2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census, is the twenty-third and currently most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the day used for the census, was April 1,2010. As part of a drive to increase the accuracy,635,000 temporary enumerators were hired. The population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed, participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25,2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves personally inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, more than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15,2010, the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was approximately 134 million on April 1,2010. The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%, from April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called non-response follow-up.
In December 2010, the Census Bureau delivered population information to the president for apportionment, personally identifiable information will be available in 2082. The Census Bureau did not use a form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, the 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions, How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1,2010. Were there any additional people staying here on April 1,2010 that you did not include in Question 1, mark all that apply, Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number. What is Person 1s age and Person 1s date of birth, is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin. Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else, the form included space to repeat some or all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey.
The survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years. A small percentage of the population on a basis will receive the survey each year. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced that it would count same-sex married couples, the final form did not contain a separate same-sex married couple option
Mountain Time Zone
The clock time in this zone is based on the mean solar time at the 105th meridian west of the Greenwich Observatory. In the United States, the specification for the location of time zones. In the United States and Canada, this zone is generically called Mountain Time. Specifically, it is Mountain Standard Time when observing standard time, the term refers to the fact that the Rocky Mountains, which range from northwestern Canada to the US state of New Mexico, are located almost entirely in the time zone. In Mexico, this zone is known as the Pacific Zone. In the United States and Canada, the Mountain Time Zone is one ahead of the Pacific Time Zone and one hour behind the Central Time Zone. Sonora in Mexico and most of Arizona in the United States do not observe daylight saving time, and during the spring and autumn months they are on the same time as Pacific Daylight Time. The Navajo Nation, most of which lies within Arizona, does observe DST, although the Hopi Nation, as well as some Arizona state offices lying within the Navajo Nation, the largest city in the Mountain Time Zone is Phoenix, Arizona.
TV broadcasting in the Mountain Time Zone is typically tape-delayed one hour, sonora – no daylight saving time, always on MST. Sinaloa Revillagigedo Islands, three of the four islands have the time as Mountain Time Zone, Isla Socorro, San Benedicto Island. The following states or areas are part of the Mountain Time Zone, Arizona – no daylight saving time, always on MST, except on the Navajo Nation. Colorado Idaho – southern half, south of the Salmon River Kansas – only the counties of Sherman, Wallace and Hamilton, the remaining three counties that border Colorado, Cheyenne and Stanton, observe Central Time, as do all other Kansas counties. However, the state of Oklahoma is officially in the Central Time Zone. Additionally, northwestern Culberson County, Texas unofficially observes Mountain Time
El Paso County, Colorado
El Paso County is one of the 64 counties of the U. S. state of Colorado. The 2014 Census recorded a population of 663,519 for El Paso County, the Census Bureaus 2014 estimate indicates it is the second most populous county in Colorado, after the City and County of Denver. The county seat is Colorado Springs, the second most populous city in Colorado, El Paso County is included in the Colorado Springs, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area. El Paso County is located in Colorados 5th congressional district, the Democratic Party won El Paso County four additional times prior, and the Populist Party won in 1892, with General James B. Together with state funding for COSMIX and the I-25 interchange with Highway 16, in 2010 and 2014 the county voted pro-marijuana. In July 1858, gold was discovered along the South Platte River in Arapahoe County and this discovery precipitated the Pikes Peak Gold Rush. Many residents of the region felt disconnected from the remote territorial governments of Kansas and Nebraska.
The following month, the Jefferson Territorial Legislature organized 12 counties for the new territory including El Paso County, El Paso County was named for the Spanish language name for Ute Pass north of Pikes Peak. Colorado City served as the county seat of El Paso County, the Jefferson Territory never received federal sanction, but on February 28,1861, U. S. President James Buchanan signed an act organizing the Territory of Colorado. El Paso County was one of the original 17 counties created by the Colorado legislature on November 1,1861, part of its western territory was broken off to create Teller County in 1899. Originally based in Old Colorado City, El Paso Countys county seat was moved to Colorado Springs in 1873. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 2,130 square miles. Douglas County - north Elbert County - northeast Lincoln County - east Crowley County - southeast Pueblo County - south Fremont County - west Teller County - west Interstate 25 U. S. Highway 24 U. S, the population density was 243 people per square mile.
There were 202,428 housing units at a density of 95 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 81. 19% White,6. 51% Black or African American,0. 91% Native American,2. 53% Asian,0. 24% Pacific Islander,4. 70% from other races, and 3. 91% from two or more races. 11. 30% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,23. 90% of all households were made up of individuals and 6. 10% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the family size was 3.11. In the county, the population was out with 27. 60% under the age of 18,10. 50% from 18 to 24,32. 50% from 25 to 44,20. 70% from 45 to 64
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its resources. The organization has four science disciplines, concerning biology, geology. The USGS is a research organization with no regulatory responsibility. The USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior, the USGS employs approximately 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia. The USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, the current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is science for a changing world. The agencys previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its anniversary, was Earth Science in the Public Service. Prompted by a report from the National Academy of Sciences, the USGS was created, by a last-minute amendment and it was charged with the classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.
This task was driven by the need to inventory the vast lands added to the United States by the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the legislation provided that the Hayden and Wheeler surveys be discontinued as of June 30,1879. Clarence King, the first director of USGS, assembled the new organization from disparate regional survey agencies, after a short tenure, King was succeeded in the directors chair by John Wesley Powell. Administratively, it is divided into a Headquarters unit and six Regional Units, Other specific programs include, Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide. The National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location, the USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System. The USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, and it maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research.
It conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards, USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time, the USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online, since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. USGS operates a number of related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program. USGS Water data is available from their National Water Information System database
ZIP Codes are a system of postal codes used by the United States Postal Service since 1963. The term ZIP, an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan, was chosen to suggest that the travels more efficiently, and therefore more quickly. The basic format consists of five numerical digits, an extended ZIP+4 code, introduced in 1983, includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, a hyphen, and four additional digits that determine a more specific location within a given ZIP Code. The term ZIP Code was originally registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, USPS style for ZIP is all caps and the c in code is capitalized, although style sheets for some publications use sentence case or lowercase. The early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers, the United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example, Mr. John Smith 3256 Epiphenomenal Avenue Minneapolis 16, by the early 1960s a more organized system was needed, and on July 1,1963, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide.
Three months later, on October 1,1963, the U. S, an earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with one exception, according to the historian of the U. S. Robert Moon, an employee of the post office, is considered the father of the ZIP Code, he submitted his proposal in 1944 while working as a postal inspector. The post office gives credit to Moon only for the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or sec center, an SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes, the mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight.
The United States Post Office used a character, which it called Mr. ZIP. He was often depicted with a such as USE ZIP CODE in the selvage of panes of stamps or on labels contained in, or the covers of. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4, often called plus-four codes, add-on codes, or add ons. But initial attempts to promote use of the new format met with public resistance. For Post Office Boxes, the rule is that each box has its own ZIP+4 code. However, there is no rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box. It is common to use add-on code 9998 for mail addressed to the postmaster,9999 for general delivery, for a unique ZIP Code, the add-on code is typically 0001
Cascade is an unincorporated community and U. S. Post Office in El Paso County, United States, the ZIP Code of the Cascade Post Office is 80809. It was a town, with 3 hotels, from the 1880s to the 1920s. Tourists traveled through Ute Pass on the Colorado Midland Railway, experiencing scenic views of Cascade canon, Carriage tours brought tourists up Pikes Pike to its summit. Tourism fell when the Manitou and Pikes Peak Cog Railway opened in 1892, when visitors traveled by automobiles, beginning in the 1920s, they had different needs and came in smaller numbers than the previous decades. The Ute Pass region could no longer support large hotels and 2 of the 3 hotels in town were demolished by 1926, Eastholme, a small inn, has been foreclosed and is currently for sale. The Pikes Peak Highway entrance is at Cascade, Cascade remains a tourist destination, with visitors staying in inns and breakfasts, cottages and guest houses. Eliza Marriott Hewlett, the oldest of three sisters, left the state of New York for Colorado in the 1880s, and brought her two children with her to Cascade before it was a town, who extolled the beauties of the Pikes Peak region.
Most of Cascade Canyon was homesteaded by the sisters, others came to the area for their health or to establish ranches. In the 1880s, there were people in the Cascade Canyon area that ran businesses delivering supplies via mule trains to the Leadville and Cripple Creek mining towns. After 1887, the Colorado Midland Railway provided service from Old Colorado City, Colorado City, a railroad depot, dining hall and water tank were established in Cascade by the railway in 1888. Cascade canon and its falls were described in 1914, The canon and falls are rare in beauty, the canon is about three-quarters of a mile long and very deep, its floor and sides are covered with an exceptionally luxuriant growth of trees and flowers. This exceptional vegetation is produced by the flow of Cascade creek through the canon and the mist and spray from its falls. Some of these falls are as much as 30 feet in height, the volume of water is the greatest during the summer season. It comes from the snows on the north slope of Pikes Peak.
Thousands of tourists traveled along the Pikes Peak Carriage Road, known as the Pikes Peak Wagon Road, passengers were picked up at a railway stop by awaiting carriages and taken to the summit of Pikes Peak. It was opened by the Cascade Town Company in 1888 and closed in 1902, the carriage road company went bankrupt following the success of the Manitou and Pikes Peak Cog Railway that opened in 1892. The Cascade Town and Improvement Company was founded and, with Eliza Hewlett and it purchased land from the Marriott-Hewlett sisters in 1886, shortly thereafter platted the villages roads
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in the United States, Romania, China, in the United Kingdom and Ireland, county towns have a similar function. In the United States, counties are the subdivisions of a state. Depending on the state, counties may provide services to the public, impose taxes. Some types of subdivisions, such as townships, may be incorporated or unincorporated. The city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county, a county seat is usually, but not always, an incorporated municipality. The exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, likewise, some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, in some of the colonial states, county seats include or formerly included Court House as part of their name.
Most counties have only one county seat, an example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats. The practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days when travel was difficult, there have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states, Coffee County, for example, the official county seat is Greensboro, but an additional courthouse has been located in nearby High Point since 1938. For example, Clearwater is the county seat of Pinellas County, Florida, in New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government. Historically, counties in this region have served mainly as dividing lines for the judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of government and thus no county seats, in Vermont and Maine the county seats are legally designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the shire town.
Bennington County has two towns, but the Sheriff is located in Bennington. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town governments. As such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county
A city is a large and permanent human settlement. Cities generally have complex systems for sanitation, land usage, housing, a big city or metropolis usually has associated suburbs and exurbs. Such cities are associated with metropolitan areas and urban areas. Once a city expands far enough to another city, this region can be deemed a conurbation or megalopolis. Damascus is arguably the oldest city in the world, in terms of population, the largest city proper is Shanghai, while the fastest-growing is Dubai. There is not enough evidence to assert what conditions gave rise to the first cities, some theorists have speculated on what they consider suitable pre-conditions and basic mechanisms that might have been important driving forces. The conventional view holds that cities first formed after the Neolithic revolution, the Neolithic revolution brought agriculture, which made denser human populations possible, thereby supporting city development. The advent of farming encouraged hunter-gatherers to abandon nomadic lifestyles and to settle near others who lived by agricultural production, the increased population density encouraged by farming and the increased output of food per unit of land created conditions that seem more suitable for city-like activities.
In his book and Economic Development, Paul Bairoch takes up position in his argument that agricultural activity appears necessary before true cities can form. According to Vere Gordon Childe, for a settlement to qualify as a city, it must have enough surplus of raw materials to support trade and a relatively large population. To illustrate this point, Bairoch offers an example, Western Europe during the pre-Neolithic, when the cost of transport is taken into account, the figure rises to 200,000 square kilometres. Bairoch noted that this is roughly the size of Great Britain, the urban theorist Jane Jacobs suggests that city formation preceded the birth of agriculture, but this view is not widely accepted. In his book City Economics, Brendan OFlaherty asserts Cities could persist—as they have for thousands of years—only if their advantages offset the disadvantages, OFlaherty illustrates two similar attracting advantages known as increasing returns to scale and economies of scale, which are concepts usually associated with businesses.
Their applications are seen in more basic economic systems as well, increasing returns to scale occurs when doubling all inputs more than doubles the output an activity has economies of scale if doubling output less than doubles cost. To offer an example of these concepts, OFlaherty makes use of one of the oldest reasons why cities were built, in this example, the inputs are anything that would be used for protection and the output is the area protected and everything of value contained in it. OFlaherty asks that we suppose the protected area is square, the advantage is expressed as, O = s 2, where O is the output and s stands for the length of a side. This equation shows that output is proportional to the square of the length of a side, the inputs depend on the length of the perimeter, I =4 s, where I stands for the quantity of inputs. So there are increasing returns to scale, O = I2 /16 and this equation shows that with twice the inputs, you produce quadruple the output
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Colorado Springs metropolitan area
The Census Bureau estimates that the population was 668,353 in 2012, a 3. 52% increase since the 2010 United States Census. The Colorado Springs MSA is the 79th most populous MSA in the United States, the Colorado Springs MSA encompasses El Paso County and Teller County, Colorado. Approximately 88. 40% percent of the MSAs population live in cities or CDPs, the Colorado Springs Metropolitan Statistical Area is the second most populous component of the Front Range Urban Corridor
Colorado metropolitan areas
The United States Office of Management and Budget has defined one Combined Statistical Area, seven Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and seven Micropolitan Statistical Areas in the State of Colorado. At the 2010 United States Census,91. 86% of Coloradans lived in one of these areas, in addition to the U. S. Census Bureau defined areas above, there are several other defined regions of urban population in Colorado. The four-county Denver Core Metropolitan Area dates from the creation of the City and County of Denver in 1902, the six-county Denver Central Metropolitan Area includes Douglas County and the City and County of Broomfield. The nine-county Denver Region of the Denver Regional Council of Governments includes Boulder County, Clear Creek County, the 13-county North Central Colorado Urban Area comprises the four contiguous Metropolitan Statistical Areas of north central Colorado. The 18-county Front Range Urban Corridor comprises the eight contiguous Core Based Statistical Areas from Cheyenne to Pueblo, the Front Range Urban Corridor encompasses the 13-county North Central Colorado Urban Area, the four-county South Central Colorado Urban Area, and Laramie County, Wyoming
Pikes Peak is the highest summit of the southern Front Range of the Rocky Mountains, in North America. The ultra-prominent 14, 115-foot fourteener is located in Pike National Forest,12.0 miles west by south of downtown Colorado Springs, the mountain is named in honor of American explorer Zebulon Pike, who was unable to reach the summit. The summit is higher than any point in the United States east of its longitude, Pikes Peak is one of Colorados 53 fourteeners, mountains more than 14,000 feet above sea level. The mountain rises 8,000 ft above downtown Colorado Springs, Pikes Peak is a designated National Historic Landmark. Tava or “sun, ” is the Ute word that was given by these first people to the mountain that we now call Pikes Peak, the band of Ute people who called the Pikes Peak region their home were the Tabeguache, meaning the People of Sun Mountain. The Ute people first arrived in Colorado about 500 A. D. although their traditions say they were created on Pikes Peak, in the 1800s, when the Arapaho people arrived in Colorado, they knew the mountain as Heey-otoyoo’ meaning Long Mountain.
Early Spanish explorers named the mountain El Capitán meaning The Leader, American explorer Zebulon Pike named the mountain Highest Peak in 1806, and the mountain was commonly known as Pikes Highest Peak. American explorer Stephen Harriman Long named the mountain James Peak in honor of Edwin James who climbed to the summit in 1820, the mountain was renamed Pikes Peak in honor of Pike. The name was simplified to Pikes Peak by the United States Board on Geographic Names in 1890, Pikes Peak is composed of a characteristic pink granite called Pikes Peak granite. The color is due to an amount of potassium feldspar. Through the process of uplifting, the hardened rock pushed through the Earths crust and created a dome-like mountain, years of erosion and weathering removed the soil and rock leaving the exposed mountain. Soils on Pikes Peak are classified as Cirque Land above timberline, the first Europeans to discover Pikes Peak were the Spanish in the 1700s. The first American sighting is credited to members of the Pike expedition.
After a failed attempt to climb to the top in November 1806, Pike wrote in his journal. here we found the snow middle deep, the thermometer which stood at 9° above 0 at the foot of the mountain, here fell to 4° below 0. The first European-American to climb the peak came 14 years after Pike, Edwin James, a young student who had just graduated from Middlebury College in Vermont, signed on as the relief botanist for Stephen Harriman Longs expedition after the first botanist had died. The expedition explored the South Platte River up as far as present-day Denver, turned south and two other men left the expedition, camped on the plains, and climbed the peak in two days, encountering little difficulty. Along the way, James was the first to describe the blue columbine, Gold was discovered in the area of present-day Denver in 1858, and newspapers referred to the gold-mining area as Pikes Peak. Pikes Peak or Bust became the slogan of the Colorado Gold Rush and this was more due to Pikes Peaks visibility to gold seekers traveling west across the plains than any actual significant gold find anywhere near Pikes Peak