Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest
The Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest is a United States National Forest in the U. S. states of California. The separate Rogue River and Siskiyou National Forests were administratively combined in 2004. Now, the Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest ranges from the crest of the Cascade Range west into the Siskiyou Mountains, covering 1.8 million acres. Forest headquarters are located in Oregon; the former Rogue River portion of the Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest is located in parts of five counties in southern Oregon and northern California. In descending order of land area they are Jackson, Douglas and Josephine counties, with Siskiyou County being the only one in California, it has a land area of 628,443 acres. There are local ranger district offices located in Ashland, Butte Falls, Grants Pass and Prospect; the former Siskiyou portion of the Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest is located in parts of four counties in southwestern Oregon and northwestern California. In descending order of land area they are Curry and Coos counties in Oregon and Del Norte County in California.
It has a land area of 1,094,726 acres. There are local ranger district offices located in Cave Junction, Gold Beach, Powers. Nearly all of the national forest is mountainous and includes parts of the Southern Oregon Coast Range, the Klamath Mountains, the Cascade Range; the largest river in the national forest is the Rogue River, which originates in the Cascade Range and flows through the Klamath Mountains and Coast Range. The Illinois River is a major tributary of the Rogue in the Klamath Mountains, while the Sixes, Pistol and Winchuck rivers drain the Coast Range directly to the Pacific Ocean; the Siskiyou National Forest was established on October 5, 1906. On July 1, 1908, it absorbed other lands. Rogue River National Forest traces its establishment back to the creation of the Ashland Forest Reserve on September 28, 1893, by the General Land Office; the lands were transferred to the Forest Service in 1906, it became a National Forest on March 4, 1907. On July 1, 1908, Ashland was combined with other lands from Cascade and Siskiyou National Forests to establish Crater National Forest.
On July 18, 1915, part of Paulina National Forest was added, on July 9, 1932, the name was changed to Rogue River. On September 9, 1942, an airplane dropped bombs on Mount Emily in the Siskiyou National Forest, turned around, flew back over the Pacific Ocean; the bombs exploded and started a fire, put out by several forest service employees. Bomb fragments were said to have Japanese markings. Stewart Holbrook vividly described this event in his essay "First Bomb", it was confirmed that the plane was indeed Japanese, the incident became known as the Lookout Air Raid. It was the first bombing of the continental United States by an enemy aircraft; the national forest is home to some stands of old growth, including Port Orford cedar and Douglas fir in the Copper Salmon area. A 1993 Forest Service study estimated that the extent of old growth in the forest was 345,300 acres some of which occurs in the Red Buttes Wilderness. Blue oak, Quercus douglasii, Canyon live oak, Quercus chrysolepis occur in the Siskiyou National Forest.
For the California endemic Blue Oak, the disjunctive stands are occurring near the northern limit of its range, which occur no farther north than Del Norte County. The world's tallest pine tree is located in the national forest. In 2002, the massive Biscuit Fire burned nearly 500,000 acres, including much of the Kalmiopsis Wilderness; the Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest contains all or part of eight separate wilderness areas, which together add up to 565,900 acres: High Cascades Complex Fires List of U. S. National Forests List of old growth forests Media related to Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest at Wikimedia Commons Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest
Fremont–Winema National Forest
The Fremont–Winema National Forest is a United States National Forest formed from the 2002 merger of the Fremont and Winema National Forests. They cover territory in southern Oregon from the crest of the Cascade Range on the west past the city of Lakeview to the east; the northern end of the forests is bounded by U. S. Route 97 on the west and Oregon Route 31 on the east. To the south, the state border with California forms the boundary of the forests. Klamath Falls is the only city of significant size in the vicinity; the forests are managed by the United States Forest Service, the national forest headquarters are located in Lakeview. The Fremont National Forest was named after John C. Frémont, who explored the area for the United States Army Corps of Engineers in 1843, it is located in western Lake and eastern Klamath counties in Oregon and has a land area of 1,207,039 acres. There are local ranger district offices located in Bly, Lakeview and Silver Lake; the Warner Canyon Ski Area was part of Fremont until a land swap transferred ownership to Lake County.
Founded in 1908, the Fremont National Forest was protected as the Goose Lake Forest Reserve in 1906. The name was soon changed to Fremont National Forest, it absorbed part of Paulina National Forest on July 19, 1915. In 2002, it was administratively combined with the Winema National Forest as the Fremont–Winema National Forests. A 1993 Forest Service study estimated that the extent of old growth in the forest was 549,800 acres, 113,800 acres of which were lodgepole pine forests; the sites of two former uranium mines, the White King and Lucky Lass mines, are within the Fremont National Forest. They are now Superfund sites. Common recreational activities in the Fremont National Forest include hiking, boating, horseback riding, mountain biking, skiing and fishing; the 50-mile Fremont National Recreation Trail runs northwest–southeast between Government Harvey Pass and Cox Pass in the forest. The Winema National Forest is a national forest in Klamath County on the eastern slopes of the Cascades in south-central Oregon and covers 1,045,548 acres.
The forest borders Crater Lake National Park near the crest of the Cascades and stretches eastward into the Klamath Basin. Near the floor of the basin the forest gives way to vast marshes and meadows associated with Upper Klamath Lake and the Williamson River drainage. To the north and east, extensive stands of ponderosa and lodgepole pine grow on deep pumice and ash that blanketed the area during the eruption of Mount Mazama nearly 7,000 years ago. A 1993 Forest Service study estimated. There are local ranger district offices located in Chemult and Klamath Falls; the forest is named after Toby Riddle, a Modoc woman known as "Winema". Founded in 1961, the Winema National Forest was protected as the Cascade Range Forest Reserve from 1893 to 1907, when it became the Cascade National Forest. In 1908, it changed to the Mazama National Forest and Crater Lake National Forest until 1932; the land was part of the Rogue River National Forest from 1932 to 1961, when it was designated the Winema National Forest.
In 2002, it was administratively combined with the Fremont National Forest. The Winema National Forest separately is the third-largest national forest, contained within one county. More than 50 percent of the forest is former Klamath Indian Reservation land; as part of the Indian Termination Policy that began in the 1950s, the United States Congress enacted a few termination acts directed at specific tribes that included the Klamath Tribe. The Klamath Tribe was vulnerable to government termination due to factionalism within the tribe that resulted from cultural assimilation effects of the previous decades. On the date of the act, a roll was taken of the tribe, locking in those eligible for property rights to tribal land. After this process, the collective land was divided among each individual on the roll and a vote was conducted on whether to withdraw from the tribe, those that remained would have their portion put back into a collective of land. Given that estimates suggest seventy percent of tribal members would withdraw, selling their land for commercial use, the government and lumber industry became concerned with how the increase in Klamath Forest timber would saturate the industry.
The act was amended to put commercial sales into the hands of the Forest Service, who implemented a sustainable-yield policy in regards to the former Klamath Forest. In the end, seventy-seven percent of the tribe voted to withdraw, shrinking the reservation down from 762,000 acres to 145,000 acres. Two purchases by the US government - the first in 1963 of about 500,000 acres and the second in 1973 of about 135,000 acres - were combined with portions of three other national forests to form the Winema National Forest. Members of the Klamath tribe reserve specific rights of hunting, fishing and gathering of forest materials on former reservation land within the Winema National Forest. There are over 300 species of fish that occur in this region. There are about 925 species of documented vascular plants in the Fremont National Forest; the vascular plants provide food and habitat for mammals, fish and mankind. Management to ensure that all native species maintain healthy populations is a focus of the Forest Service.
There are rare species of plants found in the forest. Game animals include elk and mule deer. There are several types of trout in the
National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat
Hells Canyon National Recreation Area
Hells Canyon National Recreation Area is a United States National Recreation Area located on the borders of the U. S. states of Idaho. The recreation area, managed by the United States Forest Service as part of the Wallowa-Whitman National Forest, was established by U. S. Congress and signed by President Gerald Ford in 1975 to protect the historic and archaeological values of the Hells Canyon area and the area of the Snake River between Hells Canyon Dam and the Oregon-Washington border. 215,000 acres of the recreation area are designated the Hells Canyon Wilderness. There are nearly 900 miles of hiking trails in the recreation area; the largest portion of the area lies in eastern Wallowa Oregon. Smaller portions lie in southwestern Idaho County, northwestern Adams County and northeastern Baker County, Oregon. All or included in the HCNRA is the Hells Canyon Archeological District, a 12,000-acre historic district, listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places; the district includes 536 contributing sites, 23 contributing buildings, 58 other contributing structures.
The Snake River National Recreation Trail #102 lies within the Hells Canyon National Recreation Area and along the Idaho side of the Snake River, from near Lamont Springs, downstream, to Pittsburg Landing. The SRNRT was designated in 1980 under the National Trails System Act, it was constructed during the period of the late 1800s to about the 1930s. Access to the SRNRT can be gained via road to the trailhead at Pittsburg Landing on the north end of the trail, or, by boat access near Hells Canyon Dam on the south end of the trail. Access can be gained via trails leading from Seven Devils Wilderness Area trail head at Windy Saddle via either the Granite Creek trails or Sheep Creek trails. Ewert, Sara E. Dant. "Evolution of an Environmentalist: Senator Frank Church and the Hells Canyon Controversy." Montana: The Magazine of Western History 51: 36-51. Hells Canyon National Recreation Area
Mount Hood National Forest
The Mount Hood National Forest is 62 miles east of the city of Portland and the northern Willamette River valley. The Forest extends south from the Columbia River Gorge across more than 60 miles of forested mountains and streams to the Olallie Scenic Area, a high lake basin under the slopes of Mount Jefferson; the Forest is named after Mount Hood, a stratovolcano. The Forest encompasses some 1,067,043 acres. Forest headquarters are located in Oregon. A 1993 Forest Service study estimated; the Forest is divided into four separate districts - Barlow, Clackamas River, Hood River, Zigzag. In descending order of land area the National Forest is located in parts of Clackamas, Hood River, Multnomah and Jefferson counties. Mount Hood National Forest was first established as the Bull Run Forest Reserve in 1892, it was expanded in 1893. It was named Oregon National Forest; the name was changed again to Mount Hood National Forest in 1924. The 1952 film Bend of the River was shot in Mount Hood National Forest.
In 2010, Mount Hood National Forest was honored with its own quarter under the America the Beautiful Quarters program. The Mount Hood National Forest is one of the most-visited National Forests in the United States, with over four million visitors annually. Less than five percent of the visitors camp in the forest; the forest contains 170 developed recreation sites, including: Timberline Lodge, built in 1937 high on Mount Hood Lost Lake Burnt Lake Trillium Lake Timothy Lake Rock Creek Reservoir The Old Oregon Trail, including Barlow RoadOther common recreational activities in the Mount Hood National Forest include fishing, hiking, rafting, horseback riding, mountain biking, berry-picking, mushroom collecting. A portion of the Pacific Crest Trail passes through the National Forest on the flanks of the mountain. Mount Hood is a popular destination for mountain climbers. Several nonprofits lead free hikes into the National Forest to build support for further protection from logging and off-road vehicle use, including BARK and Oregon Wild.
Mount Hood National Recreation Area was established within Mount Hood National Forest on March 30, 2009. The recreation area comprises three separate units. There are eight designated wilderness areas within Mount Hood National Forest collectively adding up to 311,448 acres that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. Acreages are as of 2011. Badger Creek Wilderness at 29,057 acres Bull of the Woods Wilderness at 36,731 acres Clackamas Wilderness at 9,181 acres Lower White River Wilderness at 1,743 acres not counting 1,063 acres on BLM land Mark O. Hatfield Wilderness at 65,822 acres Mount Hood Wilderness at 63,177 acres includes the peak and upper slopes of Mount Hood Roaring River Wilderness at 36,768 acres Salmon–Huckleberry Wilderness at 62,455 acres The Olallie Scenic Area is a roaded lake basin that offers a primitive recreational experience. A campaign which began in 2004 and is still running as of December 31st 2016. Mt. Hood has attempted at becoming a National Park since the early 20th century.
Mount Hood National Forest - US Forest Service Mount Hood National Forest - Wildernet.com Hiking Mount Hood National Forest - GORP Mount Hood National Park Campaign - MHNPC
Newberry National Volcanic Monument
Newberry National Volcanic Monument was designated on November 5, 1990, to protect the area around the Newberry Volcano in the U. S. state of Oregon. It was created within the boundaries of the Deschutes National Forest and is managed by the U. S. Forest Service, it includes 50,000 acres of lakes, lava flows, spectacular geologic features in central Oregon. Newberry National Volcanic Monument consists of four primary visitor destinations: Lava Butte, Lava River Cave, Lava Cast Forest, Newberry Caldera; the highest point within the monument is the summit of Paulina Peak at 7,985 ft, with views of the Oregon Cascades and the high desert. Paulina Peak may be accessed by road during the summer months, as the road is both steep and rough, with hairpin turns towards the summit, trailers or long vehicles are discouraged; the summit area of Newberry Volcano holds two alpine lakes full of trout, East Lake and Paulina Lake. The Big Obsidian Flow, created 1,300 years ago, covers 700 acres; the black, shiny obsidian field is accessible from good roads within the caldera, or a trail that traverses the flow.
Lava Cast Forest is 25 miles south of Bend, accessible via a 9-mile gravel road from U. S. Highway 97. Lava Cast Forest contains a 6,000-year-old lava flow. Lava Butte is 11 miles south of Bend, Oregon. Lava Butte is a cinder cone volcano, it can hiking up a paved road. Interpretive signs, views of the surrounding lava flow and mountains, an active fire lookout are found on top. Lava River Cave is 13 miles south of Bend. Lava River Cave is open to visitors from May through September. Lava River Cave is the largest uncollapsed lava tube in Oregon, may be explored by lantern. Temperatures in the cave average 42 °F. White-nose syndrome has not yet affected resident bats in the cave. Newberry Caldera is 37 miles from Bend and 19 miles from La Pine. Newberry Caldera is the largest developed area within the national monument; the caldera was formed. Over time the caldera filled up with water that created Paulina Lake and East Lake. Newberry Caldera has many natural tourism opportunities. Visitors have access to campgrounds, water recreation, lodging and interpretive guides with Forest Service staff.
Newberry Caldera has medium use most of the year with some high usage during peak times of the year.'There are twelve trails within Newberry Caldera ranging from 0.25 miles to 21 miles. These trails offer a variety of uses from hiking only to multiuse with hiking and horse allowed. Along the trails you can find access to fishing, interpretive signs, picnic areas, hot springs. There are seven boat launches for water recreationists; the Caldera offers nine camp sites accommodating both tent and RV camper. Newberry Caldera offers a variety of winter activates such as snowmobiling, cross country skiing, rooms for rent at the resorts.' List of National Monuments of the United States Official Website Volcanic Vistas: Guide to Newberry National Volcanic Monument