Cascading Style Sheets

Cascading Style Sheets is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language like HTML. CSS is a cornerstone technology of the World Wide Web, alongside JavaScript. CSS is designed to enable the separation of presentation and content, including layout and fonts; this separation can improve content accessibility, provide more flexibility and control in the specification of presentation characteristics, enable multiple web pages to share formatting by specifying the relevant CSS in a separate.css file, reduce complexity and repetition in the structural content. Separation of formatting and content makes it feasible to present the same markup page in different styles for different rendering methods, such as on-screen, in print, by voice, on Braille-based tactile devices. CSS has rules for alternate formatting if the content is accessed on a mobile device; the name cascading comes from the specified priority scheme to determine which style rule applies if more than one rule matches a particular element.

This cascading priority scheme is predictable. The CSS specifications are maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium. Internet media type text/css is registered for use with CSS by RFC 2318; the W3C operates a free CSS validation service for CSS documents. In addition to HTML, other markup languages support the use of CSS including XHTML, plain XML, SVG, XUL. CSS has a simple syntax and uses a number of English keywords to specify the names of various style properties. A style sheet consists of a list of rules; each rule or rule-set consists of one or more selectors, a declaration block. In CSS, selectors declare which part of the markup a style applies to by matching tags and attributes in the markup itself. Selectors may apply to the following: all elements of a specific type, e.g. the second-level headers h2 elements specified by attribute, in particular: id: an identifier unique within the document class: an identifier that can annotate multiple elements in a document elements depending on how they are placed relative to others in the document tree.

Classes and IDs are case-sensitive, start with letters, can include alphanumeric characters and underscores. A class may apply to any number of instances of any elements. An ID may only be applied to a single element. Pseudo-classes are used in CSS selectors to permit formatting based on information, not contained in the document tree. One example of a used pseudo-class is:hover, which identifies content only when the user "points to" the visible element by holding the mouse cursor over it, it is #elementid: hover. A pseudo-class classifies document elements, such as:link or:visited, whereas a pseudo-element makes a selection that may consist of partial elements, such as::first-line or::first-letter. Selectors may be combined in many ways to achieve great flexibility. Multiple selectors may be joined in a spaced list to specify elements by location, element type, id, class, or any combination thereof; the order of the selectors is important. For example, div.myClass applies to all elements of class myClass that are inside div elements, whereas.myClass div applies to all div elements that are in elements of class myClass.

The following table provides a summary of selector syntax indicating usage and the version of CSS that introduced it. A declaration block consists of a list of declarations in braces; each declaration itself consists of a property, a colon, a value. If there are multiple declarations in a block, a semi-colon must be inserted to separate each declaration. Properties are specified in the CSS standard; each property has a set of possible values. Some properties can affect any type of element, others apply only to particular groups of elements. Values may be keywords, such as "center" or "inherit", or numerical values, such as 200px, 50vw or 80%. Color values can be specified with keywords, hexadecimal values, RGB values on a 0 to 255 scale, RGBA values that specify both color and alpha transparency, or HSL or HSLA values. Non-zero numeric values representing linear measures must include a length unit, either an alphabetic code or abbreviation, as in 200px or 50vw; some units – cm. These eight units retained in all subsequent revisions.

The proposed CSS Values and Units Module Level 3 will, if adopted as a W3C Recommendation, provide seven further length units: ch. Before CSS, nearly all presentational attributes of HTML documents were contained within the HTML markup. All font colors, background styles, element alignments and sizes had to be explicitly described repeatedly, within the HTML. CSS lets authors move much of that information to another file, the style sheet, resulting in simpler HTML. For example, sub-headings, sub-sub-headings, etc. are defined structurally using HTML. In print and on the screen, choice of font, size and emphasis for these elements is presentational. Be


Singsaker is a neighbourhood in the city of Trondheim in Trøndelag county, Norway. It is located north of the neighborhood of Moholt, east of Gløshaugen, west of Tyholt and Rosenborg, south of Bakklandet, in the borough of Midtbyen; the area consists completely of residential villa housing, despite being quite close to the city center of Trondheim. The neighbourhood is regarded as one of the most affluent in the city, although its close proximity to the Norwegian University of Science and Technology makes it a popular place for student housing, including Singsaker Studenterhjem. Between 1927 and 1968, Singsakerlinjen tram line went from the city center to Singsaker, extending onward to Rosenborg

Freedom Shop

The Freedom Shop is the name of an anarchist infoshop which distributes books and information, based in Wellington, New Zealand. It operates on a non profit basis; the shop has been based in different locations and sells books on anarchism, indigenous rights, ecology and a range of activist issues. It carries patches, badges and music; the Freedom Shop was established on May 1, 1995. It was based on upper Cuba Street in Te Aro, in a building occupied by the NORML shop. To begin with, NORML continued to pay the rent; the shop was run by volunteers and any profits were ploughed back into the venture. The shop sold books, pamphlets, leaflets, T-shirts, patches and stickers. In the 2000s, plans for the construction of the Wellington Inner City Bypass meant that the Freedom Shop would be evicted. However, the plans were bitterly contested; when security guards employed by Transit NZ broke into the shop and changed the locks, 50 activists broke in and re-opened it. The Freedom Shop moved into a more prominent location in the Cake Shop.

When the Cake Shop closed in 2005, the Freedom Shop relocated to Oblong in Te Aro's left bank arcade. Oblong closed in early 2009, The Freedom Shop reverted to running stalls at public events. However, for the last few years the Freedom Shop has a home in a corner of the Newtown Opportunity for Animals Co-op Shop in Riddiford St, Wellington. In 2014, the collective published the first issue of a periodical called AARGH! as the Aoteroa Anarchist Review. Issue ten was published in April 2019; the collective maintains close links with Aotearoa Indymedia and local radical groups such as the 128 Community Centre. The Freedom Shop Newtown Opportunity for Animals Aotearoa Indymedia