Cascais is a coastal town and a municipality in Portugal,30 kilometres west of Lisbon. It is a suburb of the Portuguese capital and one of the richest municipalities in Portugal. The population in 2011 was 206,479, in an area of 97.40 square kilometres, the former fishing village gained fame as a resort for Portugals royal family in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Nowadays, it is a vacation spot for both Portuguese and foreign tourists. It is located on the Estoril Coast, in the Greater Lisbon subregion and it has an airport for general aviation serving the Lisbon Region in Tires, the Cascais Aerodrome, that also offers domestic scheduled flights by Aero VIP. It was during the Neolithic that permanent settlements were established in the region, their inhabitants utilizing the natural grottoes, the bodies were buried along with offerings, a practice that continued to the Chalcolithic. Roman dominion over the territory also influenced place names in the region, as was the case with the word Caparide, the development of Cascais began in earnest in the 12th century, when it was administratively subordinate to the town of Sintra, located to the north. In its humble beginnings, Cascais depended on the products of the sea and land, during the 14th century, the population spread outside the walls of its fortress castle. The settlements prosperity led to its independence from Sintra in 1364. On 7 June 1364, the people of Cascais obtained from King Peter I the elevation of the village to the status of town, necessitating the appointment of local judges and administrators. The townspeople were consequently obligated to pay the Crown 200 pounds of gold annually, owing to the regions wealth, these obligations were easily satisfied. The castle of Cascais was likely constructed during this period, since by 1370, King Ferdinand had donated the castle and these privileges were then passed on to his successors, among them João das Regras and the Counts of Monsanto, and later the Marquess of Cascais. Meanwhile, despite its conquest and sack by Castilian forces in 1373, by the end of the 14th century this resulted in the creation of the parishes of Santa Maria de Cascais, São Vicente de Alcabideche and São Domingos de Rana. From the Middle Ages onward, Cascais depended on fishing, maritime commerce, and agriculture producing wine, olive oil, cereals, due to its location at the mouth of the Tagus estuary, it was also seen as a strategic post in the defence of Lisbon. Around 1488, King John II built a fortress in the town. On 15 November 1514, Manuel I conceded a foral to Cascais and it was followed on 11 June 1551 by a license from King John III to institutionalise the Santa Casa da Misericórdia de Cascais. The fortress was enlarged towards the end of the 16th century by King Philip I, turning it into a typical Renaissance citadel with the flat profile. Of these structures, the citadel of Cascais, which was constructed alongside the fortress of Nossa Senhora da Luz, in 1755, the great Lisbon earthquake destroyed a large portion of the city
Clouds reflected off the sunset in the Bay of Cascais, with the city of Cascais
A 1572 sketch of the coastal profile of Cascais
Praia da Rainha, a beach in the centre of Cascais.
The Farol de Santa Marta and the Casa de Santa Maria.