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Casino Royale (2006 film)

Casino Royale is a 2006 spy film, the twenty-first in the Eon Productions James Bond series, the third screen adaptation of Ian Fleming's 1953 novel of the same name. Directed by Martin Campbell and written by Neal Purvis and Robert Wade, Paul Haggis, it is the first film to star Daniel Craig as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond, was produced by Eon Productions for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Columbia Pictures, making it the first Eon-produced Bond film to be co-produced by the latter studio. Following Die Another Day, Eon Productions decided to reboot the series, allowing them to show a less experienced and more vulnerable Bond. Casino Royale takes place at the beginning of Bond's career as Agent 007, as he is earning his licence to kill; the plot has Bond on an assignment to bankrupt terrorist financier Le Chiffre in a high-stakes poker game at the Casino Royale in Montenegro. The film begins a story arc that continues in Quantum of Solace. Casting involved a widespread search for a new actor to succeed Pierce Brosnan as James Bond.

Location filming took place in the Czech Republic, the Bahamas and the United Kingdom with interior sets built at Barrandov Studios and Pinewood Studios. Casino Royale premiered at the Odeon Leicester Square on 14 November 2006, it received an overwhelmingly positive critical response, with reviewers highlighting Craig's reinvention of the character and the film's departure from the tropes of previous Bond films. It earned $606 million worldwide, becoming the highest-grossing James Bond film until the release of Skyfall in 2012. MI6 agent James Bond gains his status as a 00 agent by assassinating traitorous section chief Dryden and his contact. In Uganda, the mysterious Mr. White introduces Steven Obanno, a high-ranking member of the Lord's Resistance Army, to Le Chiffre, a private banker to terrorists. Obanno entrusts Le Chiffre with a large sum of money to invest safely. In Madagascar, Bond pursues bomb-maker Mollaka to an embassy, shooting him dead and blowing up the building. In London, MI6 chief M admonishes Bond for ignoring international law and her orders to capture Mollaka alive.

Clues point to corrupt Greek official Alex Dimitrios. Seducing his wife Solange and winning his 1964 Aston Martin DB5 in a poker game, Bond pursues Dimitrios to Miami, where he is forced to kill him. Following his henchman Carlos to the airport, Bond thwarts the destruction of Skyfleet's airliner, losing Le Chiffre $101,206,000. To recoup the money, Le Chiffre organizes a high-stakes Texas hold'em tournament at the Casino Royale in Montenegro. MI6 enters Bond in the tournament, believing a defeat will force Le Chiffre to seek asylum with the British government in exchange for information on his clients. Bond is paired with a British Treasury agent protecting the $10 million buy-in. In Montenegro, they meet René Mathis. Bond gains the upper hand, deducing Le Chiffre's tell. Obanno ambushes Le Chiffre and his girlfriend Valenka with a machete, but allows him to continue playing to win back the money. Obanno's bodyguard spots Vesper, forcing Bond to subdue the henchman and kill Obanno. After comforting a traumatised Vesper, Bond loses his stake when Le Chiffre is tipped off to his own tell, Vesper refuses to authorize the $5 million to buy back in.

Preparing to kill Le Chiffre, Bond meets fellow player Felix Leiter, a CIA agent, who agrees to stake Bond in exchange for taking Le Chiffre into American custody – a deal Bond accepts. Bond rebuilds his position. Retrieving an antidote and defibrillator from his Aston Martin DBS V12, Bond passes out until Vesper rescues him. Much to Le Chiffre's surprise, Bond returns to the game which culminates in a $115 million hand in which the remaining players go all in. Le Chiffre trumps the others. Tipped off by Mathis, Le Chiffre kidnaps Vesper. In pursuit, Bond crashes his car to avoid Vesper, tied up in the road. Le Chiffre brings the captive Bond and Vesper to an abandoned ship and tortures Bond to reveal the account number and password to the winnings, but Bond refuses; as Le Chiffre prepares to castrate Bond, Mr. White kills Le Chiffre and his associates for their failure, leaving Bond and Vesper alive. Bond has Mathis arrested as the traitor. Transferring the winnings, Bond reveals the password, "Vesper".

He resigns from MI6 and they run away to Venice, but when M reveals the money was never deposited, Bond realises Vesper has betrayed him. He follows her to a handoff of the money. Bond shoots the building's flotation devices, he kills the gunmen but Vesper, imprisoned in an elevator and locks herself inside as the lift plunges into the rising water. Bond tries to resuscitate her, but is too late. White escapes with the money. M informs Bond that the organisation behind Le Chiffre had threatened to kill Vesper's lover unless she became a double agent. Bond tells M he will return to service, with M quipping that she hopes he "learned his lesson." At an estate in Lake Como, Bond locates Mr. White, shooting him in the leg and introducing himself: "The name's Bond. James Bond." Daniel Craig as James Bond: A Br

U.S. Open Chess Championship

The U. S. Open Championship is an open national chess championship, held in the United States annually since 1900; the tournament was the championship of the Western Chess Association, was called the Western Open. In 1934 the Western Chess Association became the American Chess Federation and the tournament became the American Chess Federation congress. In 1939, that organization merged into the United States Chess Federation and the tournament became the U. S. Open. In early years the tournament was small, most years play was conducted as round robin. In some years it had to be divided into final sections, it grew larger starting in 1934. In 1946 the Swiss System was used for preliminary rounds, in 1947 and subsequent years the tournament was held as a single section paired by the Swiss System. For many years, the tournament lasted two weeks. After experimentation with various less-demanding formats, in recent years it has been nine rounds. Tournament participation grew through the 1960s. Milwaukee 1953 had 181 entrants, setting a new record for the tournament.

Cleveland 1957 had 184 players, San Francisco 1961 set another attendance record with 198 players. The 1963 Open at Chicago had 266 entries, making it the largest chess tournament held in the United States to that time; the tourney was smaller at Boston in 1964, with a field of 229. The 1983 Open at Pasadena was the largest at 836 official entries. In the 2000s, the fields were over 400 to 500 entries; the tournament began in some editions to decline both in attendance and importance, many winners are involved in a tie for first since the mid 1990s. The cash prizes awarded added to the tournament's popularity. In 1962, the entry fee was $20, with a first prize of $1,000, second prize $500, third $300, fourth $200, fifth $100, sixth through tenth $50 and eleventh through fifteenth $25; the Women's Open Champion won $200, the women's runner-up $100. Additional cash prizes were awarded to the top women, the top junior, for the best scores in the Expert, A, B, C classes; the 2016 guaranteed prize fund was $40,000, with $8,000 for first place.

U. S. Women's Open Chess Championship U. S. Women's Chess Championship U. S. Chess Championship American Chess Congress Harkness, Official Chess Handbook, David McKay, pp. 276–278, LCCN 66013085 "2016 US Chess Yearbook". Uschess.org. 2016. Retrieved June 28, 2018. Verber, Richard, "The U. S. Opens A Rich Tradition", Chess Life & Review, July 1979, p. 400 "US Open Tournament Index". Retrieved January 31, 2016. Chess Life, 17, pp. 128–129, June 1962 2007 results at uschess.org

European Data Relay System

The European Data Relay System system is a European constellation of GEO satellites that relay information and data between satellites, spacecraft, UAVs, ground stations. The designers intend the system to provide full-time communication with satellites in low Earth orbit that have reduced visibility from ground stations, it makes on-demand data available to, for example, rescue workers who want near-real-time satellite data of a crisis region. The system has been developed as part of the ARTES 7 programme and is intended to be an independent, European satellite system that reduces time delays in the transmission of large quantities of data; the programme is similar to the American Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System, set up to support the Space Shuttle—but EDRS is using a new generation Laser Communication Terminal which carries data at a much larger bit rate: the laser terminal transmits 1.8 Gbit/s across 45,000 km, while the TDRSS provides ground reception rates of 6 Mbit/s in the S-band and 800 Mbit/s in the Ku- and Ka-bands.

Such a terminal was tested during in-orbit verification between the German radar satellite TerraSAR-X and the American NFIRE satellite. It is embarked on the commercial telecommunication satellite Alphasat. EDRS infrastructure will consist of two geostationary payloads, a ground system consisting of a satellite control centre, a mission and operations centre, a feeder link ground station, data ground stations; the first EDRS payload, EDRS-A, comprising a laser communication terminal and a Ka band inter-satellite link, was placed on-board Eutelsat commercial telecommunication satellite, called Eutelsat 9B. The satellite was launched in January 2016 by a Proton-M rocket and will be positioned at 9°E. A second EDRS payload was launched aboard a dedicated spacecraft; the EDRS-C, carrying a laser communication terminal, was launched on 6 August 2019 and will be positioned at 31°E. The satellite carries a payload meant for commercial communication satellite use, the HYLAS 3 payload, thus the satellite is sometimes referred to as EDRS-C/HYLAS 3 or something similar.

The EDRS A and C form the initial core space infrastructure that provides direct coverage for LEO satellites over Europe, the Middle East, the Americas and the Poles. Two further spacecraft are planned to complement the system from 2020 onwards, affording a complete coverage of the Earth and providing long-term system redundancy beyond 2030; the ground segment of EDRS includes three ground receiving stations located at Weilheim, Redu and Harwell, UK. The prime Mission Operations Centre will be in Ottobrunn, while a backup centre will be installed in Redu, Belgium; the EDRS-A payload as well as the EDRS-C satellite will be operated by the German Space Operations Center of the German Aerospace Center in Oberpfaffenhofen near Munich, Germany. The first users for EDRS will be -2 satellites of the Copernicus Programme; the Sentinel satellites will provide data for the operational provision of geo-information products and services throughout Europe and the globe. EDRS will provide the data relay services for the Sentinel satellites facilitating a rapid downlink of large volumes of imagery.

Extensive further capacities on the system will be available for third party users. There are a number of key services that will benefit from this system's infrastructure: Earth Observation applications in support of time-critical and/or data-intensive services. Government and security services that need images from key European space systems such as Global Monitoring for Environment and Security. Emergency response and crisis intervention applications that need information and data over areas affected by natural or man-made disasters. Security forces that transmit data to Earth observation satellites and unmanned aerial observation vehicles, to reconfigure such systems in real time. Weather satellite services that require the fast delivery of large quantities of data around the world. EDRS is being implemented as a Public Private Partnership between the European Space Agency and Airbus Defence & Space. ESA funds the infrastructure development and is the anchor customer through the Sentinel satellite missions.

ADS will carry the overall responsibility for the implementation of the space segment including launch, as well as the ground segment. ADS will take over ownership of EDRS and will provide the data transmission services to ESA and customers worldwide. Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System Artemis satellite Laser Communications Relay Demonstration Indian Data Relay Satellite System EDRS SpaceDataHighway EDRS at ESA website Redefining Satellite Data Transfer