Oracle Corporation is a multinational computer technology corporation, headquartered in Redwood Shores, California. In 2015 Oracle was the second-largest software maker by revenue, after Microsoft, larry Ellison co-founded Oracle Corporation in 1977 with Bob Miner and Ed Oates under the name Software Development Laboratories. Ellison took inspiration from the 1970 paper written by Edgar F. Codd on relational database management systems named A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks and he heard about the IBM System R database from an article in the IBM Research Journal provided by Oates. Also derived from Codds theories, Ellison wanted to make Oracles product compatible with System R, SDL changed its name to Relational Software, Inc in 1979, again to Oracle Systems Corporation in 1982, to align itself more closely with its flagship product Oracle Database. At this stage Bob Miner served as the senior programmer. In 1995, Oracle Systems Corporation changed its name to Oracle Corporation, officially named Oracle, but sometimes referred to as Oracle Corporation, part of Oracle Corporations early success arose from using the C programming language to implement its products.
This eased porting to different operating systems, many of the products have been added to Oracles portfolio through acquisitions. Oracles E-delivery service provides generic downloadable Oracle software and documentation, Oracle Database Release 10, In 2004, Oracle Corporation shipped release 10g as the latest version of Oracle Database. Release 11, Release 11g became the current Oracle Database version in 2007, Oracle Corporation released Oracle Database 11g Release 2 in September 2009. This version was available in four commercial editions—Enterprise Edition, Standard Edition, Standard Edition One, the licensing of these editions shows various restrictions and obligations that are considered complex. The Enterprise Edition, the most expensive of the Database Editions, has the fewest restrictions —, Oracle Corporation constrains the Standard Edition and Standard Edition One with more licensing restrictions, in accordance with their lower price. Release 12, Release 12c became available on July 1,2013, Oracle acquired Rdb in 1994 from Digital Equipment Corporation.
Oracle has since made many enhancements to product and development continues as of 2008. Released in 2008, the Oracle Beehive collaboration software provides team workspaces, calendar, instant messaging, customers can use Beehive as licensed software or as software as a service. Oracle sells a suite of business applications, users can access these facilities through a browser interface over the Internet or via a corporate intranet. The Social Engagement and Monitoring cloud provides the most effective and efficient responses across social, SEM is able to route correct responses to the right team, member, or customer-experience channel to ensure the best customer service. The analysis helps vendors to understand what is important to customers and it identifies trends and anomalies to make real-time course corrections. It can identify brand advocates, the SEM cloud identifies customer intention and interests by analyzing the common ways customers talk about a product or a service
BBC BASIC is a programming language, developed in 1981 as a native programming language for the MOS Technology 6502 based Acorn BBC Micro home/personal computer, mainly by Sophie Wilson. It is a version of the BASIC programming language adapted for a UK computer literacy project of the BBC. BBC BASIC, based on the older Atom BASIC, extended traditional BASIC with named DEF PROC/DEF FN procedures and functions, REPEAT UNTIL loops, the interpreter included powerful statements for controlling the BBC Micros four-channel sound output and its low-/high-resolution eight-mode graphics display. One of the features of BBC BASIC was the presence of an inline assembler allowing users to write 6502. In 1978 Hermann Hauser and Chris Curry founded Acorn Computers, much of the code was developed at Cambridge University by Sophie Wilson and her colleagues. Complete History available here, BASIC I, the version, was shipped on early BBC Micros. BASIC II was used on the Acorn Electron and BBC Micros shipped after 1982 and it added the OPENUP and OSCLI keywords, along with offset assembly and bug fixes.
BASIC III, was produced in both a UK version and a US market version for Acorns abortive attempt to enter the computer market. The main place that BASIC III can be found is as the HI-BASIC version for the second processor. BASIC IV was an improvement to BASIC IV, and was included on the Master Compact machine. The version of BASIC on the Compact included re-coded mathematical routines, HI-BASIC, this was available in two versions, the first based on BASIC III, and the second based on BASIC IV. Both were built to run from an address on the second processor. This allowed more space to be available on either the external or internal 6502 Second Processors. A version was introduced to support a second Z80 processor, another version of BBC BASIC, called BAS128, was supplied on tape and disc with the BBC Master and Master Compact, it loaded into main RAM and used the 64 kB of Sideways RAM for user programs. This provided support for larger programs at the cost of being a lot slower than the normal ROM-based version.
The interpreter can deal with both BASIC and 6502 assembly language, which can be included between the characters and this contributed to the systems popularity with industrial and research engineers. Because the BBC MOS and RISC OS were usually supplied on ROM, as such, there is no simple way to determine which version of BASIC is actually running other than by enquiring the operating system identity and thus making an assumption. On the BBC family, it is possible to run both the standard BASIC and an enhanced HIBASIC on the 6502 Second Processor
A filename is a name used to uniquely identify a computer file stored in a file system. Different file systems impose different restrictions on filename lengths and the characters within filenames. Discussions of filenames are complicated by a lack of standardisation of the term, sometimes filename is used to mean the entire name, such as the Windows name c, \directory\myfile. txt. Sometimes, it will be used to refer to the components, sometimes, it is a reference that excludes an extension, so the filename would be just myfile. Such ambiguity is widespread and this article does not attempt to define any one meaning, some systems will adopt their own standardised nomenclature like path name, but these too are not standardised across systems. Around 1962, the Compatible Time-Sharing System introduced the concept of a file, around this same time appeared the dot as a filename extension separator, and the limit to three letter extensions might have come from RAD50 16-bit limits. Traditionally, filenames allowed only alphanumeric characters, but as time progressed and this led to compatibility problems when moving files from one file system to another.
Around 1995, VFAT, an extension to the FAT filesystem, was introduced in Windows 95 and it allowed mixed-case Unicode long filenames, in addition to classic 8.3 names. In 1985, RFC959 officially defined a pathname to be the string that must be entered into a file system by a user in order to identify a file. One issue was migration to Unicode, for this purpose, several software companies provided software for migrating filenames to the new Unicode encoding. Microsoft provided migration transparent for the user throughout the vfat technology Apple provided File Name Encoding Repair Utility v1.0, Mac OS X10.3 marked Apples adoption of Unicode 3.2 character decomposition, superseding the Unicode 2.1 decomposition used previously. This change caused problems for writing software for Mac OS X. An absolute reference includes all directory levels, in some systems, a filename reference that does not include the complete directory path defaults to the current working directory. One advantage of using a reference in program configuration files or scripts is that different instances of the script or program can use different files.
This makes an absolute or relative path composed of a sequence of filenames, Unix-like file systems allow a file to have more than one name, in traditional Unix-style file systems, the names are hard links to the files inode or equivalent. Windows supports hard links on NTFS file systems, and provides the command fsutil in Windows XP, hard links are different from Windows shortcuts, classic Mac OS/macOS aliases, or symbolic links. The introduction of LFNs with VFAT allowed filename aliases, with a maximum of eight plus three characters was a filename alias of long file name. As a way to conform to 8.3 limitations for older programs and this property was used by the move command algorithm that first creates a second filename and only removes the first filename
A database is a well organized collection of data. It is the collection of schemas, queries, views, a database management system is a computer software application that interacts with the user, other applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze data. A general-purpose DBMS is designed to allow the definition, querying, well-known DBMSs include MySQL, PostgreSQL, MongoDB, MariaDB, Microsoft SQL Server, Sybase, SAP HANA, MemSQL and IBM DB2. Sometimes a DBMS is loosely referred to as a database, formally, a database refers to a set of related data and the way it is organized. The DBMS provides various functions that allow entry and retrieval of large quantities of information, because of the close relationship between them, the term database is often used casually to refer to both a database and the DBMS used to manipulate it. Outside the world of information technology, the term database is often used to refer to any collection of related data. This article is concerned only with databases where the size and usage requirements necessitate use of a management system.
Update – Insertion and deletion of the actual data, retrieval – Providing information in a form directly usable or for further processing by other applications. The retrieved data may be available in a form basically the same as it is stored in the database or in a new form obtained by altering or combining existing data from the database. Both a database and its DBMS conform to the principles of a database model. Database system refers collectively to the model, database management system. Physically, database servers are dedicated computers that hold the actual databases and run only the DBMS, Database servers are usually multiprocessor computers, with generous memory and RAID disk arrays used for stable storage. RAID is used for recovery of data if any of the disks fail, hardware database accelerators, connected to one or more servers via a high-speed channel, are used in large volume transaction processing environments. DBMSs are found at the heart of most database applications, DBMSs may be built around a custom multitasking kernel with built-in networking support, but modern DBMSs typically rely on a standard operating system to provide these functions.
Since DBMSs comprise a significant market and storage vendors often take into account DBMS requirements in their own development plans, databases are used to support internal operations of organizations and to underpin online interactions with customers and suppliers. Databases are used to hold information and more specialized data. A DBMS has evolved into a software system and its development typically requires thousands of human years of development effort. Some general-purpose DBMSs such as Adabas, Oracle and DB2 have been undergoing upgrades since the 1970s, general-purpose DBMSs aim to meet the needs of as many applications as possible, which adds to the complexity
Microsoft Windows is a metafamily of graphical operating systems developed and sold by Microsoft. It consists of families of operating systems, each of which cater to a certain sector of the computing industry with the OS typically associated with IBM PC compatible architecture. Active Windows families include Windows NT, Windows Embedded and Windows Phone, defunct Windows families include Windows 9x, Windows 10 Mobile is an active product, unrelated to the defunct family Windows Mobile. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20,1985, Microsoft Windows came to dominate the worlds personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system, however, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25% that of Android devices sold and this comparison however may not be fully relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. As of September 2016, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, smartphones, the most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2016. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One game console, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released almost at the time and share the same kernel. Windows, The operating system for personal computers, tablets. The latest version is Windows 10, the main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple Inc. for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server, The operating system for server computers, the latest version is Windows Server 2016.
Unlike its clients sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme, the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE, A lightweight version of its Windows sibling meant to operate as an operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers. The latest version is Windows PE10.0.10586.0, Windows Embedded, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device that was too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. The following Windows families are no longer being developed, Windows 9x, Microsoft now caters to the consumers market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile, The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile operating system
Letter case is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case and smaller lower case in the written representation of certain languages. The writing systems that distinguish between the upper and lower case have two sets of letters, with each letter in one set usually having an equivalent in the other set. Basically, the two variants are alternative representations of the same letter, they have the same name and pronunciation. Letter case is generally applied in a fashion, with both upper- and lower-case letters appearing in a given piece of text. The choice of case is often prescribed by the grammar of a language or by the conventions of a particular discipline, in mathematics, letter case may indicate the relationship between objects, with upper-case letters often representing superior objects. In some contexts, it is conventional to use only one case, the terms upper case and lower case can be written as two consecutive words, connected with a hyphen, or as a single word.
These terms originated from the layouts of the shallow drawers called type cases used to hold the movable type for letterpress printing. Traditionally, the letters were stored in a separate case that was located above the case that held the small letters. Majuscule, for palaeographers, is technically any script in which the letters have very few or very short ascenders and descenders, or none at all. By virtue of their impact, this made the term majuscule an apt descriptor for what much came to be more commonly referred to as uppercase letters. The word is often spelled miniscule, by association with the word miniature. This has traditionally been regarded as a mistake, but is now so common that some dictionaries tend to accept it as a nonstandard or variant spelling. Miniscule is still less likely, however, to be used in reference to lower-case letters, the glyphs of lower-case letters can resemble smaller forms of the upper-case glyphs restricted to the base band or can look hardly related.
There is more variation in the height of the minuscules, as some of them have higher or lower than the typical size. In Times New Roman, for instance, b, d, f, h, k, l, t are the letters with ascenders, and g, j, p, q, y are the ones with descenders. In addition, with old-style numerals still used by traditional or classical fonts,6 and 8 make up the ascender set. Writing systems using two separate cases are bicameral scripts, languages that use the Latin, Greek, Armenian, Varang Kshiti and Osage scripts use letter cases in their written form as an aid to clarity. Other bicameral scripts, which are not used for any modern languages, are Old Hungarian, the Georgian alphabet has several variants, and there were attempts to use them as different cases, but the modern written Georgian language does not distinguish case
A password is a word or string of characters used for user authentication to prove identity or access approval to gain access to a resource, which is to be kept secret from those not allowed access. The use of passwords is known to be ancient, sentries would challenge those wishing to enter an area or approaching it to supply a password or watchword, and would only allow a person or group to pass if they knew the password. Despite the name, there is no need for passwords to be words, indeed passwords which are not actual words may be harder to guess. Some passwords are formed from words and may more accurately be called a passphrase. The terms passcode and passkey are sometimes used when the information is purely numeric. Passwords are generally enough to be easily memorized and typed. Most organizations specify a policy that sets requirements for the composition and usage of passwords, typically dictating minimum length, required categories. Some governments have national authentication frameworks that define requirements for user authentication to government services, the easier a password is for the owner to remember generally means it will be easier for an attacker to guess.
Others argue longer passwords provide more security than shorter passwords with a variety of characters. In The Memorability and Security of Passwords, Jeff Yan et al. examine the effect of advice given to users about a choice of password. Combining two or more unrelated words and altering some of the letters to special characters or numbers is another good method, but a single dictionary word is not. Asking users to use letters and digits will often lead to easy-to-guess substitutions such as E →3 and I →1. Similarly typing the password one keyboard row higher is a trick known to attackers. The overall system must, of course, be designed for security, with protection against computer viruses, man-in-the-middle attacks. Physical security issues are a concern, from deterring shoulder surfing to more sophisticated physical threats such as video cameras and keyboard sniffers. And, of course, passwords should be chosen so that they are hard for an attacker to guess, see password strength and computer security.
Nowadays, it is a practice for computer systems to hide passwords as they are typed. The purpose of this measure is to avoid reading the password
C++ is a general-purpose programming language. It has imperative, object-oriented and generic programming features, while providing facilities for low-level memory manipulation and it was designed with a bias toward system programming and embedded, resource-constrained and large systems, with performance and flexibility of use as its design highlights. C++ is a language, with implementations of it available on many platforms and provided by various organizations, including the Free Software Foundation, LLVM, Intel. C++ is standardized by the International Organization for Standardization, with the latest standard version ratified and published by ISO in December 2014 as ISO/IEC14882,2014. The C++ programming language was standardized in 1998 as ISO/IEC14882,1998. The current C++14 standard supersedes these and C++11, with new features, the C++17 standard is due in 2017, with the draft largely implemented by some compilers already, and C++20 is the next planned standard thereafter. Many other programming languages have influenced by C++, including C#, D, Java.
In 1979, Bjarne Stroustrup, a Danish computer scientist, began work on C with Classes, the motivation for creating a new language originated from Stroustrups experience in programming for his Ph. D. thesis. When Stroustrup started working in AT&T Bell Labs, he had the problem of analyzing the UNIX kernel with respect to distributed computing, remembering his Ph. D. experience, Stroustrup set out to enhance the C language with Simula-like features. C was chosen because it was general-purpose, portable, as well as C and Simulas influences, other languages influenced C++, including ALGOL68, Ada, CLU and ML. Initially, Stroustrups C with Classes added features to the C compiler, including classes, derived classes, strong typing, furthermore, it included the development of a standalone compiler for C++, Cfront. In 1985, the first edition of The C++ Programming Language was released, the first commercial implementation of C++ was released in October of the same year. In 1989, C++2.0 was released, followed by the second edition of The C++ Programming Language in 1991.
New features in 2.0 included multiple inheritance, abstract classes, static functions, const member functions. In 1990, The Annotated C++ Reference Manual was published and this work became the basis for the future standard. Later feature additions included templates, namespaces, new casts, after a minor C++14 update released in December 2014, various new additions are planned for 2017 and 2020. According to Stroustrup, the name signifies the nature of the changes from C. This name is credited to Rick Mascitti and was first used in December 1983, when Mascitti was questioned informally in 1992 about the naming, he indicated that it was given in a tongue-in-cheek spirit
BASIC is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use. In 1964, John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz designed the original BASIC language at Dartmouth College in the U. S. state of New Hampshire and they wanted to enable students in fields other than science and mathematics to use computers. At the time, nearly all use of computers required writing custom software, versions of BASIC became widespread on microcomputers in the mid-1970s and 1980s. Microcomputers usually shipped with BASIC, often in the machines firmware, having an easy-to-learn language on these early personal computers allowed small business owners, professionals and consultants to develop custom software on computers they could afford. In the 2010s, BASIC remains popular in many computing dialects and in new languages influenced by BASIC, before the mid-1960s, the only computers were huge mainframe computers. Users submitted jobs on punched cards or similar media to specialist computer operators, the computer stored these, used a batch processing system to run this queue of jobs one after another, allowing very high levels of utilization of these expensive machines.
As the performance of computing hardware rose through the 1960s, multi-processing was developed and this allowed a mix of batch jobs to be run together, but the real revolution was the development of time-sharing. The original BASIC language was released on May 1,1964 by John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz, the acronym BASIC comes from the name of an unpublished paper by Thomas Kurtz. BASIC was designed to allow students to write computer programs for the Dartmouth Time-Sharing System. It was intended specifically for technical users who did not have or want the mathematical background previously expected. Being able to use a computer to support teaching and research was quite novel at the time, the language was based on FORTRAN II, with some influences from ALGOL60 and with additions to make it suitable for timesharing. Wanting use of the language to become widespread, its designers made the available free of charge. They made it available to schools in the Hanover area. In the following years, as dialects of BASIC appeared, Kemeny.
A version was a part of the Pick operating system from 1973 onward. During this period a number of computer games were written in BASIC. A number of these were collected by DEC employee David H. Ahl and he collected a number of these into book form,101 BASIC Computer Games, published in 1973. During the same period, Ahl was involved in the creation of a computer for education use
In computing, Extensible Markup Language is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable. The W3Cs XML1.0 Specification and several other related specifications—all of them free open standards—define XML, the design goals of XML emphasize simplicity and usability across the Internet. It is a data format with strong support via Unicode for different human languages. Although the design of XML focuses on documents, the language is used for the representation of arbitrary data structures such as those used in web services. Several schema systems exist to aid in the definition of XML-based languages, hundreds of document formats using XML syntax have been developed, including RSS, Atom, SOAP, SVG, and XHTML. XML-based formats have become the default for many office-productivity tools, including Microsoft Office, OpenOffice. org and LibreOffice, XML has provided the base language for communication protocols such as XMPP.
Applications for the Microsoft. NET Framework use XML files for configuration, apple has an implementation of a registry based on XML. XML has come into use for the interchange of data over the Internet. IETF RFC7303 gives rules for the construction of Internet Media Types for use when sending XML and it defines the media types application/xml and text/xml, which say only that the data is in XML, and nothing about its semantics. The use of text/xml has been criticized as a source of encoding problems. RFC7303 recommends that XML-based languages be given media types ending in +xml, further guidelines for the use of XML in a networked context appear in RFC3470, known as IETF BCP70, a document covering many aspects of designing and deploying an XML-based language. The material in this section is based on the XML Specification and this is not an exhaustive list of all the constructs that appear in XML, it provides an introduction to the key constructs most often encountered in day-to-day use. Character An XML document is a string of characters, almost every legal Unicode character may appear in an XML document.
Processor and application The processor analyzes the markup and passes structured information to an application, the specification places requirements on what an XML processor must do and not do, but the application is outside its scope. The processor is often referred to colloquially as an XML parser and content The characters making up an XML document are divided into markup and content, which may be distinguished by the application of simple syntactic rules. Generally, strings that constitute markup either begin with the character < and end with a >, or they begin with the character &, strings of characters that are not markup are content. However, in a CDATA section, the delimiters <. > are classified as markup, in addition, whitespace before and after the outermost element is classified as markup. Tag A tag is a construct that begins with <
Fortran is a general-purpose, imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. It is a language for high-performance computing and is used for programs that benchmark. Fortran encompasses a lineage of versions, each of which evolved to add extensions to the language while usually retaining compatibility with prior versions, the names of earlier versions of the language through FORTRAN77 were conventionally spelled in all-capitals. The capitalization has been dropped in referring to newer versions beginning with Fortran 90, the official language standards now refer to the language as Fortran rather than all-caps FORTRAN. In late 1953, John W. Backus submitted a proposal to his superiors at IBM to develop a practical alternative to assembly language for programming their IBM704 mainframe computer. Backus historic FORTRAN team consisted of programmers Richard Goldberg, Sheldon F. Best, Harlan Herrick, Peter Sheridan, Roy Nutt, Robert Nelson, Irving Ziller, Lois Haibt, and David Sayre.
Its concepts included easier entry of equations into a computer, a developed by J. Halcombe Laning and demonstrated in the Laning. A draft specification for The IBM Mathematical Formula Translating System was completed by mid-1954, the first manual for FORTRAN appeared in October 1956, with the first FORTRAN compiler delivered in April 1957. John Backus said during a 1979 interview with Think, the IBM employee magazine, the language was widely adopted by scientists for writing numerically intensive programs, which encouraged compiler writers to produce compilers that could generate faster and more efficient code. The inclusion of a complex data type in the language made Fortran especially suited to technical applications such as electrical engineering. By 1960, versions of FORTRAN were available for the IBM709,650,1620, the increasing popularity of FORTRAN spurred competing computer manufacturers to provide FORTRAN compilers for their machines, so that by 1963 over 40 FORTRAN compilers existed.
For these reasons, FORTRAN is considered to be the first widely used programming language supported across a variety of computer architectures, the arithmetic IF statement was similar to a three-way branch instruction on the IBM704. However, the 704 branch instructions all contained only one destination address, an optimizing compiler like FORTRAN would most likely select the more compact and usually faster Transfers instead of the Compare. Also the Compare considered −0 and +0 to be different values while the Transfer Zero, the FREQUENCY statement in FORTRAN was used originally to give branch probabilities for the three branch cases of the arithmetic IF statement. The Monte Carlo technique is documented in Backus et al, many years later, the FREQUENCY statement had no effect on the code, and was treated as a comment statement, since the compilers no longer did this kind of compile-time simulation. A similar fate has befallen compiler hints in other programming languages. The first FORTRAN compiler reported diagnostic information by halting the program when an error was found and that code could be looked up by the programmer in a error messages table in the operators manual, providing them with a brief description of the problem.
Before the development of disk files, text editors and terminals, programs were most often entered on a keyboard onto 80-column punched cards
NTFS is a proprietary file system developed by Microsoft. Starting with Windows NT3.1, it is the file system of Windows NT family. Additional extensions are an elaborate security system based on Access control lists. MacOS kernels have a limited ability to read NTFS. Linux and BSD kernels have a free and open-source driver for the NTFS filesystem with both read and write functionality, in the mid-1980s, Microsoft and IBM formed a joint project to create the next generation of graphical operating system, the result was OS/2 and HPFS. Because Microsoft disagreed with IBM on many important issues they eventually separated, OS/2 remained an IBM project and Microsoft worked to develop Windows NT, the HPFS file system for OS/2 contained several important new features. When Microsoft created their new operating system, they borrowed many of these concepts for NTFS, NTFS developers include, Tom Miller, Gary Kimura, Brian Andrew and David Goebel. Probably as a result of common ancestry, HPFS and NTFS use the same disk partition identification type code.
Using the same Partition ID Record Number is highly unusual, since there were dozens of unused code numbers available, for example, FAT has more than nine. Algorithms identifying the system in a partition type 07 must perform additional checks to distinguish between HPFS and NTFS. Microsoft has released five versions of NTFS, v1.0, v1.0 is incompatible with v1.1 and newer, Volumes written by Windows NT3. 5x cannot be read by Windows NT3.1 until an update is installed. V1.1, Released with Windows NT3.51 in 1995, supports compressed files, named streams and access control lists v1.2, Released with Windows NT4.0 in 1996. Commonly called NTFS4.0 after the OS release, supports disk quotas, Encrypting File System, sparse files, reparse points, update sequence number journaling, the $Extend folder and its files. Reorganized security descriptors so that multiple files using the same security setting can share the same descriptor, commonly called NTFS5.0 after the OS release. V3.1, Released with Windows XP in Autumn,2001, expanded the Master File Table entries with redundant MFT record number.
Commonly called NTFS5.1 after the OS release The NTFS. sys version number is based on the system version. Although subsequent versions of Windows added new file system-related features, they did not change NTFS itself, for example, Windows Vista implemented NTFS symbolic links, Transactional NTFS, partition shrinking, and self-healing. NTFS symbolic links are a new feature in the file system, NTFS is optimized for 4 kB clusters, but supports a maximum cluster size of 64 kB