Liechtenstein the Principality of Liechtenstein, is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Alpine Central Europe. The principality is a constitutional monarchy headed by the Prince of Liechtenstein. Liechtenstein is bordered by Switzerland to Austria to the east and north, it is Europe's fourth-smallest country, with an area of just over 160 square kilometres and a population of 37,877. Divided into 11 municipalities, its capital is Vaduz, its largest municipality is Schaan, it is the smallest country to border two countries. Economically, Liechtenstein has one of the highest gross domestic products per person in the world when adjusted for purchasing power parity, it was once known as a billionaire tax haven, but is no longer on any blacklists of uncooperative tax haven countries. An Alpine country, Liechtenstein is mountainous, making it a winter sport destination; the country has a strong financial sector centered in Vaduz. 20,000 people commute to work in Liechtenstein. Liechtenstein is a member of the United Nations, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, although not a member of the European Union, it participates in both the Schengen Area and the European Economic Area.
It has a customs union and a monetary union with Switzerland. The oldest traces of human existence in what is now Liechtenstein date back to the Middle Paleolithic era. Neolithic farming settlements were founded in the valleys around 5300 BCE; the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures flourished during the late Iron Age, from around 450 BCE—possibly under some influence of both the Greek and Etruscan civilisations. One of the most important tribal groups in the Alpine region were the Helvetii. In 58 BCE, at the Battle of Bibracte, Julius Caesar defeated the Alpine tribes, therefore bringing the region under close control of the Roman Republic. By 15 BCE, Tiberius—destined to be the second Roman emperor—with his brother, conquered the entirety of the Alpine area. Liechtenstein was integrated into the Roman province of Raetia; the area was maintained by the Roman military, who maintained large legionary camps at Brigantium, near Lake Constance, at Magia. A Roman road which ran through the territory was created and maintained by these groups.
In 259/60 Brigantium was destroyed by the Alemanni, a Germanic people who settled in the area in around 450 CE. In the Early Middle Ages, the Alemanni settled the eastern Swiss plateau by the 5th century and the valleys of the Alps by the end of the 8th century, with Liechtenstein located at the eastern edge of Alemannia. In the 6th century, the entire region became part of the Frankish Empire following Clovis I's victory over the Alemanni at Tolbiac in 504; the area that became Liechtenstein remained under Frankish hegemony, until the empire was divided by the Treaty of Verdun in 843 CE, following the death of Charlemagne. The territory of present-day Liechtenstein was under the possession of East Francia, it would be reunified with Middle Francia under the Holy Roman Empire, around 1000 CE. Until about 1100, the predominant language of the area was Romansch, but thereafter German began to gain ground in the territory. In 1300, an Alemannic population—the Walsers, who originated in Valais—entered the region and settled.
The mountain village of Triesenberg still preserves features of Walser dialect into the present century. By 1200, dominions across the Alpine plateau were controlled by the Houses of Savoy, Zähringer and Kyburg. Other regions were accorded the Imperial immediacy that granted the empire direct control over the mountain passes; when the Kyburg dynasty fell in 1264, the Habsburgs under King Rudolph I extended their territory to the eastern Alpine plateau that included the territory of Liechtenstein. This region was enfeoffed to the Counts of Hohenems until the sale to the Liechtenstein dynasty in 1699. In 1396 Vaduz gained imperial immediacy; the family, from which the principality takes its name came from Liechtenstein Castle in Lower Austria which they had possessed from at least 1140 until the 13th century. The Liechtensteins acquired land, predominantly in Moravia, Lower Austria and Styria; as these territories were all held in feudal tenure from more senior feudal lords various branches of the Habsburgs, the Liechtenstein dynasty was unable to meet a primary requirement to qualify for a seat in the Imperial diet, the Reichstag.
Though several Liechtenstein princes served several Habsburg rulers as close advisers, without any territory held directly from the Imperial throne, they held little power in the Holy Roman Empire. For this reason, the family sought to acquire lands that would be classed as unmittelbar or held without any intermediate feudal tenure, directly from the Holy Roman Emperor. During the early 17th century Karl I of Liechtenstein was made a Fürst by the Holy Roman Emperor Matthias after siding with him in a political battle. Hans-Adam I was allowed to purchase the minuscule Herrschaft of Schellenberg and county of Vaduz from the Hohenems. Tiny Schellenberg and Vaduz had the political status required: no feudal lord other than their comital sovereign and the suzerain Emperor. On 23 January 1719, after the lands had been purchased, Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, decreed that Vaduz and Schellenberg were united and elevated the newly formed terri
Guadix is a city in southern Spain, in the province of Granada, on the left bank of the river Guadix, a sub-tributary of the Guadiana Menor, on the Madrid-Valdepeñas-Almería railway. It occupies part of an elevated plateau among the northern foothills of the Sierra Nevada; the city was once famous for its cutlery. It has some trade in wool, flax and liqueurs; the warm mineral springs of Cortes y Graena, much frequented during the summer, are 6 miles west. Guadix el Viejo, 6 km northwest, was the Roman Acci mentioned in Pliny's Natural History and as Akki by Ptolemy, who placed it among the Bastetani, whose capital was Basti, it is not known for certain whether it is of early Spanish origin. According to Macrobius, the primitive inhabitants paid homage to Mars under the name of Neton. Julius Caesar established. According to tradition, it was the seat of the first bishopric in Hispania, in the 2nd century. After 711 it rose to some importance as renamed Wadi'Ashi. During this period, Guadix was home to Ḥamda bint Ziyād, one of medieval Andalucia's foremost women poets.
Guadix was the site of the Battle of Guadix in January 1362 in which a small Castilian army was routed by the forces of Muhammed VI, Sultan of Granada. It was surrendered without a siege to the Spaniards, under Ferdinand and Isabella, in 1489; the novelist Pedro Antonio de Alarcon, author of El sombrero de tres picos, was born in Guadix in 1833. The 19th and 20th centuries saw a period of economical crisis for the town. Guadix is a center of production of fruit, vegetables, as well as a minor tourist center. Guadix Cathedral, built over a Moorish mosque in Gothic-Renaissance style; the façade is in Baroque style. Church of St. Augustine, Church of Santiago, with a Plateresque portal Convent and church of the Conception Alcazaba, a Moorish fortress commanding the town Barrio de Santiago, a neighborhood characterized by troglodyte houses carved in tuff rocks. Guadix is twinned with: Buenos Aires, Argentina Celanova, Spain Guanare, Venezuela La Güera, Western Sahara Piaseczno, Poland Roman Catholic Diocese of Guadix Cascamorras Circuito Guadix This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed..
"article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. Ayuntamiento de Guadix Cartography and aerial pictures of Guadix and Surroundings
Fiestas of National Tourist Interest of Spain
The category of Fiesta of National Tourist Interest in Spain is an honorary designation given to festivals or events held in Spain and that offer real interest from the tourism perspective. The Brotherhood of the Black Christ of Cáceres From 1 to 6: Fiestas Mayores de Almansa.www.agrupaciondecomparsas.com First Sunday of Pentecost, La Caballada of Atienza. First Sunday of May, Fiestas Aracelitanas. Lucena. Http://www.virgendearaceli.com First Sunday of May, Pilgrimage of San Benito Abad. El Cerro de Andévalo http://www.sanbenitoelcerro.com First weekend of May: Day of the Almadía. Burgi. Http://www.almadiasdenavarra.com First week of May: Fiesta de las Cruces, Córdoba. Fiesta of the first Friday of May, in Jaca. 1-2. Romería de Nuestra Señora de la Estrella. Navas de San Juan. Fiestas de la Santa Cruz. Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Fiestas de la Santísima Vera Cruz. Caravaca de la Cruz. Fiesta de la Santa Cruz. Feria. 3 al 14. Festival de los Patios Cordobeses. Córdoba 10-15. Fiestas Patronales de Santo Domingo.
Santo Domingo de la Calzada. 14-18. Fiestas Patronales de Madrid. Madrid. 14-18. Fiestas Hispano-Arabs in honor to Saint Boniface. Petrer. 17. Festa de la Llana. Ripoll. L'aplec del cargol. 31. Pilgrimage of San Isidro Labrador. Realejo Alto. May 31-June 1. Festa Major de Sant Feliu de Pallerols. Last week of May: Feria de Córdoba. Variable date. Feria de Mayo de Dos Hermanas - Seville Second Sunday. Festas de San Antón. Gastronomic Fiesta da Solla, Catoira First Friday; the Coso Blanco. Castro Urdiales. 4-6. A Rapa das Bestas of A Estrada. 4-12. Els Bous a la Mar. Dénia. Fiestas del Cordero. Lena. A Rapa das Bestas of Viveiro. 5-11. International Rafting of the River Noguera-Pallaresa. Sort. 10-12. Festival of the Cider of Nava. Nava. 11. Festas de San Benitiño de Lérez. Pontevedra. 12. Aplec de la Sardana. Olot. 12. Romería Regional de San Benito Abad. San Cristóbal de La Laguna. 16. Fiestas de la Virgen del Carmen. San Pedro del Pinatar. 19-22. Commemorates Fiestas to the Battle of Bailén. Bailén. 20-23. Tortosa Renaissance Festival..
22-23. Dance of the Stilts. Anguiano. 24. Festes Tradicionals de Santa Cristina. Lloret de Mar. 24-30. Fiestas Patronales de Santa Ana. Tudela. 25. Fiesta del Pastor. Cangas de Onís. 26. Fiesta de Los Vaqueiros d'Alzada. Luarca. 1-8. Fiestas of the Wine. Valdepeñas. 3-6. Fiestas of the Mutiny. Aranjuez. 3-8. Feria y Fiestas en Honor a María Santísima de la Sierra Cabra 4-9. Moros y Cristianos of Villena. Villena. 5-6. Fiestas del Santo Niño. Majaelrayo. 6 and 9. The Cascamorras. Baza and Guadix 6. Festes de la Beata. Santa Margalida. 6-10. Moros y Cristianos of Caudete. Caudete. 7-8. Festes de la Mare de Déu de la Salut. Algemesí. 7-8. Moros y Cristianos of L'Olleria. L'Olleria. Around day 8. Feria y Fiestas de Nuestra Señora de Consolación. Utrera. 8. Pilgrimage of Nuestra Señora de Los Ángeles. Alájar. 8. Fiesta de la Virgen de La Guía. Llanes. 8. Fiesta de la Virgen Nuestra Señora de las Nieves. La Zarza 8. Fiestas de Nuestra Señora del Pino. Teror. 8-9. Festes de la Mare de Déu de l'Ermitana. Peñíscola. 9-12. International Festival of Folklore in the Mediterranean.
11-14. Pilgrimage of Virxe da Barca. Muxía. 12-15. Festa Major and Correbou. Cardona. 12-15. Fiestas Patronales de Graus in honor to Santo Cristo and San Vicente Ferrer. Graus. 13. Pilgrimage of Nuestra Señora de Chilla. Candeleda. 13. Pilgrimage to la Virgen de Gracia. San Lorenzo de El Escorial. 14. Bullfighting in the Sea. Candás. 15. Toro de la Vega. Tordesillas. 15-24. Festes de Santa Tecla. Tarragona17-23. Carthaginians and Romans. Cartagena. 17-21. Real Feria y Fiesta de la Vendimia. La Palma del Condado. 19. Day of America in Asturias. Oviedo. 20. Pilgrimage of Santísimo Cristo del Caloco. El Espinar. 18-20. Fiestas de San Mateo of Camarena de la Sierra. 20-26. Fiestas de San Mateo of Logroño. Logroño. 24. La Mercè. Barcelona. 27. Pilgrimage in Honor to the Saints Martyrs Cosmas and Damian. Mieres. 27. Day of Campoo. Reinosa. Festes de la Sagrada Família i el Santíssim Crist. La Vall d'Uixó. First weekend of October, Fiestas de Nuestra Señora de los Prado. Garganta de los Montes. 4-12. Festas de San Froilán, Lugo. 6-13. Festa of the Seafood.
O Grove. Around day 12. Fiestas del Pilar. Zaragoza 10-13. Moros y Cristianos of Callosa d'En Sarrià. Callosa d'En Sarrià. 17-19. As San Lucas. Mondoñedo. Third Sunday of October. Pilgrimage of Valme. Dos Hermanas. Fiesta de los Humanitarios de San Martín. Moreda de Aller. Feria de todos los santos. Cocentaina. Fiestas of International Tourist Interest of Spain BOE - Order of 29 September 1987 regulating the declarations of International and National Tourist Interest Effective through June 8, 2006. Local fiestas of National Tourist Interest of Spain Calendar in iCalendar format
Culture of Germany
German culture has spanned the entire German-speaking world. From its roots, culture in Germany has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular. Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker. There are a number of public holidays in Germany; the country is known for its traditional Oktoberfest celebrations in Munich, its carnival culture and globally influential Christmas customs known as Weihnachten. 3 October has been the national day of Germany since 1990, celebrated as the German Unity Day. The UNESCO inscribed 38 properties in Germany on the World Heritage List. Germany was the world's second most respected nation among 50 countries in 2013. A global opinion poll for the BBC revealed that Germany is recognized for having the most positive influence in the world in 2011, 2013, 2014. German is the predominant spoken language in Germany, it is one of 23 official languages in the European Union, one of the three working languages of the European Commission, along with English and French.
Recognised native minority languages in Germany are Danish, North Frisian and Saterland Frisian. They are protected by the ECRML; the most used immigrant languages are Turkish, Polish, the Balkan languages, Russian. Standard German is a West Germanic language and is related to and classified alongside English and the Frisian languages. To a lesser extent, it is related to the East and North Germanic languages. Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. Significant minorities of words are derived from Latin and Greek, with a smaller amount from French and most English. German is written using the Latin alphabet. In addition to the 26 standard letters, German has three vowels with Umlaut, namely ä, ö, ü, as well as the Eszett or scharfes S, written "ß". German orthography has gone through a series of reforms, the most recent in 1996. German dialects are distinguished from varieties of standard German. German dialects are traditional local varieties and can be traced back to the different German tribes.
Many of them are not understandable to a speaker of standard German, since they differ in lexicon and syntax. Around the world, German has 100 million native speakers and about 80 million non-native speakers. German is the main language of about 90 million people in the EU. 67% of German citizens claim to be able to communicate in at least one foreign language, 27% in at least two languages other than their first. In the German diaspora, aspects of German culture are passed on to younger generations through naming customs and through the use of spoken and written German; the Goethe Institute seeks the spread the knowledge of German culture worldwide. German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages, with the most notable authors of the period being Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach; the Nibelungenlied, whose author remains unknown, is an important work of the epoch, as is the Thidrekssaga. The fairy tales collections collected and published by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm in the 19th century became famous throughout the world.
Theologian Luther, who translated the Bible into German, is credited for having set the basis for the modern "High German" language. Among the most admired German poets and authors are Lessing, Schiller, Hoffmann, Brecht and Schmidt. Nine Germans have won the Nobel Prize in literature: Theodor Mommsen, Paul von Heyse, Gerhart Hauptmann, Thomas Mann, Nelly Sachs, Hermann Hesse, Heinrich Böll, Günter Grass, Herta Müller; the rise of the modern natural sciences and the related decline of religion raised a series of questions, which recur throughout German philosophy, concerning the relationships between knowledge and faith and emotion, scientific and artistic ways of seeing the world. German philosophers have helped shape western philosophy from as early as the Middle Ages. Leibniz and most Kant played central roles in the history of philosophy. Kantianism inspired the work of Schopenhauer and Nietzsche as well as German idealism defended by Fichte and Hegel. Marx and Engels developed communist theory in the second half of the 19th century while Heidegger and Gadamer pursued the tradition of German philosophy in the 20th century.
A number of German intellectuals were influential in sociology, most notably Adorno, Habermas, Luhmann, Simmel, Tönnies, Weber. The University of Berlin founded in 1810 by linguist and philosopher Wilhelm von Humboldt served as an influential model for a number of modern western universities. In the 21st century Germany has been an important country for the development of contemporary analytic philosophy in continental Europe, along with France, Austria and the Scandinavian countries. In the field of music, Germany claims some of the most renowned classical composers of the world, including Bach and Beethoven, who marked the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western classical music. Germans developed many Lutheran chorales and hymns. Other composers of the Austro-German tradition who achieved international fame include Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Wagner, Schubert, Händel, Mendelssohn Bartholdy, Johann Strauss II, Mahler, Richard Strauss, Schoenberg and most Henze and Stockhausen.
Germany is the largest music market in Europe, third largest in the world. It has exerted a strong influence on techno
Culture of Denmark
The culture of Denmark has a rich intellectual and artistic heritage. The astronomical discoveries of Tycho Brahe, Ludwig A. Colding's neglected articulation of the principle of conservation of energy, the foundational contributions to atomic physics of Niels Bohr; the fairy tales of Hans Christian Andersen, the philosophical essays of Søren Kierkegaard, the short stories of Karen Blixen, penname Isak Dinesen, the plays of Ludvig Holberg, modern authors such as Herman Bang and Nobel laureate Henrik Pontoppidan and the dense, aphoristic poetry of Piet Hein, have earned international recognition, as have the symphonies of Carl Nielsen. From the mid-1990s, Danish films have attracted international attention those associated with Dogme 95 like those of Lars Von Trier. Denmark has had a strong tradition of movie making and Carl Theodor Dreyer has been recognised as one of the world's greatest film directors. Culture and the arts thrive as a result of the proportionately high amount of government funding they receive, much of, administered by local authorities so as to involve citizens directly.
Thanks to a system of grants, Danish artists are able to devote themselves to their work while museums and the film institute receive national support. Copenhagen, the capital, is home to many famous sites and attractions, including Tivoli Gardens, Amalienborg Palace, Christiansborg Palace, Copenhagen Cathedral, Rosenborg Castle, Opera House, Frederik's Church, Thorvaldsens Museum, Rundetårn, Nyhavn and The Little Mermaid sculpture. Similar to other Scandinavian cultures, a fundamental aspect of Danish culture is "hygge". Hygge, meaning'snug'. Christmas time is a true moment of hygge, as is grilling a pølse and drinking a beer on a long summer evening, it is suspected the concept of Hygge is part of the reason Danes and other Scandinavians score high on happiness. The Danish word for the Christmas holiday is Jul, from the Old Norse jól, the term for "midwinter", itself cognate with the English word, yule. Midwinter celebrations were an important part of Scandinavian culture since prehistoric times, the term was retained to refer to "Christmas" after Christianization.
In many countries Christmas is celebrated on the 25th of December, but in Denmark, in the other Scandinavian countries, the most important day for celebrations is Christmas Eve on the 24th when the family comes together. The morning can be spent in various ways but most it is the time when preparations are made for the evening. Juleaften or Yule Eve starts around 6 p.m.. The menu is: White and browned potatoes, red cabbage and brown sauce accompanying one or more of: roast duck or goose, a special Danish version of roast pork called flæskesteg complete with crackling or maybe a special sausage called medisterpølse. "White potatoes" are ordinary boiled potatoes without their jackets and "browned potatoes" are caramelised white potatoes. For dessert, Ris à l'amande is served. Made out of rice, it is not to be confused with rice pudding; the chief difference is the whipped cream added to the rice. On serving, chopped almond and vanilla can be added, among other things, it is served cold, with hot cherry sauce.
An unchopped almond can be added and hidden in the dessert. The person who finds it in his portion receives a small prize. Afterwards, the candles on the Christmas tree are lit and the family dance around it singing Christmas songs and carols and subsequently exchange presents. Danish folklore is made up of folk tales, songs, dancing, popular beliefs and traditions communicated by the inhabitants of towns and villages across the country. Many of these were passed on from generation to generation by word of mouth; as in neighbouring countries, interest in folklore grew with an emerging feeling of national consciousness in 19th-century Denmark. Researchers travelled across the country collecting innumerable folktales and sayings while observing traditional dress in the various regions. Folklore today is part of the national heritage, represented in particular by national and local traditions, folk dances and literature. Today's folk dancing in Denmark dates back to the beginning of the 20th century, when there was renewed interest in the national heritage.
A number of groups began to revive the music and costumes of past generations. In 1901, the Society for the Promotion of Danish Folk Dancing was founded in Copenhagen, leading to local dancing societies throughout the country. Today there are more than 12,000 folk dancers in 219 local clubs, providing courses in music and dressmaking; the traditional costumes of Denmark, though varying from region to region, date back to the period between 1750 and 1900 when clothes were home-made from yarn spun from wool or flax. In rural communities, the fabrication of garments for both family members and servants was an important part of everyday life; the artist Frederik Christian Lund, who had travelled across Denmark as a soldier in the First Schleswig War, took an interest in sketching people in local costumes in various parts of the country. He completed his collection of 31 coloured sketches in 1864, p
Culture of Europe
The culture of Europe is rooted in the art, film, different types of music and philosophy that originated from the continent of Europe. European culture is rooted in what is referred to as its "common cultural heritage"; because of the great number of perspectives which can be taken on the subject, it is impossible to form a single, all-embracing conception of European culture. Nonetheless, there are core elements which are agreed upon as forming the cultural foundation of modern Europe. One list of these elements given by K. Bochmann includes: A common cultural and spiritual heritage derived from Greco-Roman antiquity, Judaism, the Renaissance and its Humanism, the political thinking of the Enlightenment, the French Revolution, the developments of Modernity, including all types of socialism. Berting says that these points fit with "Europe's most positive realisations"; the concept of European culture is linked to the classical definition of the Western world. In this definition, Western culture is the set of literary, political and philosophical principles which set it apart from other civilizations.
Much of this set of traditions and knowledge is collected in the Western canon. The term has come to apply to countries whose history has been marked by European immigration or settlement during the 18th and 19th centuries, such as the Americas, Australasia, is not restricted to Europe.. The Nobel Prize laureate in Literature Thomas Stearns Eliot in his 1948 book Notes Towards the Definition of Culture, credited the prominent Christian influence upon the European culture: "It is in Christianity that our arts have developed. Much surviving prehistoric art is small portable sculptures, it includes the oldest known representation of the human body, the Venus of Hohle Fel, dating from 40,000-35,000 BC, found in Schelklingen, Germany. It is part of a small group of female Venus figurines found in Central Europe; the Löwenmensch figurine, from about 30,000 BC, is the oldest undisputed piece of figurative art. The Swimming Reindeer of about 11,000 BCE is among the finest Magdalenian carvings in bone or antler of animals in the art of the Upper Paleolithic.
At the beginning of the Mesolithic in Europe figurative sculpture reduced, remained a less common element in art than relief decoration of practical objects until the Roman period, despite some works such as the Gundestrup cauldron from the European Iron Age and the Bronze Age Trundholm sun chariot. The oldest European cave art dates back 40,800, can be found in the El Castillo Cave in Spain, but cave art exists across the continent. Rock painting was performed on cliff faces, but fewer of those paintings have survived because of erosion. One well-known example is the rock paintings of Astuvansalmi in the Saimaa area of Finland; the Rock art of the Iberian Mediterranean Basin represents a different style, with the human figure the main focus seen in large groups, with battles and hunting all represented, as well as other activities and details such as clothing. The figures are rather sketchily depicted in thin paint, with the relationships between the groups of humans and animals more depicted than individual figures.
The Iberian examples are believed to date from a long period covering the Upper Paleolithic and early Neolithic. Prehistoric Celtic art comes from much of Iron Age Europe and survives in the form of high-status metalwork skillfully decorated with complex and abstract designs using curving and spiral forms. There are human heads and some represented animals, but full-length human figures of any size are so rare that their absence may represent a religious taboo; as the Romans conquered Celtic territories, it entirely vanishes, but the style continued in limited use in the British Isles, with the coming of Christianity revived there in the Insular style of the Early Middle Ages. Minoan art encompassed many media. Pottery was characterized by thin walled vessels, symmetrical shapes, elegant spouts, decorations, dynamic lines. Dark and light values were contrasted in Minoan pottery. Early designs were spontaneous and fluid, with ones becoming more stylized, less naturalistic; the best known example of Minoan sculpture is the Snake Goddess figurine.
The sculpture depicts a goddess or a high priestess holding a snake in both hands, dressed in traditional Minoan attire, cloth covering the whole body and leaving the breasts exposed. Exquisite metal work was a characteristic of the Minoan art. Minoan metal masters worked with imported gold and copper and mastered techniques of wax casting, gilding and granulation. Minoan painting was unique in. Ancient Greek art stands out among that of other ancient cultures for its development of naturalistic but idealized depictions of the human body, in which nude male figures were the focus of innovation; the rate of stylistic develop