine terms, while other religions refer to their deities in a variety of ways – masculine, feminine and without gender. Many ancient cultures – including the ancient Mesopotamians, Greeks and Norsemen– personified natural phenomena, variously as either deliberate causes or effects; some Avestan and Vedic deities were viewed as ethical concepts. In Indian religions, deities were envisioned as manifesting within the temple of every living being's body, as sensory organs and mind. Deities were envisioned as a form of existence after rebirth, for human beings who gain merit through an ethical life, where they become guardian deities and live blissfully in heaven, but are subject to death when their merit is lost; the English language word "deity" derives from Old French deité, the Latin deitatem or "divine nature", coined by Augustine of Hippo from deus. Deus is related through a common Proto-Indo-European origin to *deiwos; this root yields the ancient Indian word Deva meaning "to gleam, a shining one", from *div- "to shine", as well as Greek dios "divine" and Zeus.
Deva is masculine, the related feminine equivalent is devi. Etymologically, the cognates of Devi are Greek thea. In Old Persian, daiva- means "demon, evil god", while in Sanskrit it means the opposite, referring to the "heavenly, terrestrial things of high excellence, shining ones"; the linked term "god" refers to "supreme being, deity", according to Douglas Harper, is derived from Proto-Germanic *guthan, from PIE *ghut-, which means "that, invoked". Guth in the Irish language means "voice"; the term *ghut- is the source of Old Church Slavonic zovo, Sanskrit huta-, from the root *gheu-,An alternate etymology for the term "god" comes from the Proto-Germanic Gaut, which traces it to the PIE root *ghu-to-, derived from the root *gheu-. The term *gheu- is the source of the Greek khein "to pour"; the German root was a neuter noun. The gender of the monotheistic God shifted to masculine under the influence of Christianity. In contrast, all ancient Indo-European cultures and mythologies recognized both masculine and feminine deities.
There is no universally accepted consensus on what a deity is, concepts of deities vary across cultures. Huw Owen states that the term "deity or god or its equivalent in other languages" has a bewildering range of meanings and significance, it has ranged from "infinite transcendent being who created and lords over the universe", to a "finite entity or experience, with special significance or which evokes a special feeling", to "a concept in religious or philosophical context that relates to nature or magnified beings or a supra-mundane realm", to "numerous other usages". A deity is conceptualized as a supernatural or divine concept, manifesting in ideas and knowledge, in a form that combines excellence in some or all aspects, wrestling with weakness and questions in other aspects, heroic in outlook and actions, yet tied up with emotions and desires. In other cases, the deity is a principle or reality such as the idea of "soul"; the Upanishads of Hinduism, for example, characterize Atman as deva, thereby asserting that the deva and eternal supreme principle is part of every living creature, that this soul is spiritual and divine, that to realize self-knowledge is to know the supreme.
Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more deities. Polytheism is the belief in and worship of multiple deities, which are assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, with accompanying rituals. In most polytheistic religions, the different gods and goddesses are representations of forces of nature or ancestral principles, can be viewed either as autonomous or as aspects or emanations of a creator God or transcendental absolute principle, which manifests immanently in nature. Henotheism accepts the existence of more than one deity, but considers all deities as equivalent representations or aspects of the same divine principle, the highest. Monolatry is the belief that many deities exist, but that only one of these deities may be validly worshipped. Monotheism is the belief. A monotheistic deity, known as "God", is u
A dryad is a tree nymph or tree spirit in Greek mythology. Drys signifies "oak" in Greek, dryads are the nymphs of oak trees, but the term has come to be used for all tree nymphs in general, they were considered to be shy creatures except around the goddess Artemis, known to be a friend to most nymphs. These were nymphs of the laurel trees; the Maliades, Meliades or Epimelides were nymphs of apple and other fruit trees and the protectors of sheep. The Greek word melas -- from which their name derives -- means both sheep. Hesperides, the guardians of the golden apples were regarded as these type of dryad. Dryads, like all nymphs, were supernaturally long-lived and tied to their homes, but some were a step beyond most nymphs; these were the hamadryads who were an integral part of their trees, such that if the tree died, the hamadryad associated with it died as well. For these reasons and the Greek gods punished any mortals who harmed trees without first propitiating the tree-nymphs; the dryads of ash trees were called the Meliae.
The ash-tree sisters tended the infant Zeus in Rhea's Cretan cave. Gaea gave birth to the Meliae after being made fertile by the blood of castrated Uranus; the Epimeliad were nymphs associated with apple trees, the Caryatids were associated with walnut trees. Some of the individual dryads or hamadryads are: Atlanteia and Phoebe, two of the many wives or concubines of Danaus Chrysopeleia Dryope Erato Eurydice Pitys Tithorea Dryads are mentioned in Milton's Paradise Lost, in the works of Coleridge, in Thackeray's novel The Virginians. Keats addresses the nightingale as "light-winged Dryad of the trees", in his "Ode to a Nightingale". In the poetry of Donald Davidson they illustrate the themes of tradition and the importance of the past to the present; the poet Sylvia Plath uses them to symbolize nature in her poetry in "On the Difficulty of Conjuring up a Dryad", "On the Plethora of Dryads". The story "Dear Dryad" by Oliver Onions features a dryad influencing several romantic couples through history.
Ghillie Dhu, a similar Scottish spirit Kodama, a similar Japanese spirit Green spirit Elf Querquetulanae, Roman nymphs of the oak Salabhanjika, a similar Indian spirit Citations Bibliography Greek Mythology Link: Nymphs. Hans Christian Andersen, "The Dryad", 1868 Andersen, H. C.. 1914 Tim Hoke, "The Dryad", 2002
Athenaeus of Naucratis was a Greek rhetorician and grammarian, flourishing about the end of the 2nd and beginning of the 3rd century AD. The Suda says only that he lived in the times of Marcus Aurelius, but the contempt with which he speaks of Commodus, who died in 192, shows that he survived that emperor, he was a contemporary of Adrantus. Several of his publications are lost, but the fifteen-volume Deipnosophistae survives. Athenaeus himself states that he was the author of a treatise on the thratta, a kind of fish mentioned by Archippus and other comic poets, of a history of the Syrian kings. Both works are lost; the Deipnosophistae, which means "dinner-table philosophers," survives in fifteen books. The first two books, parts of the third and fifteenth, are extant only in epitome, but otherwise the work seems to be entire, it is an immense store-house of information, chiefly on matters connected with dining, but containing remarks on music, dances, games and luxury. Nearly 800 writers and 2500 separate works are referred to by Athenaeus.
Were it not for Athenaeus, much valuable information about the ancient world would be missing, many ancient Greek authors such as Archestratus would be entirely unknown. Book XIII, for example, is an important source for the study of sexuality in classical and Hellenistic Greece, a rare fragment of Theognetus' work survives in 3.63. The Deipnosophistae professes to be an account given by an individual named Athenaeus to his friend Timocrates of a banquet held at the house of Larensius, a wealthy book-collector and patron of the arts, it is thus a dialogue within a dialogue, after the manner of Plato, but the conversation extends to enormous length. The topics for discussion arise from the course of the dinner itself, but extend to literary and historical matters of every description, including abstruse points of grammar; the guests quote from memory. The actual sources of the material preserved in the Deipnosophistae remain obscure, but much of it comes at second-hand from early scholars; the twenty-four named guests include individuals called Galen and Ulpian, but they are all fictitious personages, the majority take no part in the conversation.
If the character Ulpian is identical with the famous jurist, the Deipnosophistae may have been written after his death in 223. The complete version of the text, with the gaps noted above, is preserved in only one manuscript, conventionally referred to as A; the epitomized version of the text is preserved in two manuscripts, conventionally known as C and E. The standard edition of the text is Kaibel's Teubner; the standard numbering is drawn from Casaubon. The encyclopaedist and author Sir Thomas Browne wrote a short essay upon Athenaeus which reflects a revived interest in the Banquet of the Learned amongst scholars during the 17th century following its publication in 1612 by the Classical scholar Isaac Casaubon. One of Athenaeus' friends, wrote about the untimely death of Athenaeus in the Athenaeum, it describes the tale of angry peasants who believed that Athenaeus' writings directly contradicted their personal beliefs of the Mithras cult. One night in 191 A. D. they threatened to kill him if he did not stop writing.
When they discovered that he continued writing the Deipnosophistae, twenty-three men stormed into his home and strangled him to death. It is unclear whether Athenaeus finished his work on his own or Timocrates finished it for him, as most of the Athenaeum is lost. Athenaeus described, he mentions that in the Greek city of Sybaris, there were annual culinary competitions. The victor was given the exclusive right to prepare his dish for one year. Swallow song of Rhodes David Braund and John Wilkins and his world: reading Greek culture in the Roman Empire, Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 2000. ISBN 0-85989-661-7. Christian Jacob, The Web of Athenaeus, Washington, DC: Center for Hellenic Studies at Harvard University, 2013. Digital Athenaeus Project - University of Leipzig Digital Athenaeus - Casaubon-Kaibel reference converter Works by Athenæus at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Athenaeus at Internet Archive Works by Athenaeus at LibriVox The Deipnosophists, translated by C. D. Yonge, at The Literature Collection The Deipnosophists, long excerpts in searchable HTML format, at attalus.org The Deipnosophists, translated up to Book 9 with links to complete Greek original, at LacusCurtius The Deipnosophists, open source XML version by the University of Leipzig, at Open Greek & Latin Project
Polis, plural poleis means city in Greek. It can mean a body of citizens. In modern historiography, polis is used to indicate the ancient Greek city-states, like Classical Athens and its contemporaries, thus is translated as "city-state"; these cities consisted of a fortified city centre built on an acropolis or harbor and controlled surrounding territories of land. The Ancient Greek city-state developed during the Archaic period as the ancestor of city and citizenship and persisted well into Roman times, when the equivalent Latin word was civitas meaning "citizenhood", while municipium applied to a non-sovereign local entity; the term "city-state", which originated in English, does not translate the Greek term. The poleis were not like other primordial ancient city-states like Tyre or Sidon, which were ruled by a king or a small oligarchy, but rather political entities ruled by their bodies of citizens; the traditional view of archaeologists—that the appearance of urbanization at excavation sites could be read as a sufficient index for the development of a polis—was criticised by François Polignac in 1984 and has not been taken for granted in recent decades: the polis of Sparta, for example, was established in a network of villages.
The term polis, which in archaic Greece meant "city", changed with the development of the governance center in the city to signify "state". With the emergence of a notion of citizenship among landowners, it came to describe the entire body of citizens; the ancient Greeks did not always refer to Athens, Sparta and other poleis as such. The body of citizens came to be the most important meaning of the term polis in ancient Greece; the Greek term that meant the totality of urban buildings and spaces is asty. Plato analyzes the polis in The Republic, whose Greek title, Πολιτεία, itself derives from the word polis; the best form of government of the polis for Plato is the one. The philosopher king is the best ruler because, as a philosopher, he is acquainted with the Form of the Good. In Plato's analogy of the ship of state, the philosopher king steers the polis, as if it were a ship, in the best direction. Books II–IV of The Republic are concerned with Plato addressing the makeup of an ideal polis.
In The Republic, Socrates is concerned with the two underlying principles of any society: mutual needs and differences in aptitude. Starting from these two principles, Socrates deals with the economic structure of an ideal polis. According to Plato, there are five main economic classes of any polis: producers, sailors/shipowners, retail traders, wage earners. Along with the two principles and five economic classes, there are four virtues; the four virtues of a "just city" include, courage and justice. With all of these principles and virtues, it was believed that a "just city" would exist; the basic and indicating elements of a polis are: Self-governance and independence Agora: the social hub and financial marketplace, on and around a centrally located, large open space Acropolis: the citadel, inside which a temple had replaced the erstwhile Mycenaean anáktoron or mégaron Greek urban planning and architecture, public and private Temples and sacred precincts: one or more are dedicated to the poliouchos, the patron deity of the city.
Priests and priestesses, although drawn from certain families by tradition, did not form a separate collegiality or class. Gymnasia Theatres Walls: used for protection from invaders Coins: minted by the city, bearing its symbols Colonies being founded by the oikistes of the metropolis Political life: it revolved around the sovereign Ekklesia, the standing boule and other civic or judicial councils, the archons and other officials or magistrates elected either by vote or by lot, etc. and sometimes punctuated by stasis. They practised direct democracy. Publication of state functions: laws and major fiscal accounts were published, criminal and civil trials were held in public. Synoecism, conurbation: Absorption of nearby villages and countryside, the incorporation of their tribes into the substructure of the polis. Many of a polis' citizens lived in countryside; the Greeks regarded the polis less as a territorial grouping than as a religious and political association: while the polis would control territory and colonies beyond the city itself, the polis would not consist of a geographical area.
Most cities were composed of several tribes or phylai, which were in turn composed of phratries, génea. Social classes and citizenship: Dwellers of the polis were divided into four types of inhabitants, with status determined by birth: Citizens with full legal and political rights—that is, free adult men born legitimately of citizen parents, they had the right to vote, be elected into office, bear arms, the obligat