Old Abe, a bald eagle, was the mascot of the 8th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiment in the American Civil War. His image was adopted as the eagle appearing on a globe in Case Corporation's logo and as the screaming eagle on the insignia of the U. S. Army's 101st Airborne Division. Old Abe was captured by Ahgamahwegezhig or "Chief Sky", he was the son of Ah-mous, an influential leader of the Lac du Flambeau Ojibwe. In spring of 1861, Chief Sky set up a hunting and fishing camp near the South Fork of the Flambeau River, within the present day Chequamegon National Forest, east of Park Falls, Wisconsin. Here, he noticed a treetop nest, with two fledgling eagles, to capture them, cut down the tree. One eaglet died from the fall, the other became the young Indian's pet; that summer, his father canoed down the Chippewa River on a trading expedition. At Jim Falls, they encountered Daniel McCann, who lived nearby in Eagle Point; the Indians sold the eagle to McCann in exchange for a bushel of corn. In August 1861, John C.
Perkins, assisted by Seth Pierce, Frank McGuire, Thomas G. Butler and Victor Wolf, recruited a company of volunteers from Eau Claire and Chippewa Counties; this company was called the "Eau Claire Badgers". Soon after its formation, McCann offered to sell the eagle to the Badgers, for $2.50. In his "History of Old Abe", published in 1865, Joseph O. Barrett, who helped McCann bring the eagle to Eau Claire, gave a description of the transaction, which can be paraphrased as: "Will you buy my eagle," said McCann, "only two dollars and a half?""Here, let's put in twenty five cents apiece," answered Frank McGuire, who began to collect quarters. He solicited a contribution from a civilian, S. M. Jeffers, but was rebuffed; when the soldiers heard of this, they accosted Jeffers, gave him three lusty groans. When he understood that they were protesting against his reluctance to help buy the eagle, Jeffers laughed, paid for the bird with a Quarter Eagle and presented him to the Company. After that, he had cheers instead of groans.
The quarters were returned to the donors. Captain Perkins named the eagle after President Abraham Lincoln, his quartermaster, Francis L. Billings, made a special perch on which to carry the bird into battle, a young soldier, James McGinnis, volunteered to take care of him. On September 3, 1861, the Badgers embarked, aboard the steamer "Stella Whipple", on a trip down the Chippewa to the Mississippi and up the Wisconsin River to Madison, Wisconsin, they arrived on the 6th and were mustered into service as Company C of the 8th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiment. They became the regimental color company and were given the name "Eagle Company"; the regiment became the "Eagle Regiment". After a few weeks of training at Camp Randall, it began to play an important role in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. On October, 12, the regiment left for St. Louis, where the eagle got loose and flew out of sight. A policeman soon returned him. On the following day, the regiment left by rail to Fredericktown, on October 20, 1861, took part in the battle of Fredericktown.
Subsequently, they were assigned guard duty until March 4, 1862, when they relocated to Point Pleasant, near New Madrid, where they became part of General John Pope's Army of the Mississippi. From this base, during March and April, they participated in the Battle of Island Number Ten, which ended with a major victory that opened the Mississippi to Union forces down to Fort Pillow, just above Memphis. Thousands of Confederate prisoners were taken, along with valuable supplies. In May 1862, the 8th participated in General Henry Halleck's Siege of Corinth, whose objective was to secure a critical rail junction of the Mobile & Ohio and Memphis & Charleston railroads. On May 9, 1862, during the approach to Corinth, the Eagle Company experienced its first serious combat at the Battle of Farmington, during which Old Abe Spread his wings and screamed. Here, Captain Perkins was replaced by the newly promoted Captain Victor Wolf. On May 29, after a skirmish at defensive works before Corinth, the Confederates withdrew during the night.
The next day, the regiment marched into the city. That day, James McGinnis became sick with a fatal illness and was replaced as eagle bearer by Thomas J. Hill, who served until David McLain took over on August 18. On August 22, after being bivouacked in summer quarters, the regiment arrived in Tuscumbia, in the northwest corner of the state a few miles from the Mississippi border. By this time, General Ulysses S. Grant had taken over Halleck's responsibilities in northern Mississippi; the 8th Wisconsin was still part of the Army of the Mississippi, but General William Rosecrans had replaced Pope as commander. The regiment was in the second brigade of General David S. Stanley's second division, led by Colonel Joseph A. Mower. Pope's army was assigned to hold 20 miles of rail from Corinth east to Iuka, where the 8th Wisconsin was stationed. On September 13, 1862, the Confederate Army of the West under General Sterling Price appeared at Iuka and forced the regiment back to Farmington. Shortly thereafter, forces under Rosecrans and General Edward Ord attempted to capture Price's army, which awaited, at Iuka, the arrival of massive reinforcements from General Earl Van Dorn's Army of West Tennessee.
On September 19, during the Battle of Iuka, a fresh north wind caused an acoustic shadow that prevented Ord from hearing the battle. He was unaware of it, his troops stood idle while fighting raged a few miles away; the Army of the Cumberland forced Price to w
The modern combine harvester, or combine, is a versatile machine designed to efficiently harvest a variety of grain crops. The name derives from its combining three separate harvesting operations—reaping and winnowing—into a single process. Among the crops harvested with a combine are wheat, rye, corn, soybeans, flax and canola; the separated straw, left lying on the field, comprises the stems and any remaining leaves of the crop with limited nutrients left in it: the straw is either chopped, spread on the field and ploughed back in or baled for bedding and limited-feed for livestock. Combine harvesters are one of the most economically important labour saving inventions reducing the fraction of the population engaged in agriculture. In 1826 in Scotland, the inventor Reverend Patrick Bell designed a reaper machine, which used the scissors principle of plant cutting – a principle, still used today; the Bell machine was pushed by horses. A few Bell machines were available in the United States. In 1835, in the United States, Hiram Moore built and patented the first combine harvester, capable of reaping and winnowing cereal grain.
Early versions were pulled by mule or ox teams. In 1835, Moore built a full-scale version with a length of 5.2 m, cut width of 4.57 m and by 1839, over 20 ha of crops were harvested. This combine harvester was pulled by 20 horses handled by farmhands. By 1860, combine harvesters with a cutting, or swathe, width of several metres were used on American farms. A parallel development in Australia saw the development of the stripper based on the Gallic stripper, by John Ridley and others in South Australia by 1843; the stripper only gathered the heads. The stripper and headers had the advantage of less moving parts and only collecting heads, requiring less power to operate. Refinements by Hugh Victor McKay produced a commercially successful combine harvester in 1885, the Sunshine Header-Harvester. Combines, some of them quite large, were drawn by mule or horse teams and used a bullwheel to provide power. Steam power was used, George Stockton Berry integrated the combine with a steam engine using straw to heat the boiler.
At the turn of the twentieth century, horse drawn combines were starting to be used on the American plains and Idaho. In 1911, the Holt Manufacturing Company of California produced a self-propelled harvester. In Australia in 1923, the patented Sunshine Auto Header was one of the first center-feeding self-propelled harvesters. In 1923 in Kansas, the Baldwin brothers and their Gleaner Manufacturing Company patented a self-propelled harvester that included several other modern improvements in grain handling. Both the Gleaner and the Sunshine used Fordson engines. In 1929, Alfredo Rotania of Argentina patented a self-propelled harvester. International Harvester started making horse-pulled combines in 1915. At the time, horse powered stand alone threshing machines were more common. In the 1920s, Case Corporation and John Deere made combines and these were starting to be tractor pulled with a second engine aboard the combine to power its workings; the world economic collapse in the 1930s stopped farm equipment purchases, for this reason, people retained the older method of harvesting.
A few farms used Caterpillar tractors to move the outfits. Tractor-drawn combines became common. An example was the All-Crop Harvester series; these combines used a shaker to separate the grain from the chaff and straw-walkers to eject the straw while retaining the grain. Early tractor-drawn combines were powered by a separate gasoline engine, while models were PTO-powered; these machines either put the harvested crop into bags that were loaded onto a wagon or truck, or had a small bin that stored the grain until it was transferred to a truck or wagon with an auger. In the U. S. Allis-Chalmers, Massey-Harris, International Harvester, Gleaner Manufacturing Company, John Deere, Minneapolis Moline are past or present major combine producers. In 1937, the Australian-born Thomas Carroll, working for Massey-Harris in Canada, perfected a self-propelled model and in 1940, a lighter-weight model began to be marketed by the company. Lyle Yost invented an auger that would lift grain out of a combine in 1947, making unloading grain much easier.
In 1952 Claeys launched the first self-propelled combine harvester in Europe. This newer kind of combine is powered by diesel or gasoline engines; until the self-cleaning rotary screen was invented in the mid-1960s combine engines suffered from overheating as the chaff spewed out when harvesting small grains would clog radiators, blocking the airflow needed for cooling. A significant advance in the design of combines was the rotary design; the grain is stripped from the stalk by passing along a helical rotor, instead of passing between rasp bars on the outside of a cylinder and a concave. Rotary combines were first introduced by Sperry-New Holland in 1975. In about the 1980s on-board electronics were introduced to measure threshing efficiency; this new instrumentation allowed operators to get better grain yields by optimizing ground speed and other operating parameters. Combines are equipped with removable heads that are desig
Heavy equipment refers to heavy-duty vehicles, specially designed for executing construction tasks, most ones involving earthwork operations. They are known as heavy machines, heavy trucks, construction equipment, engineering equipment, heavy vehicles, or heavy hydraulics, they comprise five equipment systems: implement, structure, power train and information. Heavy equipment functions through the mechanical advantage of a simple machine, the ratio between input force applied and force exerted is multiplied; some equipment uses hydraulic drives as a primary source of motion. The use of heavy equipment has a long history; the pile driver was invented around 1500. The first tunnelling shield was patented by Marc Isambard Brunel in 1818; until the 19th century and into the early 20th century heavy machines were drawn under human or animal power. With the advent of portable steam-powered engines the drawn machine precursors were reconfigured with the new engines, such as the combine harvester; the design of a core tractor evolved around the new steam power source into a new machine core traction engine, that can be configured as the steam tractor and the steamroller.
During the 20th century, internal-combustion engines became the major power source of heavy equipment. Kerosene and ethanol engines were used. Mechanical transmission was in many cases replaced by hydraulic machinery; the early 20th century saw new electric-powered machines such as the forklift. Caterpillar Inc. is a present-day brand from these days, starting out as the Holt Manufacturing Company. The first mass-produced heavy machine was the Fordson tractor in 1917; the first commercial continuous track vehicle was the 1901 Lombard Steam Log Hauler. The use of tracks became popular for tanks during World War I, for civilian machinery like the bulldozer; the largest engineering vehicles and mobile land machines are bucket-wheel excavators, built since the 1920s. "Until the twentieth century, one simple tool constituted the primary earthmoving machine: the hand shovel - moved with animal and human powered, sleds and wagons. This tool was the principal method by which material was either sidecast or elevated to load a conveyance a wheelbarrow, or a cart or wagon drawn by a draft animal.
In antiquity, an equivalent of the hand shovel or hoe and head basket—and masses of men—were used to move earth to build civil works. Builders have long used the inclined plane and pulleys to place solid building materials, but these labor-saving devices did not lend themselves to earthmoving, which required digging, raising and placing loose materials; the two elements required for mechanized earthmoving as now, were an independent power source and off-road mobility, neither of which could be provided by the technology of that time."Container cranes were used from the 1950s and onwards, made containerization possible. Nowadays such is the importance of this machinery, some transport companies have developed specific equipment to transport heavy construction equipment to and from sites; these subdivisions, in this order, are the standard heavy equipment categorization. Military engineering vehicles Heavy equipment requires specialized tires for various construction applications. While many types of equipment have continuous tracks applicable to more severe service requirements, tires are used where greater speed or mobility is required.
An understanding of what equipment will be used for during the life of the tires is required for proper selection. Tire selection can have a significant impact on unit cost. There are three types of off-the-road tires, transport for earthmoving machines, work for slow moving earthmoving machines, load and carry for transporting as well as digging. Off-highway tires have six categories of service C compactor, E earthmover, G grader, L loader, LS log-skidder and ML mining and logging. Within these service categories are various tread types designed for use on hard-packed surface, soft surface and rock. Tires are a large expense on any construction project, careful consideration should be given to prevent excessive wear or damage. "The control and information systems. These systems enable the operator to direct and control all the other systems and provide information to guide operations or to monitor the performance and health of the equipment." A heavy equipment operator drives and operates heavy equipment used in engineering and construction projects.
Only skilled workers may operate heavy equipment, there is specialized training for learning to use heavy equipment. Much publication about heavy equipment operators focuses on improving safety for such workers; the field of occupational medicine researches and makes recommendations about safety for these and other workers in safety-sensitive positions. Due to the small profit margins on construction projects it is important to maintain accurate records concerning equipment utilization and maintenance; the two main categories of equipment costs are operating cost. To classify as an ownership cost an expense must have been incurred regardless of if the equipment is used or not; these costs are as follows: Depreciation can be calculated several ways, the simplest is the straight-line method. The annual depreciation is constant, reducing the equipment value annually; the following are simple equations paraphrased from the Peurifoy & Schexnayder text: For an expense to be classified as an operating cost, it must be incurred through use of the equipment.
These costs are as follows: The biggest distinction from a cost
A tractor is an engineering vehicle designed to deliver a high tractive effort at slow speeds, for the purposes of hauling a trailer or machinery used in agriculture or construction. Most the term is used to describe a farm vehicle that provides the power and traction to mechanize agricultural tasks tillage, but nowadays a great variety of tasks. Agricultural implements may be towed behind or mounted on the tractor, the tractor may provide a source of power if the implement is mechanised; the word tractor was taken from Latin, being the agent noun of trahere "to pull". The first recorded use of the word meaning "an engine or vehicle for pulling wagons or ploughs" occurred in 1896, from the earlier term "traction engine". There are many types of tractors, but the main types are rubber wheeled tractors. In the UK, the Republic of Ireland, India, Argentina, Serbia, the Netherlands, Germany, the word "tractor" means "farm tractor", the use of the word "tractor" to mean other types of vehicles is familiar to the vehicle trade, but unfamiliar to much of the general public.
In Canada and the US, the word may refer to the road tractor portion of a tractor trailer truck, but usually refers to the piece of farm equipment. The first powered farm implements in the early 19th century were portable engines – steam engines on wheels that could be used to drive mechanical farm machinery by way of a flexible belt. Richard Trevithick designed the first'semi-portable' stationary steam engine for agricultural use, known as a "barn engine" in 1812, it was used to drive a corn threshing machine; the portable engine was invented in 1839 by William Tuxford of Boston, Lincolnshire who started manufacture of an engine built around a locomotive-style boiler with horizontal smoke tubes. A large flywheel was mounted on the crankshaft, a stout leather belt was used to transfer the drive to the equipment being driven. In the 1850s, John Fowler used a Clayton & Shuttleworth portable engine to drive apparatus in the first public demonstrations of the application of cable haulage to cultivation.
In parallel with the early portable engine development, many engineers attempted to make them self-propelled – the fore-runners of the traction engine. In most cases this was achieved by fitting a sprocket on the end of the crankshaft, running a chain from this to a larger sprocket on the rear axle; these experiments met with mixed success. The first proper traction engine, in the form recognisable today, was developed in 1859 when British engineer Thomas Aveling modified a Clayton & Shuttleworth portable engine, which had to be hauled from job to job by horses, into a self-propelled one; the alteration was made by fitting a long driving chain between the rear axle. The first half of the 1860s was a period of great experimentation but by the end of the decade the standard form of the traction engine had evolved and would change little over the next sixty years, it was adopted for agricultural use. The first tractors were steam-powered plowing engines, they were used in pairs, placed on either side of a field to haul a plow back and forth between them using a wire cable.
In Britain Mann's and Garrett developed steam tractors for direct ploughing, but the heavy, wet soil of England meant that these designs were less economical than a team of horses. In the United States, where soil conditions permitted, steam tractors were used to direct-haul plows. Steam-powered agricultural engines remained in use well into the 20th century until reliable internal combustion engines had been developed. In 1892, John Froelich invented and built the first gasoline/petrol-powered tractor in Clayton County, Iowa, US. A Van Duzen single-cylinder gasoline engine was mounted on a Robinson engine chassis, which could be controlled and propelled by Froelich's gear box. After receiving a patent, Froelich started up the Waterloo Gasoline Engine Company and invested all of his assets. However, the venture was unsuccessful, by 1895 all was lost and he went out of business. Richard Hornsby & Sons are credited with producing and selling the first oil-engined tractor in Britain invented by Herbert Akroyd Stuart.
The Hornsby-Akroyd Patent Safety Oil Traction Engine was made in 1896 with a 20 hp engine. In 1897, it was bought by Mr. Locke-King, this is the first recorded sale of a tractor in Britain. In that year, the tractor won a Silver Medal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England; that tractor would be returned to the factory and fitted with a caterpillar track. The first commercially successful light-weight petrol-powered general purpose tractor was built by Dan Albone, a British inventor in 1901, he filed for a patent on 15 February 1902 for his tractor design and formed Ivel Agricultural Motors Limited. The other directors were Charles Jarrott, John Hewitt and Lord Willoughby, he called his machine the Ivel Agricultural Motor. The Ivel Agricultural Motor was light and compact, it had one front wheel, with solid rubber tyre, two large rear wheels like a modern tractor. The engine used water cooling, by evaporation, it had one reverse gear. A pulley wheel on the left hand side allowed it to be used as a stationary engine, driving a wide range of agricultural machinery.
The 1903 sale price was £300. His tractor won a medal at the Royal Agricultural Show, in 1903 and 1904. About 500 were built, many were exported all over the world; the original engine was made by Co. of Coventry. After 1906, French Aster engines were used; the first successful American tractor was built by Charles H. Parr, they d
A threshing machine or thresher is a piece of farm equipment that threshes grain, that is, it removes the seeds from the stalks and husks. It does so by beating the plant to make the seeds fall out. Before such machines were developed, threshing was done by hand with flails: such hand threshing was laborious and time-consuming, taking about one-quarter of agricultural labour by the 18th century. Mechanization of this process removed a substantial amount of drudgery from farm labour; the first threshing machine was invented circa 1786 by the Scottish engineer Andrew Meikle, the subsequent adoption of such machines was one of the earlier examples of the mechanization of agriculture. During the 19th century and mechanical reapers and reaper-binders became widespread and made grain production much less laborious. Michael Stirling is said to have invented a rotary threshing machine in 1758 which for forty years was used to process all the corn on his farm at Gateside, no published works have yet been found but his son William made a sworn statement to his minister to this fact, he gave him the details of his fathers death in 1796.
Separate reaper-binders and threshers have been replaced by machines that combine all of their functions, combine harvesters or combines. However, the simpler machines remain important as appropriate technology in low-capital farming contexts, both in developing countries and in developed countries on small farms that strive for high levels of self-sufficiency. For example, pedal-powered threshers are a low-cost option, some Amish sects use horse-drawn binders and old-style threshers; as the verb thresh is cognate with the verb thrash, the names thrashing machine and thrasher are alternate forms. The Swing Riots in the UK were a result of the threshing machine. Following years of war, high taxes and low wages, farm labourers revolted in 1830; these farm labourers had faced unemployment for a number of years due to the widespread introduction of the threshing machine and the policy of enclosing fields. No longer were thousands of men needed to tend the crops, a few would suffice. With fewer jobs, lower wages and no prospects of things improving for these workers the threshing machine was the final straw, the machine was to place them on the brink of starvation.
The Swing Rioters smashed threatened farmers who had them. The riots were dealt with harshly. Nine of the rioters were hanged and a further 450 were transported to Australia. Early threshing machines were horse-powered, they were about the size of an upright piano. Machines were steam-powered, driven by a portable engine or traction engine. Isaiah Jennings, a skilled inventor, created a small thresher that doesn't harm the straw in the process. In 1834, John Avery and Hiram Abial Pitts devised significant improvements to a machine that automatically threshes and separates grain from chaff, freeing farmers from a slow and laborious process. Avery and Pitts were granted United States patent #542 on December 29, 1837. John Ridley, an Australian inventor developed a threshing machine in South Australia in 1843; the 1881 Household Cyclopedia said of Meikle's machine: "Since the invention of this machine, Mr. Meikle and others have progressively introduced a variety of improvements, all tending to simplify the labour, to augment the quantity of the work performed.
When first erected, though the grain was well separated from the straw, yet as the whole of the straw and grain, was indiscriminately thrown into a confused heap, the work could only with propriety be considered as half executed. By the addition of rakes, or shakers, two pairs of fanners, all driven by the same machinery, the different processes of thrashing and winnowing are now all at once performed, the grain prepared for the public market; when it is added, that the quantity of grain gained from the superior powers of the machine is equal to a twentieth part of the crop, that, in some cases, the expense of thrashing and cleaning the grain is less than what was paid for cleaning it alone, the immense saving arising from the invention will at once be seen."The expense of horse labour, from the increased value of the animal and the charge of his keeping, being an object of great importance, it is recommended that, upon all sizable farms, to say, where two hundred acres, or upwards, of grain are sown, the machine should be worked by wind, unless where local circumstances afford the conveniency of water.
Where coals are plenty and cheap, steam may be advantageously used for working the machine."Steam-powered machines used belts connected to a traction engine. Steam remained a viable commercial option until the early post-WWII years. Threshing is just one step of the process in getting cereals to customer; the wheat needs to be grown, stooked, threshed, de-chaffed, straw baled, the grain hauled to a grain elevator. For many years each of these steps was an individual process, requiring teams of workers and many machines. In the steep hill wheat country of Palouse in the Northwest of the United States, steep ground meant moving machinery around was problematic and prone to rolling. To reduce the amount of work on the sidehills, the idea arose of combining the wheat binder and thresher into one machine, known as a combine harvester. About 1910, horse pulled combines became a success. Gas and diesel engines appeared with other refinements and specifications. Mo
A backhoe — called rear actor or back actor — is a type of excavating equipment, or digger, consisting of a digging bucket on the end of a two-part articulated arm. It is mounted on the back of a tractor or front loader, the latter forming a'backhoe loader'; the section of the arm closest to the vehicle is known as the boom, while the section which carries the bucket is known as the dipper, both terms derived from steam shovels. The boom is attached to the vehicle through a pivot known as the king-post, which allows the arm to pivot left and right through a total of 180 to 200 degrees; the term "backhoe" refers to the action of the shovel, not its location on the vehicle. That is, a backhoe digs by drawing earth backwards, rather than lifting it with a forward motion like a person shovelling, a steam shovel, or a bulldozer. Confusingly, the buckets on some backhoes may be reconfigured facing forward, making them "hoes"; however they are not as effective in that orientation, since the dimensions of the various components are optimized for back-hoeing.
Most backhoes are at their strongest curling the bucket, with the dipper arm next most powerful, boom movements the least powerful. A backhoe loader is a tractor-like vehicle with a backhoe at one end, a front loader on the other and a swivelling seat to position the operator facing whichever direction is needed at the time. In North America, this arrangement is referred to as a backhoe or, when on a chassis derived from farm tractors, a tractor loader backhoe. To differentiate, a backhoe on its own dedicated chassis may be referred to as an excavator. Backhoe loaders can be designed and manufactured from the start as such, or can be the result of a farm tractor equipped with a front end loader and rear backhoe. Though similar looking, the purpose-designed backhoe loaders are much stronger, with the farm variation unsuitable for heavy work; the farm variation requires that the operator switch seats from sitting in front of the backhoe controls to the tractor seat in order to reposition the equipment while digging, this slows down the digging process.
With the advent of hydraulic powered attachments such as a tiltrotator, breaker, a grapple or an auger, the backhoe is used in many applications other than excavation and with the tiltrotator attachment, serves as an effective tool carrier. Many backhoes feature quick coupler mounting systems for simplified attachment mounting increasing the machine's utilization on the job site. Backhoes are employed together with loaders and bulldozers. Excavators that use a backhoe are sometimes called "trackhoes" by people who do not realize the name is due to the action of the bucket, not its location on a backhoe loader. Backhoe loaders are general-purpose tools, are being displaced to some extent by multiple specialist tools like the excavator and the speciality front end loader with the rise of the mini-excavator. On many job sites which would have seen a backhoe used, a skidsteer and a mini excavator will be used in conjunction to fill the backhoe's role. However, backhoes still are in general use. Sometimes a backhoe bucket is reversed to work in a power shovel configuration.
This is when loading from a large stockpile, for picking up or filling material next to walls, to increase the reach of the machine, or working around obstacles such as pipes. Sometimes a backhoe arm is used as a crane, by slinging the lifted object from the support linkages behind the scoop; the backhoe's scoop may have a metal bar called a "thumb" hinged to the scoop. It grips against the scoop like a human thumb to pick up objects; some types can lie back against the backhoe arm. Youtube video showing use of a backhoe scoop's thumb Youtube video showing use of a backhoe scoop's thumb Youtube video showing use of a backhoe scoop's thumb Early development of hydraulic systems for what would become the backhoe loader proceeded in parallel in the US and the UK; the invention of the first backhoe swing frame was developed in July 1947 by Vaino J. Holopainen and Roy E. Handy, Jr. and assigned to Wain-Roy Corporation of Hubbardston, United States. In July 1948, patent # 2,698,697 was filed by Vaino J. Holopainen.
The swing frame breakthrough allowed the hydraulic digging arm to swing to the side to dump the bucket. This patent included the invention of the out-rigger bar, high flow control. In April 1948 Wain-Roy Corporation sold the first all hydraulic backhoe, mounted to a Ford Model 8N tractor, to the Connecticut Light and Power Company. Wain-Roy made 24 units in 1948. Wain-Roy made them for Sherman Products of Royal Oak and Ford. 7000 Wain-Roy Backhoes were manufactured and sold between the fall of 1948 and early 1954 through Ford dealers. In the same year, 1948, JCB launched the first European hydraulic loader, followed that in 1953 with a backhoe with a 180° slew, fitted to a tractor. In 1957, while Case produced the first "integrated" Tractor Loader Backhoe in the US, JCB introduced the first dedicated backhoe loader. In 1965, they would follow this with the world's first 360° excavator; the patent for the first reversible seat w
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. The steam engine uses the force produced by steam pressure to push a piston back and forth inside a cylinder; this pushing force is transformed, into rotational force for work. The term "steam engine" is applied only to reciprocating engines as just described, not to the steam turbine. Steam engines are external combustion engines, where the working fluid is separated from the combustion products; the ideal thermodynamic cycle used to analyze this process is called the Rankine cycle. In general usage, the term steam engine can refer to either complete steam plants such as railway steam locomotives and portable engines, or may refer to the piston or turbine machinery alone, as in the beam engine and stationary steam engine. Steam-driven devices were known as early as the aeliopile in the first century AD, with a few other uses recorded in the 16th and 17th century. Thomas Savery's dewatering pump used steam pressure operating directly on water.
The first commercially-successful engine that could transmit continuous power to a machine was developed in 1712 by Thomas Newcomen. James Watt made a critical improvement by removing spent steam to a separate vessel for condensation improving the amount of work obtained per unit of fuel consumed. By the 19th century, stationary steam engines powered the factories of the Industrial Revolution. Steam engines replaced sail for ships, steam locomotives operated on the railways. Reciprocating piston type steam engines were the dominant source of power until the early 20th century, when advances in the design of electric motors and internal combustion engines resulted in the replacement of reciprocating steam engines in commercial usage. Steam turbines replaced reciprocating engines in power generation, due to lower cost, higher operating speed, higher efficiency; the first recorded rudimentary steam-powered "engine" was the aeolipile described by Hero of Alexandria, a mathematician and engineer in Roman Egypt in the first century AD.
In the following centuries, the few steam-powered "engines" known were, like the aeolipile experimental devices used by inventors to demonstrate the properties of steam. A rudimentary steam turbine device was described by Taqi al-Din in Ottoman Egypt in 1551 and by Giovanni Branca in Italy in 1629. Jerónimo de Ayanz y Beaumont received patents in 1606 for 50 steam powered inventions, including a water pump for draining inundated mines. Denis Papin, a Huguenot refugee, did some useful work on the steam digester in 1679, first used a piston to raise weights in 1690; the first commercial steam-powered device was a water pump, developed in 1698 by Thomas Savery. It used condensing steam to create a vacuum which raised water from below and used steam pressure to raise it higher. Small engines were effective, they were prone to boiler explosions. Savery's engine was used in mines, pumping stations and supplying water to water wheels that powered textile machinery. Savery engine was of low cost. Bento de Moura Portugal introduced an improvement of Savery's construction "to render it capable of working itself", as described by John Smeaton in the Philosophical Transactions published in 1751.
It continued to be manufactured until the late 18th century. One engine was still known to be operating in 1820; the first commercially-successful engine that could transmit continuous power to a machine, was the atmospheric engine, invented by Thomas Newcomen around 1712. It improved on Savery's steam pump. Newcomen's engine was inefficient, used for pumping water, it worked by creating a partial vacuum by condensing steam under a piston within a cylinder. It was employed for draining mine workings at depths hitherto impossible, for providing reusable water for driving waterwheels at factories sited away from a suitable "head". Water that passed over the wheel was pumped up into a storage reservoir above the wheel. In 1720 Jacob Leupold described a two-cylinder high-pressure steam engine; the invention was published in his major work "Theatri Machinarum Hydraulicarum". The engine used two heavy pistons to provide motion to a water pump; each piston was returned to its original position by gravity.
The two pistons shared a common four way rotary valve connected directly to a steam boiler. The next major step occurred when James Watt developed an improved version of Newcomen's engine, with a separate condenser. Boulton and Watt's early engines used half as much coal as John Smeaton's improved version of Newcomen's. Newcomen's and Watt's early engines were "atmospheric", they were powered by air pressure pushing a piston into the partial vacuum generated by condensing steam, instead of the pressure of expanding steam. The engine cylinders had to be large because the only usable force acting on them was atmospheric pressure. Watt developed his engine further, modifying it to provide a rotary motion suitable for driving machinery; this enabled factories to be sited away from rivers, accelerated the pace of the Industrial Revolution. The meaning of high pressure, together with an actual value above ambient, depends on the era in which the term was used. For early use of the term Van Reimsdijk refers to steam being at a sufficiently high pressure that it could be exhausted to atmosphere without reliance on a vacuum to enable it to perform useful work.
Ewing states that Watt's condensing engines were known, at the time, as low pressure compared to high pressure, non-condensing engines of the same period. Watt's patent prevented others from making high pres