Bridge of the Exposición Regional Valenciana 1909
The Bridge of the Exposición Regional Valenciana 1909 was a bridge built in 1909 on the occasion of the celebration of the Valencian Regional Exhibition of 1909 was inaugurated May 22, 1909 and takes its name from the aforementioned exhibition. It was a bridge of reinforced concrete, but it was destroyed on October 14, 1957 in the flood of the Turia of that year, it was decorated with art-deco and modernisme elements. Instead was rise another bridge or rather an unsight gateway that late 20th century between 1991 and 1995 has been replaced by the current bridge by Santiago Calatrava and some known as the La Peineta
Royal Palace, Valencia
The now vanished Del Real Palace or Royal Palace was the former residence of the kings of Valencia in the «Cap i Casal» of the Kingdom, as the city of Valencia was called. It was on the left bank of the Turia River, it was known as «300 keys palace» in reference to the number of rooms it had in its heights. From 11th to 19th centuries it was royal seat whether for the kings of the Taifa of Valencia or the monarchs of the Crown of Aragon, the Habsburgs and the Bourbons, while it was less appreciated by the latter. Late-19th century Valencian political Teodoro Llorente quotes "What happened to you, Palacio del Real? Noble mansion of the Valencian monarchs and symbol of our ancient and glorious kingdom All disappeared with the institutions that you represented, the illustrious autonomy of that kingdom that you were head..." It was constructed in the 11th century by the king Abd al-Aziz as an almúnia or recreation residence on the outskirts of the city. In Xarq al-Andalus these rural residences of the urban oligarchy, located around the cities, were known as real, which must not be confused with the rafals, which were estates for agrarian production.
Thereupon, the Real Palace name arises from the fact that it was one of these almúnies, not because it was a royal residence. The Arabist Henri Péres, in his book Esplendor de Al-Andalus, talks about the beauty and grandeur of the palace, which "included a big garden planted with fruit trees and flowers and a river that crossed it, the palace is located in the middle, with richly decorated pavilions, which gaped open to the garden". In 1364, in the course of the war with Castile, the troops of Peter the Cruel burned it down and looted it. Afterwards, Peter the Ceremonious rebuilt it as the residence of the Aragonese monarchs entirely, incorporating some partial remains of the old architecture, broadened the gardens in the 14th century, keeping in mind to build a true bigger palace. John I enlarged it so as Alfonso the Magnanimous, during the few years he resided in Valencia before conquering Naples, consolidated it as a royal residence and made considerable expenses to turned it into one of the best regal palaces in the Crown of Aragon.
His wife, queen Maria, for whom it was one of her most favoured residences, lived there permanently with her court. From there she governed the peninsular kingdoms of the Crown of Aragon. Inventories of that time indicate that it was a sumptuously decorated palace, with abundant tapestries and rich furniture. Ferdinand the Catholic, Germaine of Foix and the Duke of Calabria improved the facilities; the palace was composed of two attached bodies, called Real Nou. The old Arab building had four towers. There were two patios in the new part; the main halls, where audiences and receptions were held, were on the first floor. There were gardens with ponds and exotic plants brought on purpose from America, a menagerie with lions, deer, pheasants and other animals; some of those gardens are the current Viveros. In the early modern period it was the residence of the viceroys of Valencia, headquarters of the Cancelleria Reial of the kingdom of Valencia archive, created by Alfonso the Magnanimous, originating part of the current Archive of the Kingdom of Valencia.
Subsequently, in the 18th century, after the Nueva Planta decree, it served as the residence of the captain generals. Thereupon it underwent major work. Captain general of Valencia from 1721 to 1737, the nobleman of Italian origin Luigi Reggio, 4th prince of Campofiorito, took the initiative to organise in the Real Gardens the first opera performances played in Valencia. Thus, the Palace had a long history with numerous extensions and reforms that made him the recipient of a cluster of architectural experiences, reflecting constructive ways and forms of different eras lived. In 1810, during the Peninsular War, in order to deny the palace to the Napoleonic troops and avoid they using it as a bastion against the city, Valencians themselves decided to demolish it, useless. In fact, the demolition was due to a combination of factors: a poor military strategy, the economic needs of the Junta de Defensa and the perception by the bourgeois, liberal classes that this old grand palace was the main symbol of the past.
Only some fragment of the coffered ceiling, preserved at the Arxiu del Regne, was saved from its formidable brickwork. In 1986 in the wake of a works carried out in the collectors of the city, was lifted the asphalt of street General Elio, under it were the remains of the palace. After much controversy over whether the remains were to be buried or laid bare, it was decided to bury them because the street is one of the main arteries of the city. Earlier year 2009, new tastings with GPR were made, discarding a massive excavation and appear new remains that arouse interest for the palace, the emblem of the city. Although it is clear that the Del Real Palace is irrecoverable, in 1810 was razed to the ground, the illusion of archaeologists is increasing. Excavations at the Viveros garden were made. Archaeologists have unearthed last week the first walls, belonging to the Torre de la Reina. A magnificent tower, the residence of the Queen Maria, wife of Alfonso V of Aragon, although in the last period of the pal
A landmark is a recognizable natural or artificial feature used for navigation, a feature that stands out from its near environment and is visible from long distances. In modern use, the term can be applied to smaller structures or features, that have become local or national symbols. In old English the word landmearc was used to describe an "object set up to mark the boundaries of a kingdom, etc.". Starting from approx. 1560, this understanding of landmark was replaced by a more general one. A landmark became a "conspicuous object in a landscape". A landmark meant a geographic feature used by explorers and others to find their way back or through an area. For example, the Table Mountain near Cape Town, South Africa is used as the landmark to help sailors to navigate around southern tip of Africa during the Age of Exploration. Artificial structures are sometimes built to assist sailors in naval navigation; the Lighthouse of Alexandria and Colossus of Rhodes are ancient structures built to lead ships to the port.
In modern usage, a landmark includes anything, recognizable, such as a monument, building, or other structure. In American English it is the main term used to designate places that might be of interest to tourists due to notable physical features or historical significance. Landmarks in the British English sense are used for casual navigation, such as giving directions; this is done in American English as well. In urban studies as well as in geography, a landmark is furthermore defined as an external point of reference that helps orienting in a familiar or unfamiliar environment. Landmarks are used in verbal route instructions and as such an object of study by linguists as well as in other fields of study. Landmarks are classified as either natural landmarks or man-made landmarks, both are used to support navigation on finding directions. A variant is a seamark or daymark, a structure built intentionally to aid sailors navigating featureless coasts. Natural landmarks can be characteristic features, such as plateaus.
Examples of natural landmarks are Table Mountain in South Africa, Mount Ararat in Turkey, Uluru in Australia, Mount Fuji in Japan and Grand Canyon in the United States. Trees might serve as local landmarks, such as jubilee oaks or conifers; some landmark trees may be nicknamed, examples being Hanging Oak or Centennial Tree. In modern sense, landmarks are referred to as monuments or prominent distinctive buildings, used as the symbol of a certain area, city, or nation; some examples include the Statue of Unity in Narmada, the White House in Washington, D. C. the Statue of Liberty in New York City, the Eiffel Tower in Paris, the Colosseum in Rome, Big Ben in London, Christ the Redeemer in Rio de Janeiro, Bratislava Castle in Bratislava, the Space Needle in Seattle, the Sydney Harbour Bridge or the Sydney Opera House, the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, the CN Tower In Toronto, or Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw. Church spires and mosque's minarets are very tall and visible from many miles around, thus serve as built landmarks.
Town hall towers and belfries have a landmark character. Contemporary history Cultural heritage management Cultural heritage tourism National landmark National symbol Media related to Landmarks at Wikimedia Commons
A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other permanent surface. A distinguishing characteristic of mural painting is that the architectural elements of the given space are harmoniously incorporated into the picture; some wall paintings are painted on large canvases, which are attached to the wall. Whether these works can be called "murals" is a subject of some controversy in the art world, but the technique has been in common use since the late 19th century. Murals of sorts date to Upper Paleolithic times such as the cave paintings in the Lubang Jeriji Saléh cave in Borneo, Chauvet Cave in Ardèche department of southern France. Many ancient murals have been found within ancient Egyptian tombs, the Minoan palaces, the Oxtotitlán cave and Juxtlahuaca in Mexico and in Pompeii. During the Middle Ages murals were executed on dry plaster; the huge collection of Kerala mural painting dating from the 14th century are examples of fresco secco. In Italy, circa 1300, the technique of painting of frescos on wet plaster was reintroduced and led to a significant increase in the quality of mural painting.
In modern times, the term became more well-known with the Mexican muralism art movement. There are many different techniques; the best-known is fresco, which uses water-soluble paints with a damp lime wash, a rapid use of the resulting mixture over a large surface, in parts. The colors lighten; the marouflage method has been used for millennia. Murals today are painted in a variety of ways; the styles can vary from abstract to trompe-l'œil. Initiated by the works of mural artists like Graham Rust or Rainer Maria Latzke in the 1980s, trompe-l'oeil painting has experienced a renaissance in private and public buildings in Europe. Today, the beauty of a wall mural has become much more available with a technique whereby a painting or photographic image is transferred to poster paper or canvas, pasted to a wall surface to give the effect of either a hand-painted mural or realistic scene. In the history of mural several methods have been used: A fresco painting, from the Italian word affresco which derives from the adjective fresco, describes a method in which the paint is applied on plaster on walls or ceilings.
The buon fresco technique consists of painting in pigment mixed with water on a thin layer of wet, lime mortar or plaster. The pigment is absorbed by the wet plaster. After this the painting stays for a long time up to centuries in brilliant colors. Fresco-secco painting is done on dry plaster; the pigments thus require a binding medium, such as egg, glue or oil to attach the pigment to the wall. Mezzo-fresco is painted on nearly-dry plaster, was defined by the sixteenth-century author Ignazio Pozzo as "firm enough not to take a thumb-print" so that the pigment only penetrates into the plaster. By the end of the sixteenth century this had displaced the buon fresco method, was used by painters such as Gianbattista Tiepolo or Michelangelo; this technique had, in reduced form, the advantages of a secco work. In Greco-Roman times encaustic colors applied in a cold state were used. Tempera painting is one of the oldest known methods in mural painting. In tempera, the pigments are bound in an albuminous medium such as egg yolk or egg white diluted in water.
In 16th-century Europe, oil painting on canvas arose as an easier method for mural painting. The advantage was that the artwork could be completed in the artist's studio and transported to its destination and there attached to the wall or ceiling. Oil paint may be a less satisfactory medium for murals because of its lack of brilliance in colour; the pigments are yellowed by the binder or are more affected by atmospheric conditions. The canvas itself is more subject to rapid deterioration than a plaster ground. Different muralists tend to become experts in their preferred medium and application, whether that be oil paints, emulsion or acrylic paints applied by brush, roller or airbrush/aerosols. Clients will ask for a particular style and the artist may adjust to the appropriate technique. A consultation leads to a detailed design and layout of the proposed mural with a price quote that the client approves before the muralist starts on the work; the area to be painted can be gridded to match the design allowing the image to be scaled step by step.
In some cases the design is projected straight onto the wall and traced with pencil before painting begins. Some muralists will paint directly without any prior sketching, preferring the spontaneous technique. Once completed the mural can be given coats of varnish or protective acrylic glaze to protect the work from UV rays and surface damage. In modern, quick form of muralling, young enthusiasts use POP clay mixed with glue or bond to give desired models on a canvas board; the canvas is set aside to let the clay dry. Once dried, the canvas and the shape can be painted with your choice of colors and coated with varnish; as an alternative to a hand-painted or airbrushed mural, digitally printed murals can be applied to surfaces. Existing murals can be photographed and be reproduced
Light fountain of the Exposición Regional Valenciana
The Light fountain of the Exposición Regional Valenciana was a large fountain and square built for the Valencian Regional Exhibition of 1909. It was one of the most expensive buildings of the exhibition with a cost of 209,000 pesetas
Museu de Belles Arts de València
The Museu de Belles Arts de València is an art gallery in Valencia, founded in 1913. It houses some 2,000 works, most dating from the 14th–17th centuries, including a Self portrait of Diego Velázquez, a St. John the Baptist by El Greco, Goya's Playing Children, Gonzalo Pérez's Altarpiece of Sts. Ursula and Antony and a Madonna with Writing Child and Bishop by the Italian Renaissance master Pinturicchio, it houses a large series of engravings by Giovan Battista Piranesi. The museum is in the St. Pius V Palace, built in the 17th–18th centuries, it has sections dedicated to sculpture, to contemporary art and to archaeological findings. Museum of Fine Arts of Valencia
Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya
The Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya, abbreviated as MNAC, is the national museum of Catalan visual art located in Barcelona, Spain. Situated on Montjuïc hill at the end of Avinguda de la Reina Maria Cristina, near Pl Espanya, the museum is notable for its outstanding collection of romanesque church paintings, for Catalan art and design from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including modernisme and noucentisme; the museum is housed in the Palau Nacional, a huge, Italian-style building dating to 1929. The Palau Nacional, which has housed the Museu d'Art de Catalunya since 1934, was declared a national museum in 1990 under the Museums Law passed by the Catalan Government; that same year, a thorough renovation process was launched to refurbish the site, based on plans drawn up by the architects Gae Aulenti and Enric Steegmann, who were joined in the undertaking by Josep Benedito. The Oval Hall was reopened in 1992 on the occasion of the Olympic Games, the various collections were installed and opened over the period from 1995 to 2004.
The Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya was inaugurated on 16 December 2004. It is one of the largest museums in Spain; the history of this institution dates back to the 19th century, when, in accordance with the principles that inspired Catalonia's cultural and political Renaixença, a movement active in that century, many projects were launched to help revive and conserve the country's artistic heritage. This process began with the establishment of the Museu d'Antiguitats de Barcelona in the Chapel of St Agatha and the Museu Municipal de Belles Arts in the Palau de Belles Arts, a palace built to mark the occasion of the 1888 Universal Exhibition. A project to install all these Catalan art collections in the Palau Nacional, launched in 1934 under the initiative of Joaquim Folch i Torres, the first director of Catalonia Museum of Art, was frustrated by the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, when for protection many works were transferred to Olot and Paris. During the postwar period, the 19th- and 20th-century collections were installed in the Museu d'Art Modern, housed from 1945 to 2004 in the Arsenal building in Barcelona's Parc de la Ciutadella, whilst the Romanesque and baroque collections were installed in the Palau in 1942.
The Palau Nacional, which has housed the Museu d'Art de Catalunya since 1934, was declared a national museum in 1990 under the Museums Law passed by the Catalan Government. In 1992 a thorough renovation process was launched to refurbish the site, based on plans drawn up by the architects Gae Aulenti and Enric Steegmann, who were joined in the undertaking by Josep Benedito; the Oval Hall was reopened in 1992 on the occasion of the Olympic Games, the various collections were installed and opened over the period from 1995 to 2004. The Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya was inaugurated on 16 December 2004. Since 2004, the Palau Nacional has once more housed several magnificent art collections by Catalan art, but Spanish and European art; the works from that first museum have now been enriched by new purchases and donations, tracing the country's art history from early medieval times to the mid-20th century: from Romanesque, Gothic and baroque to modern art. This heritage is completed by the Gabinet Numismàtic de Catalunya, the Gabinet de Dibuixos i Gravats and the library.
It is one of the most important and outstanding collections in the museum, due to the series of mural paintings it includes. Indeed, the Museu Nacional Romanesque Collection is unmatched by that of any other museum in the world. Many of the works here adorned rural churches in the Pyrenees and other sites in Old Catalonia, or Catalunya Vella, as it is known. Years the news emerged that a group of foreign financiers and antiquarians had block-purchased most of these paintings to be taken to the United States of America. Although there were no laws in Spain at that time to forbid the expatriation of art, the Junta de Museus was able to intervene in order to rescue and transfer works to the Museum of Barcelona housed in the Parc de la Ciutadella, thus conserving and protecting these Romanesque works, considered a unique piece of art heritage and a symbol of the birth and formation of Catalonia; the Romanesque rooms are arranged in chronological and stylistic order, giving visitors a view of the different tendencies in Catalan Romanesque art and featuring works produced, for the most part, in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries.
The visit to this section begins with the mural paintings from Sant Joan in Boí, which show clear stylistic influences from the French Carolingian tradition, continues with works showing the Italian influence that dominated painting from the late 11th century, doubtless as a result of the influence of the Gregorian Reform. This style is illustrated in such excellent works as the mural paintings from Sant Quirze de Pedret, Santa Maria d'Àneu and Sant Pere del Burgal. However, the rooms of the Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalu