Milan Cathedral is the cathedral church of Milan, Italy. Dedicated to St Mary of the Nativity, it is the seat of the Archbishop of Milan, the Gothic cathedral took nearly six centuries to complete. It is the largest church in Italy and the fifth largest in the world, the first cathedral, the new basilica dedicated to St Thecla, was completed by 355. It seems to share, on a smaller scale, the plan of the contemporaneous church recently rediscovered beneath Tower Hill in London. An adjoining basilica was erected in 836, the old octagonal baptistery, the Battistero Paleocristiano, dates to 335 and still can be visited under the Milan Cathedral. When a fire damaged the cathedral and basilica in 1075, they were rebuilt as the Duomo, in 1386, Archbishop Antonio da Saluzzo began construction of the cathedral. Before actual work began, three buildings were demolished, the palace of the Archbishop, the Ordinari Palace and the Baptistry of St. Stephen at the Spring. Maria Maggiore was exploited as a stone quarry, enthusiasm for the immense new building soon spread among the population, and the shrewd Gian Galeazzo, together with his cousin the archbishop, collected large donations for the work-in-progress.
The construction program was strictly regulated under the Fabbrica del Duomo, Orsenigo initially planned to build the cathedral from brick in Lombard Gothic style. Visconti had ambitions to follow the newest trends in European architecture, in 1389, a French chief engineer, Nicolas de Bonaventure, was appointed, adding to the church its Rayonnant Gothic, a French style not typical for Italy. He decided that the structure should be panelled with marble. Galeazzo gave the Fabbrica del Duomo exclusive use of the marble from the Candoglia quarry and exempted it from taxes. Ten years another French architect, Jean Mignot, was called from Paris to judge and improve upon the work done, Mignot declared all the work done up till as in pericolo di ruina, as it had been done sine scienzia. In the following years Mignots forecasts proved untrue, but they spurred Galeazzos engineers to improve their instruments, work proceeded quickly, and at the death of Gian Galeazzo in 1402, almost half the cathedral was complete.
John the Evangelist, by Cristoforo de Mottis, and Saint Eligius and San John of Damascus, in 1452, under Francesco Sforza, the nave and the aisles were completed up to the sixth bay. The exterior long remained without any decoration, except for the Guglietto dellAmadeo and this is a Renaissance masterwork which nevertheless harmonized well with the general Gothic appearance of the church. During the subsequent Spanish domination, the new church proved usable, even though the interior remained unfinished, and some bays of the nave. In 1552 Giacomo Antegnati was commissioned to build an organ for the north side of the choir
A libretto is the text used in, or intended for, an extended musical work such as an opera, masque, cantata or musical. The term libretto is used to refer to the text of major liturgical works, such as the Mass and sacred cantata. Libretto, from Italian, is the diminutive of the word libro, sometimes other language equivalents are used for libretti in that language, livret for French works and Textbuch for German. A libretto is distinct from a synopsis or scenario of the plot, in that the libretto contains all the words and stage directions, while a synopsis summarizes the plot. The relationship of the librettist to the composer in the creation of a work has varied over the centuries, as have the sources. In the context of a modern English language musical theatre piece, Libretti for operas and cantatas in the 17th and 18th centuries generally were written by someone other than the composer, often a well-known poet. Metastasio was one of the most highly regarded librettists in Europe and his libretti were set many times by many different composers.
Another noted 18th-century librettist was Lorenzo Da Ponte, who wrote the libretti for three of Mozarts greatest operas, as well as for other composers. Eugène Scribe was one of the most prolific librettists of the 19th century, providing the words for works by Meyerbeer, Bellini, Donizetti and Verdi. The French writers duo Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy wrote a number of opera and operetta libretti for the likes of Jacques Offenbach, Jules Massenet. Arrigo Boito, who wrote libretti for, among others, Giuseppe Verdi and Amilcare Ponchielli, the libretto is not always written before the music. Some composers wrote their own libretti, Richard Wagner is perhaps most famous in this regard, with his transformations of Germanic legends and events into epic subjects for his operas and music dramas. Hector Berlioz, wrote the libretti for two of his works, La Damnation de Faust and Les Troyens. Alban Berg adapted Georg Büchners play Woyzeck for the libretto of Wozzeck, sometimes the libretto is written in close collaboration with the composer, this can involve adaptation, as was the case with Rimsky-Korsakov and his librettist Belsky, or an entirely original work.
In the case of musicals, the music, the lyrics, thus, a musical such as Fiddler on the Roof has a composer, a lyricist and the writer of the book. In rare cases, the composer writes everything except the dance arrangements - music and libretto, Other matters in the process of developing a libretto parallel those of spoken dramas for stage or screen. A famous case of the latter is Wagners 1861 revision of the original 1845 Dresden version of his opera Tannhäuser for Paris, since the late 19th century some opera composers have written music to prose or free verse libretti. The libretto of a musical, on the hand, is almost always written in prose
San Vincenzo in Prato
The basilica of San Vincenzo in Prato is a church in Milan, northern Italy. It is the one in city which has entirely maintained its original Palaeo-Christian appearance. The first church was founded by the Lombard king Desiderius in 770, it was entitled to St. Vincent, when the latters relics were found in an urn in the crypt, together with those of St. Quirinus and St. Nicomedes and St. Abundius. The name in Prato derives from its location in the area owned by bishop Odelpertus. The convent was suppressed in 1520 and in 1598 the church was restored and turned into a parish, the basilica measures c.40 x 20 m, and is in brickwork. The interior is on a nave and two aisles with wooden spans ceiling, the columns are from different ages. The elevated choir ends with a large apse, under the presbytery is the crypt, which has a nave and two aisles divided by ten small columns with sculpted capitals. San Vincenzo lies on the founding of a Roman temple or oratory built along the way to Vigevano probably dedicated to Juppiter, page on medieval art in Italy Milano - Battistero S.
Vincenzo in Prato A short documentary about the Basilica from chiesadimilano. it site
Santa Maria delle Grazie (Milan)
Santa Maria delle grazie is a church and Dominican convent in Milan, northern Italy, included in the UNESCO World Heritage sites list. The church contains the mural of The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci, the Duke of Milan Francesco I Sforza ordered construction of a Dominican convent and a church at the site of a prior chapel dedicated to the Marian devotion of St Mary of the Graces. The main architect, Guiniforte Solari, designed the convent, which was completed by 1469, construction of the church took decades. Duke Ludovico Sforza decided to have the serve as the Sforza family burial site, and rebuilt the cloister. Ludovicos wife Beatrice was buried in the church in 1497 and his name is inscribed in a piece of marble in the church vaults delivered in 1494. Some documents though mention the name Amadeo, likely Giovanni Antonio Amadeo, similarities between this church and Amadeos design for Santa Maria alla Fontana make this attribution more likely. In 1543, the Titian altarpiece depicting the Christ receives the Crown of Thorns was installed in the Chapel of Holy Crown, the painting, looted by French troops in 1797, it is now in the Louvre.
This chapel is frescoed with Stories of the Passion by Gaudenzio Ferrari, in the small cloister adjacent to the tribune near the door that leads to the sacristy is a fresco by Bramantino. The church contained frescoes depicting the Resurrection and Passion by Bernardo Zenale, during World War II, on the night of 15 August 1943, an Anglo-American aerial bombardment hit the church and the convent. Much of the refectory was destroyed, but some survived, including the one that holds the The Last Supper. Some preservation works are done to maintain it for the future and it is believed that the current and future preservation works will keep the painting safe for many centuries to come
Gothic Revival architecture
Gothic Revival is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. Gothic Revival draws features from the original Gothic style, including decorative patterns, scalloping, lancet windows, hood mouldings, the Gothic Revival movement emerged in 19th-century England. Its roots were intertwined with deeply philosophical movements associated with a re-awakening of High Church or Anglo-Catholic belief concerned by the growth of religious nonconformism, the Anglo-Catholicism tradition of religious belief and style became widespread for its intrinsic appeal in the third quarter of the 19th century. The Gothic Revival was paralleled and supported by medievalism, which had its roots in antiquarian concerns with survivals, as industrialisation progressed, a reaction against machine production and the appearance of factories grew. Proponents of the such as Thomas Carlyle and Augustus Pugin took a critical view of industrial society. To Pugin, Gothic architecture was infused with the Christian values that had been supplanted by classicism and were being destroyed by industrialisation, poems such as Idylls of the King by Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson recast specifically modern themes in medieval settings of Arthurian romance.
In German literature, the Gothic Revival had a grounding in literary fashions, guarino Guarini, a 17th-century Theatine monk active primarily in Turin, recognized the Gothic order as one of the primary systems of architecture and made use of it in his practice. Some of the earliest evidence of a revival in Gothic architecture is from Scotland, inveraray Castle, constructed from 1746, with design input from William Adam, displays the incorporation of turrets. These were largely conventional Palladian style houses that incorporated some features of the Scots baronial style. The eccentric landscape designer Batty Langley even attempted to improve Gothic forms by giving them classical proportions, a younger generation, taking Gothic architecture more seriously, provided the readership for J. Brittens series of Cathedral Antiquities, which began appearing in 1814. In 1817, Thomas Rickman wrote an Attempt. to name and define the sequence of Gothic styles in English ecclesiastical architecture, the categories he used were Norman, Early English and Perpendicular.
It went through numerous editions and was still being republished by 1881. The largest and most famous Gothic cathedrals in the U. S. A. are St. Patricks Cathedral in New York City and Washington National Cathedral on Mount St. Alban in northwest Washington, D. C. One of the biggest churches in Gothic Revival style in Canada is Basilica of Our Lady Immaculate in Ontario, Gothic Revival architecture was to remain one of the most popular and long-lived of the Gothic Revival styles of architecture. The revived Gothic style was not limited to architecture, classical Gothic buildings of the 12th to 16th Centuries were a source of inspiration to 19th-century designers in numerous fields of work. Architectural elements such as pointed arches, steep-sloping roofs and fancy carvings like lace ant lattice work were applied to a range of Gothic Revival objects. Sir Walter Scotts Abbotsford exemplifies in its furnishings the Regency Gothic style, parties in medieval historical dress and entertainment were popular among the wealthy in the 1800s but has spread in the late 20th century to the well-educated middle class as well.
By the mid-19th century, Gothic traceries and niches could be inexpensively re-created in wallpaper, the illustrated catalogue for the Great Exhibition of 1851 is replete with Gothic detail, from lacemaking and carpet designs to heavy machinery
Clelia Maria Josepha Strepponi was a nineteenth-century Italian operatic soprano of great renown and the second wife of composer Giuseppe Verdi. She is often credited with having contributed to Verdis first successes, starring in a number of his early operas, donizetti wrote the title role of his opera Adelia specifically for Strepponi. Strepponi was born in the city of Lodi in the Lombard region of Italy. Her first lessons in music were with her father who focused mainly on teaching her to play the piano, Strepponi made her professional opera début in December 1834 as Adria in Luigi Riccis Chiara di Rosembergh at the Teatro Orfeo. She had her first major success during the spring at the Theatro Grande in Trieste singing the title role in Rossinis Matilde di Shabran. This success quickly led to engagements at major opera houses throughout Italy. Although she was talented, she never sang outside Italy after 1835. Strepponi became a celebrity among opera singers during the late 1830s, in 1836 she sang the roles of Ninetta in Rossinis La gazza ladra, Elvira in Bellinis I puritani, and the title role in Rossinis La Cenerentola at the Teatro La Fenice in Venice.
In Spring 1837, she went under contract with Alessandro Lanari of Florence, known as the king of impresarios, within a very short time, she found herself pregnant and had to sing through three pregnancies during the time with Lanari. That same year she reprised the role of Elvira and portrayed the roles of Elena in Donizettis Marino Faliero and the title role in Donizettis Lucia di Lammermoor at the Teatro Comunale di Bologna. In 1838 she sang the roles in Donizettis Maria di Rudenz, Bellinis Beatrice di Tenda. Strepponis performance was considered one of the strongest aspects of this production, the record of constant performances over several years has invited speculation about what that might have done to the quality of her voice in years. Returning to Milan for rehearsals of Nabucco, she claimed that illness would prevent future performances in Vienna, the doctors conclusions would allow her to do that, but it took her more than a year to recover. Strepponi continued to remain a popular singer during the early 1840s.
She notably sang the role in Donizettis Adelia in 1841 at the Teatro Apollo in Rome. This was followed by an acclaimed portrayal as Abigaille in the world premiere of Verdis Nabucco at La Scala in 1842. Also in 1843, she sang the roles of Elisabetta in Donizettis Roberto Devereux, other notable roles for Strepponi during the early 1840s included the title role in Bellinis Norma, the Marchesa del Poggio in Verdis Un giorno di regno, and the title role in Giovanni Pacinis Saffo. Her voice never recovered and she appeared only sporadically in operas until her retirement in February 1846
Basilica of San Lorenzo, Milan
Located close to the mediaeval Ticino gate, it is one of the oldest churches in Milan. It is near the city park called Basilicas Park, which both the Basilica of San Lorenzo and the Basilica of SantEustorgio, as well as the Roman Colonne di San Lorenzo. The basilica was built between the fourth and early fifth centuries. The exact date is uncertain, as are the name of who commissioned it, according to some scholars San Lorenzo was erected to coincide with the “Basilica Portiana”, which was built by the “Augusto of the West” to please the Bishop of Milan Aussenzzio of the Arian faith. If this were to be true, San Lorenzo would have preceded the foundation of the four Ambrosian basilicas, a second proposition gives the date of the foundation of the church to a period, between 390 and 402, and attributes its commissioning to Theodosius I or Stilicho. Evidence for this comes from archaeological investigations carried out between 2002 and 2004. What is certain is that at the time of its construction the basilica was the largest, the dedication of the temple to St.
Laurence the martyr has been certified only from 590, when Milan was already controlled by the Lombards. By 1167, with the construction of the walls, the basilica was to be found within the city. The basilica of San Lorenzo remained throughout the Middle Ages a symbol of the legacy of the Roman Empire in Milan, painted references to the church from that era can be identified. On 5 June 1573 the dome of the basilica suddenly collapsed, construction of a new dome in a more modern style began immediately and were completed in 1619. Following this event, donations increased enabling more rapid progress in the reconstruction, in 1626, the Madonna del Latte was transferred to the high altar where it remains to this day. After the bombings of 1944-1945 the houses that had destroyed were not rebuilt enabling the park of the basilicas to be created. In 1934 in place of the houses a sort of a courtyard was formed. The building had a central plan approached by a four-sided portico, access to the portico was through a colonnade which in turn gave access to three portals leading to the main body of the building.
This consisted of a square hall inscribed as a building with four apses, around this space ran the ambulatory surmounted by a space used as a womens gallery. Towers rose at the four corners of the square building, the whole was topped by a dome of which we know little, this having been lost. The interior was lit by windows, and probably decorated with marble in the lower parts and with mosaics in the vaults. Of the two buildings, the smaller was in the east, opposite the entrance, a chapel in the shape of a Greek cross, on octagonal
Sara Scuderi was an Italian opera singer. She sang widely in Italy and Europe, having had a contract at La Scala. Born in Catania, Scuderi made her debut at the Teatro Lirico Coccia in Novara playing Leonora in Il Trovatore. Her interpretations of Tosca are particularly celebrated, with the 1937 production at the Terme di Caracalla, with Benjamino Gigli, she premiered the operas Il volto della Vergine and Giulio Cesare. Scuderi sang in the most important theatres of the day, both in Italy and abroad, particularly in Amsterdam, where she signed a contract and was a major star. She toured several times with La Scala to Brazil and Argentina and she retired from the stage at the end of the 1940s. For the latter part of her life, she lived at the Casa di Riposo per Musicisti, film director Daniel Schmid used Scuderi as a central character in his capture of the essence of the retirement home for these former glories in his Il Bacio di Tosca, in 1984. Scuderi died three years later, in 1987, Lanfranco The Last Prima Donnas, Alfred A
Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi was an Italian opera composer. Verdi was born near Busseto to a family of moderate means. Verdi came to dominate the Italian opera scene after the era of Bellini and Rossini, whose works influenced him. In his early operas Verdi demonstrated a sympathy with the Risorgimento movement which sought the unification of Italy and he participated briefly as an elected politician. He surprised the world by returning, after his success with the opera Aida. The baptismal register, prepared on 11 October 1813, lists his parents Carlo, additionally, it lists Verdi as being born yesterday, but since days were often considered to begin at sunset, this could have meant either 9 or 10 October. Verdi himself, following his mother, always celebrated his birthday on 9 October, Verdi had a younger sister, who died aged 17 in 1833. From the age of four, Verdi was given lessons in Latin and Italian by the village schoolmaster, Baistrocchi. After learning to play the organ, he showed so much interest in music that his parents provided him with a spinet.
Verdis gift for music was apparent by 1820–21 when he began his association with the local church, serving in the choir, acting as an altar boy for a while. After Baistrocchis death, Verdi, at the age of eight, Carlo Verdi was energetic in furthering his sons education. something which Verdi tended to hide in life. He picture emerges of youthful precocity eagerly nurtured by a father and of a sustained, sophisticated. Verdi returned to Busseto regularly to play the organ on Sundays, at age 11, Verdi received schooling in Italian, the humanities, and rhetoric. By the time he was 12, he began lessons with Ferdinando Provesi, maestro di cappella at San Bartolomeo, director of the music school. This information comes from the Autobiographical Sketch which Verdi dictated to the publisher Giulio Ricordi late in life, in 1879, understandably, with the benefit of hindsight, it is not always reliable when dealing with issues more contentious than those of his childhood. The other director of the Philharmonic Society was Antonio Barezzi, a grocer and distiller.
The young Verdi did not immediately become involved with the Philharmonic, by June 1827, he had graduated with honours from the Ginnasio and was able to focus solely on music under Provesi. By 1829–30, Verdi had established himself as a leader of the Philharmonic, none of us could rival him reported the secretary of the organisation, Giuseppe Demaldè