Cash flow

A cash flow is a real or virtual movement of money: a cash flow in its narrow sense is a payment from one central bank account to another. Cash flows are narrowly interconnected with the concepts of interest rate and liquidity. A cash flow that shall happen on a future day tN can be transformed into a cash flow of the same value in t0. Cash flows are transformed into measures that give information e.g. on a company's value and situation: to determine a project's rate of return or value. The time of cash flows into and out of projects are used as inputs in financial models such as internal rate of return and net present value. To determine problems with a business's liquidity. Being profitable does not mean being liquid. A company can fail because of a shortage of cash while profitable; as an alternative measure of a business's profits when it is believed that accrual accounting concepts do not represent economic realities. For instance, a company may be notionally profitable but generating little operational cash.

In such a case, the company may be deriving additional operating cash by issuing shares or raising additional debt finance. Cash flow can be used to evaluate the'quality' of income generated by accrual accounting; when net income is composed of large non-cash items it is considered low quality. To evaluate the risks within a financial product, e.g. matching cash requirements, evaluating default risk, re-investment requirements, etc. Cash flow notion is based loosely on cash flow statement accounting standards; the term can refer to time intervals spanning over past-future. It can refer to a subset of those flows. Within cash flow analysis, 3 types of cash flow are present and used for the cash flow statement: - a measure of the cash generated by a company's regular business operations. Operating cash flow indicates whether a company can produce sufficient cash flow to cover current expenses and pay debts. Cash flow from investing activities - the amount of cash generated from investing activities such as purchasing physical assets, investments in securities, or the sale of securities or assets.

Cash flow from financing activities - the net flows of cash that are used to fund the company. This includes transactions involving dividends and debt; the net cash flow of a company over a period is equal to the change in cash balance over this period: positive if the cash balance increases, negative if the cash balance decreases. The total net cash flow for a project is the sum of cash flows that are classified in three areas: Operational cash flows: cash received or expended as a result of the company's internal business activities. Operating cash flow of a project is determined by: OCF = incremental earnings+depreciation=+depreciation OCF = earning before interest and tax*+ depreciation OCF = * +depreciation OCF = * + depreciation* Depreciation* which locates at the end of the formula is called depreciation shield through which we can see that there is a negative relation between depreciation and cash flow. Changing in net working capital: it is the cost or revenue related to the company's short-term asset like inventory.

Capital spending: this is the cost or gain related to the company's fix asset such as the cash used to buy a new equipment or the cash, gained from selling an old equipment. The sum of the three component above will be the cash flow for a project, and the cash flow for a company include three parts: Operating cash flow: refers to the cash received or loss because of the internal activities of a company such as the cash received from sales revenue or the cash paid to the workers. Investment cash flow: refers to the cash flow which related to the company's fix asset such as equipment building and so on such as the cash used to buy a new equipment or a building Financing cash flow: cash flow from a company's financing activities like issuing stock or paying dividends; the sum of the three components above will be the total cash flow of a company. The net cash flow only provides a limited amount of information. Compare, for instance, the cash flows over three years of two companies: Company B has a higher yearly cash flow.

However, Company A is earning more cash by its core activities and has spent 45M in long term investments, of which the revenues will only show up after three years. Capital gain Cash flow sign convention Cash flow hedge Cash flow projection Cash flow statement Investment Passive income Profit Return of capital Return on equity Auerbach, A. J. & Devereux, M. P.. Consumption and cash-flow taxes in an international setting. STICERD - Public Economics Programme Discussion Papers 03, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE. National Bureau of Economic Research. A Review of Academic Research on the Reporting of Cash Flows from Operations

Empire, Inc.

Empire, Inc. is a six-episode Canadian television miniseries, which aired on CBC Television in English and Télévision de Radio-Canada in French in 1983. Spanning from the 1920s to the 1960s, the series centred on the family of James Munroe, a wealthy anglophone business tycoon in Montreal; the series was a co-production of CBC Television, Télévision de Radio-Canada and the National Film Board. It was directed with each directing three of the six episodes; the cast included Martha Henry, Jennifer Dale, Mitch Martin, Peter Dvorsky, Linda Griffiths, Pamela Redfern, Joseph Ziegler, Donald Pilon, Lyn Jackson and Gabriel Arcand. The series garnered six ACTRA Award nominations in 1984, including Best Actor for Welsh, Best Actress for both Griffiths and Henry, Best Supporting Performer nods for Gabriel Arcand and Lyn Jackson and a Best Writing for Douglas Bowie. Welsh, Griffiths and Bowie won their awards. Empire, Inc. on IMDb

Warren Woods Tower High School

Warren Woods Tower High School referred to as Tower, is a public high school in Warren, Michigan which educates students in grades 9–12. It is a part of the Warren Woods Public Schools school district; as of 2008, Mike Mackenzie is the school principal. Its athletic teams are known as the Titans, the school colors are Honolulu Blue and Silver; the school is the result of the 1983 merger of Robert S. Tower and Warren Woods High Schools. Robert S. Tower was Superintendent of the Warren Woods School District in early 1970s. Tower's athletic teams during the beginning until 1983 were known as the Vikings. Warren Woods High School opened in 1965 and graduated its first group of seniors in 1967, its athletic teams were nicknamed "Warriors" and its school colors were green and white. The school won the State Class B football championship in 1978. Due to declining enrollment, the school closed in 1983 and merged with Robert S. Tower High School; the merged school was located on the old Tower High School site.

Warren Woods Middle School now sits on the old Warren Woods High School site and Enterprise High School is located on the old Warren Woods Middle School site. The demographic breakdown of the 1,133 students enrolled for the 2012-2013 school year was: Male - 46.3% Female - 53.7% Native American/Alaskan - 0.2% Asian/Pacific islander - 6.9% Black - 14.0% Hispanic - 1.5% White - 73.8% Multiracial - 3.6%In addition, 43.9% of the students qualified for free or reduced lunches. Warren Woods Tower High School official website