Minot, North Dakota
Minot is a city in and the county seat of Ward County, North Dakota, United States, in the state's north-central region. It is most known for the Air Force base located 15 miles north of the city. With a population of 40,888 at the 2010 census, Minot is the fourth largest city in the state and a trading center for a large portion of northern North Dakota, southwestern Manitoba, southeastern Saskatchewan. Founded in 1886 during the construction of the Great Northern Railway, Minot is known as "Magic City", commemorating its remarkable growth in size over a short time. Minot is the principal city of the Minot micropolitan area, a micropolitan area that covers McHenry and Ward counties and had a combined population of 69,540 at the 2010 census. In 2017, it was estimated that the population of the Minot Micropolitan Area was 77,309. Minot came into existence in 1886. A tent town sprang up overnight, as if by "magic", thus the city came to be known as the Magic City, in the next five months, the population increased to over 5,000 residents, further adding to the nickname's validity.
The town site was chosen by the railroad to be placed on the land of then-homesteader Erik Ramstad. Ramstad was convinced to relinquish his claim, became one of the city leaders; the town was named after a railroad investor, an ornithologist and friend of Hill. Its Arikara name is niwaharít sahaáhkat; the city was incorporated on July 16, 1887. The Minneapolis, St. Paul and Sault Ste. Marie Railroad built a line from Valley City up to Canada. While their plan was to cross the Mouse River at Burlington, local interests and arguments convinced them otherwise, they reached Minot in 1893. A July 22, 1920 tornado passed over Minot and bore down in a coulee three miles southeast of town; the tornado picked up the Andy Botz home and hurled it to the ground, killing Mrs. Botz, breaking Mr. Botz's shoulder, injuring the two Botz children who were in the house. Minot and its surrounding area were wide open throughout 1905-20. Population grew due to railroad construction and availability of unclaimed land. Nearly complete court records of Ward County and Minot document the prevalence and different types of criminal activity, offer strong support for the dubious title of "crime capitol of North Dakota."
State attorney general William Langer helped clean up the town in 1917-1920, but by the time Prohibition had arrived in the 1920s the city had become a center of illegal activities associated with the High Third district, which were exacerbated due to the city being a supply hub of Al Capone's liquor smuggling operations. The hotbed of alcohol bootlegging and opium dens that sprang up in the Downtown area soon led people to give Minot the nickname "Little Chicago." The Smugglers used a network of underground tunnels to transport and conceal the illicit cargo entering from Canada. The 1950s saw a large influx of federal funding into the region, with the construction of Minot Air Force Base thirteen miles north of the city, Garrison Dam on the Missouri River, about fifty miles south of Minot. In 1969, a severe flood on the Mouse River devastated the city. Afterward, the Army Corps of Engineers straightened the path of the river through the city and built several flood control structures. On January 18, 2002, a severe train derailment west of the city sent a gigantic cloud of anhydrous ammonia toward Minot, Burlington.
One man died and many of Minot's citizens were sickened and injured by the noxious gas, causing one of the worst major chemical accidents of the country. In early 2006, court cases were heard in Minneapolis, against Canadian Pacific Railway, the owner of the derailed train; the anhydrous ammonia spill was the largest such spill in U. S. history. This incident was used by Eric Klinenberg in his book Fighting for Air: The Battle to Control America's Media as an example of the failure of mass-media local radio stations, to disseminate information to the public in an emergency; the 2011 Mouse River flood caused extensive damage throughout the Mouse River Valley. On June 21, 2011, KXMC-TV reported that a flood of historic proportions was imminent in the Mouse River Valley due to large dam releases upstream. Around 12,000 people were evacuated. On June 26, flooding exceeded previous records when the river crested at 1,561.72 feet above sea level, three feet above the previous record set back in 1881.
It is estimated. This figure includes over 4,100 homes which were someway affected, 2,376 extensively damaged, 805 damaged beyond repair. Burlington was severely damaged during this time. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 17.45 square miles, of which 17.43 square miles is land and 0.02 square miles is water. Minot is divided into three major divisions; these divisions are the Mouse River Valley and South Hill. North Hill is the area north of Eleventh Avenue North and Northwest Avenue. South Hill is a broad area west of Valley Street and Fifth Avenue South. West of Sixth Street West, South Hill dips to the southwest; the limits of South Hill are less defined than North Hill. Though the neighborhood levels out past Sixteenth Street South, the name South Hill is applied to all areas south up to the city limits. Neighborhoods in the Mouse River Valley include Bel Air
Scandinavian Heritage Park
Scandinavian Heritage Park is a park located in the Upper Brooklyn neighborhood of Minot, North Dakota. Scandinavian Heritage Park features remembrances and replicas from each of the Scandinavian countries: Norway and Denmark, as well as Finland and Iceland; the park was established during 1988 to preserve Scandinavian heritage. The first building was dedicated October 9, 1990, it is believed to be the only park in the world representing all five Nordic countries. The park is supported by the Scandinavian Heritage Association and Norsk Høstfest, both of which have offices at the park. Casper Oimoen statue - Norwegian born captain of the ski team for the United States at the 1936 Winter Olympics Dala Horse - 30 feet tall replica of brightly colored horses from the province of Dalarna, Sweden Danish Windmill - working windmill on rock and concrete base built locally in 1928 Finnish Sauna - authentic free standing sauna built in traditional Finnish style Flag Display - flags of the five Nordic countries and the United States Gol stave church - replica of the original Gol Stave Church, built in Gol, Norway Hans Christian Andersen statue - Danish writer famous for his fairy tales Leif Eirikssen statue - bronze statue of the Icelandic explorer Nordic Pavilion - Arts and Picnic Shelter Observatory- 48-inch diameter spinning marble globe fountain Plaza Scandinavia - granite map of the five Nordic countries Scandinavian Heritage Center - office of the Scandinavian Heritage Association Sigdal House - 200-year-old house relocated from the Vatnas area of Sigdal, Norway Sondre Norheim statue - Norwegian born father of modern skiing Sondre Norheim eternal flame - monument represents the sport of skiing Stabbur - replica of a storehouse from a farm near Telemark, Norway Waterfall - cascading waterfall and rippling stream that flows down to serene ponds Scandinavian Heritage Association
North Dakota is a U. S. state in northern regions of the United States. It is the nineteenth largest in area, the fourth smallest by population, the fourth most sparsely populated of the 50 states. North Dakota was admitted to the Union on November 3, 1889, along with its neighboring state, South Dakota, its capital is Bismarck, its largest city is Fargo. In the 21st century, North Dakota's natural resources have played a major role in its economic performance with the oil extraction from the Bakken formation, which lies beneath the northwestern part of the state; such development has led to reduced unemployment. North Dakota contains the tallest human-made structure in the KVLY-TV mast. North Dakota is a Midwestern state of the United States, it lies at the center of the North American continent. The geographic center of North America is near the town of Rugby. Bismarck is the capital of North Dakota, Fargo is the largest city. Soil is North Dakota's most precious resource, it is the base of the state's great agricultural wealth.
But North Dakota has enormous mineral resources. These mineral resources include billions of tons of lignite coal. In addition, North Dakota has large oil reserves. Petroleum was discovered in the state in 1951 and became one of North Dakota's most valuable mineral resources. In the early 2000's, the emergence of hydraulic fracturing technologies enabled mining companies to extract huge amounts of oil from the Bakken shale rock formation in the western part of the state. North Dakota's economy is based more on farming than are the economies of most other states. Many North Dakota factories manufacture farm equipment. Many of the state’s merchants rely on agriculture. Farms and ranches cover nearly all of North Dakota, they stretch from the flat Red River Valley in the east, across rolling plains, to the rugged Badlands in the west. The chief crop, wheat, is grown in nearly every county. North Dakota flaxseed, it is the country’s top producer of barley and sunflower seeds and a leader in the production of beans, lentils, oats and sugar beets.
Few white settlers came to the North Dakota region before the 1870's because railroads had not yet entered the area. During the early 1870's, the Northern Pacific Railroad began to push across the Dakota Territory. Large-scale farming began during the 1870's. Eastern corporations and some families established huge wheat farms covering large areas of land in the Red River Valley; the farms made such enormous profits. White settlers, attracted by the success of the bonanza farms, flocked to North Dakota increasing the territory's population. In 1870, North Dakota had 2,405 people. By 1890, the population had grown to 190,983. North Dakota was named for the Sioux people; the Sioux called meaning allies or friends. One of North Dakota's nicknames is the Peace Garden State; this nickname honors the International Peace Garden, which lies on the state's border with Manitoba, Canada. North Dakota is called the Flickertail State because of the many flickertail ground squirrels that live in the central part of the state.
North Dakota is in the U. S. region known as the Great Plains. The state shares the Red River of the North with Minnesota to the east. South Dakota is to the south, Montana is to the west, the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba are to the north. North Dakota is near the middle of North America with a stone marker in Rugby, North Dakota marking the "Geographic Center of the North American Continent". With an area of 70,762 square miles, North Dakota is the 19th largest state; the western half of the state consists of the hilly Great Plains as well as the northern part of the Badlands, which are to the west of the Missouri River. The state's high point, White Butte at 3,506 feet, Theodore Roosevelt National Park are in the Badlands; the region is abundant in fossil fuels including crude oil and lignite coal. The Missouri River forms Lake Sakakawea, the third largest artificial lake in the United States, behind the Garrison Dam; the central region of the state is divided into the Missouri Plateau.
The eastern part of the state consists of the flat Red River Valley, the bottom of glacial Lake Agassiz. Its fertile soil, drained by the meandering Red River flowing northward into Lake Winnipeg, supports a large agriculture industry. Devils Lake, the largest natural lake in the state, is found in the east. Eastern North Dakota is overall flat. Most of the state is covered in grassland. Natural trees in North Dakota are found where there is good drainage, such as the ravines and valley near the Pembina Gorge and Killdeer Mountains, the Turtle Mountains, the hills around Devil's Lake, in the dunes area of McHenry County in central North Dakota, along the Sheyenne Valley slopes and the Sheyenne delta; this diverse terrain supports nearly 2,000 species of plants. North Dakota has a continental climate with cold winters; the temperature differences are significant because of its far inland position and being in the center of the Northern Hemisphere, with equal distances to the North Pole and the Equator.
As such, summers are subtropical, but winters are cold enough to ensure plant hardiness is low. Native American peoples lived in what is now North Dakota for thousands of year
Bismarck, North Dakota
Bismarck is the capital of the U. S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Burleigh County. It is the second-most populous city in North Dakota after Fargo; the city's population was estimated in 2017 at 72,865, while its metropolitan population was 132,142. In 2017, Forbes magazine ranked Bismarck as the seventh fastest-growing small city in the United States. Bismarck was founded by European Americans in 1872 on the east bank of the Missouri River, it has been North Dakota's capital city since 1889, when the state was created from the Dakota Territory and admitted to the Union. Bismarck is across the river from Mandan, named after a historic Native American tribe of the area; the two cities make up the core of the Bismarck-Mandan Metropolitan Statistical Area. The North Dakota State Capitol, the tallest building in the state, is in central Bismarck; the state government employs more than 4,600 in the city. As a hub of retail and health care, Bismarck is the economic center of south-central North Dakota and north-central South Dakota.
For thousands of years, present-day central North Dakota was inhabited by indigenous peoples, who created successive cultures. The historic Mandan Native American tribe occupied the area; the Hidatsa name for Bismarck is mirahacii arumaaguash. In 1872 European Americans founded a settlement at what was called Missouri Crossing, so named because the Lewis and Clark Expedition crossed the river there on their exploration of the Louisiana Purchase in 1804-1806, it had been an area of Mandan settlement. The new town was called Edwinton, after Edwin Ferry Johnson, engineer-in-chief for the Northern Pacific Railway, its construction of railroads in the territory attracted settlers. In 1873, the Northern Pacific Railway renamed the city as Bismarck, in honor of German chancellor Otto von Bismarck. Railroad officials hoped to attract German immigrant settlers to the area and German investment in the railroad; the discovery of gold in the nearby Black Hills of South Dakota the following year was a greater impetus for growth.
Thousands of miners came to the area, encroaching on what the Lakota considered sacred territory and leading to heightened tensions with the Native Americans. Bismarck became a freight-shipping center on the "Custer Route" from the Black Hills. In 1883 Bismarck was designated as the capital of the Dakota Territory, in 1889 as the state capital of the new state of North Dakota. Bismarck is located at 46°48′48″N 100°46′44″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 31.23 square miles, of which, 30.85 square miles is land and 0.38 square miles is water. The city has developed around the center of historic development, it is distinctive because the city's major shopping center, Kirkwood Mall, is in the center city rather than in the suburbs. Several other major retail stores are in the vicinity of Kirkwood Mall, developed near the Bismarck Civic Center; the two Bismarck hospitals, St. Alexius Medical Center and Sanford Health are both downtown; the streets are lined with small restaurants, providing numerous amenities.
Much recent commercial and residential growth has taken place in the city's northern section because of expanding retail centers. Among the shopping centers in northern Bismarck are Gateway Fashion Mall, Northbrook Mall, Arrowhead Plaza, the Pinehurst Square "power center" mall; the North Dakota State Capitol complex is just north of downtown Bismarck. The 19-story Art Deco capitol is the tallest building in the city and the state, at a height of 241.75 feet. The capitol building towers over the city's center and is seen from 20 miles away on a clear day. Completed during the Great Depression in 1934, it replaced a capitol building that burned to the ground in 1930; the capitol grounds house the North Dakota Heritage Center, the North Dakota State Library, the North Dakota Governor's Residence, the State Office Building, the Liberty Memorial Building. The North Dakota State Penitentiary is in eastern Bismarck; the Cathedral District, named after the art deco Cathedral of the Holy Spirit, is an historic neighborhood near downtown Bismarck.
Some homes in this neighborhood date to the 1880s, although many were built in the first decades of the 20th century. At times, the city has proposed widening the streets in the neighborhood to improve traffic flow. Many residents object because such a project would require the removal of many of the towering American elms which line the streets; these have escaped the elm disease. After the completion of Garrison Dam in 1953 by the Army Corps of Engineers, which improved flood control, the floodplain of the Missouri River became a more practical place for development. Significant residential and commercial building has taken place in this area on the south side of the city; the Upper Missouri River is still subject to seasonal flooding. Situated in the middle of the Great Plains, between the geographic centers of the United States and Canada, Bismarck displays a variable four-season humid continental climate. Bismarck's climate is characterized by cold, somewhat snowy and windy winters, hot humid summers.
Thunderstorms occur in spring and summer. The warmest month in Bismarck is July, with a daily mean of 71.1 °F, with wide variations between day and night. The coldest month is January, with a 24-hour average of 12.8 °F. Precipitation peaks from May to September and is rather sparse in the w
Oppland is a county in Norway, bordering Trøndelag, Møre og Romsdal, Sogn og Fjordane, Akershus and Hedmark. The county administration is in Lillehammer. Oppland is, together with Hedmark, one of the only two landlocked counties of Norway. Innlandet is one of several names proposed for a future administrative region consisting of Hedmark and Oppland; the two counties are slated to be re-merged after having been split in 1781. The region was known as "Opplandene". Oppland extends from the lakes Mjøsa and Randsfjorden to the mountains Dovrefjell and Rondane; the county is conventionally divided into traditional districts. These are the Gudbrandsdalen, Toten and Land. Oppland includes the towns Lillehammer, Gjøvik and Fagernes, Norway's two highest mountains and Galdhøpiggen and the Gudbrand Valley being popular attractions; the Gudbrand Valley surrounds the river Gudbrandsdalslågen, includes the udes the area extending from Jotunheimen down to Bagn at Begna River. It is a well known place for winter sports.
The main population centres in this area are Fagernes. Eight of the ten highest mountains in Norway are located in the western part of Oppland. In Norse times the inner parts of Norway were called Upplǫnd'the upper countries'; the first element is upp'upper'. The last element is lǫnd, the plural form of'land'. In 1757 the inner parts of the great Akershus amt were separated, given the name Oplandenes Amt; this was divided in 1781 into Hedemarkens Amt. The name/form was changed to Kristians Amt in 1877. In 1919 the name Kristians Amt was changed to Opland fylke, the form Oppland was settled in 1950; the coat of arms were granted in 1989, it shows two Pulsatilla vernalis. Oppland County has a total of 26 municipalities: Media related to Oppland at Wikimedia Commons Oppland travel guide from Wikivoyage
Ski jumping is a winter sport in which competitors aim to achieve the longest jump after descending from a specially designed ramp on their skis. Along with jump length, competitor's style and other factors affect the final score. Ski jumping was first contested in Norway in the late 19th century, spread through Europe and North America in the early 20th century. Along with cross-country skiing, it constitutes the traditional group of Nordic skiing disciplines; the ski jumping venue referred to as a hill, consists of the jumping ramp, take-off table, a landing hill. Each jump is evaluated according to the distance traveled and the style performed; the distance score is related to the construction point, a line drawn in the landing area and serves as a "target" for the competitors to reach. The score of each judge evaluating the style can reach a maximum of 20 points; the jumping technique has evolved over the years, from jumps with the parallel skis with both arms pointing forwards, to the "V-style", used today.
Ski jumping has been included at the Winter Olympics since 1924 and at the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships since 1925. Women's participation in the sport began in the 1990s, while the first women's event at the Olympics has been held in 2014. All major ski jumping competitions are organised by the International Ski Federation. Stefan Kraft holds the official record for the world's longest ski jump with 253.5 metres, set on the ski flying hill in Vikersund in 2017. Ski jumping can be performed in the summer on an in-run where the tracks are made from porcelain and the grass on the slope is covered with water-soaked plastic; the highest level summer competition is the FIS Ski Jumping Grand Prix, contested since 1994. Like most of the Nordic skiing disciplines, the first ski jumping competitions were held in Norway in the 19th century, although there is evidence of ski jumping in the late 18th century; the recorded origins of the first ski jump trace back to 1808. Sondre Norheim, regarded as the "father" of the modern ski jumping, won the first-ever ski jumping competition with prizes, held in Høydalsmo in 1866.
The first larger ski jumping competition was held on Husebyrennet hill in Oslo, Norway, in 1875. Due to its poor infrastructure and the weather conditions, in 1892 the event was moved to Holmenkollen, today still one of the main ski jumping events in the season. In the late 19th century, Sondre Norheim and Nordic skier Karl Hovelsen immigrated to the United States and started developing the sport in that country. In 1924, ski jumping was featured at the 1924 Winter Olympics in France; the sport has been featured at every Olympics since. Ski jumping was brought to Canada by Norwegian immigrant Nels Nelsen. Starting with his example in 1915 until the late 1960s, annual ski jumping competitions were held on Mount Revelstoke — the ski hill Nelsen designed — the longest period of any Canadian ski jumping venue. Revelstoke's was the biggest natural ski jump hill in Canada and internationally recognized as one of the best in North America; the length and natural grade of its 600 m hill made possible jumps of over 60 m —the longest in Canada.
It was the only hill in Canada where world ski jumping records were set, in 1916, 1921, 1925, 1932, 1933. In 1935, the origins of the ski flying began in Planica, where Josef Bradl became the first competitor in history to jump over 100 m. At the same venue, the first official jump over 200 m was achieved in 1994, when Toni Nieminen landed at 203 metres. In 1964 in Zakopane, the large hill event was introduced at the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships. In the same year, the normal hill event was included on the Olympic programme at the 1964 Winter Olympics; the team event was added at the 1988 Winter Olympics. A ski jumping hill is located on a steep slope, it consists of the jumping ramp, take-off table, a landing hill. Competitors glide down from a common point at the top of the in-run, achieving considerable speeds at the take-off table, where they take off with help of speed and their own leap. While airborne, they maintain an aerodynamic position with their bodies and skis, that would allow them to maximize the length of the jump.
The landing slope is constructed so that the jumper's trajectory is near-parallel with it, the athlete's relative height to the ground is lost, allowing for a gentle and safe landing. The landing space is followed by an out-run, a substantial flat or counter-inclined area that permits the skier to safely slow down; the out-run area is surrounded by a public auditorium. The slopes are classified according to the distance that the competitors travel in the air, between the end of the table and the landing; each hill has a construction point. The classification of the hills are as follows: Competitors are ranked according to a numerical score obtained by adding up components based on distance, inrun length and wind conditions. In the individual event, the scores from each skier's two competition jumps are combined to determine the winner. Distance score depends on the hill's K-point. For K-90 and K-120 competitions, the K-point is set at 120 metres, respectively. Competitors are awarded 120 points if they land on the K-point.
For every metre beyond the K-point, the competitor is awarded extra points. A competitor's distance is measured between the takeoff and t