Aitkin County, Minnesota
Aitkin County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 16,202, its county seat is Aitkin. Part of the Mille Lacs Indian Reservation is in the county; the county was created in 1857 and organized in 1871. Aitkin County was established in 1857 as Aiken County; the current spelling was adopted in 1872. It was named for William Alexander Aitken, a fur trader for the American Fur Company, under John Jacob Astor. Formed from Ramsey and Pine counties, Aiken County consisted of the 17 townships closest to Mille Lacs Lake, it acquired outlands of Ramsey and Pine Counties to its north and east. It was organized in 1871, taking up lands from Cass and Itasca Counties and losing a point in the southwestern corner to Crow Wing County to form its current boundaries; the Mississippi River flows southward through the west central part of the county. The county terrain consists of wooded rolling hills, dotted with ponds; the terrain slopes to the south. The county has a total area of 1,995 square miles, of which 1,822 square miles is land and 174 square miles is water.
Aitkin County voters selected the Democratic Party candidate in 71% of national elections since 1960. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Aitkin have ranged from a low of 0 °F in January to a high of 80 °F in July, although a record low of −47 °F was recorded in January 1972 and a record high of 100 °F was recorded in August 1976. Although these records are the official records, temperatures above 100 °F has been detected numerous times throughout Aitkin County and surrounding areas. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 0.79 inches in February to 4.46 inches in June. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 16,202 people, 7,542 households, 4,458 families in the county; the population density was 8.89/sqmi. There were 16,626 housing units at an average density of 9.13/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 95.63% or 15,494 people White, 0.35% or 57 people Black or African American, 2.4% or 390 people Native American, 0.17% or 27 people Asian, 0.025% or 4 people Pacific Islander, 0.13% or 21 people from other races, 1.29% or 209 people from two or more races.
Of the population with two or more races, 0.9% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 29.5% were of German, 14.3% Norwegian, 13.0% Swedish, 6.2% Irish, 5.3% United States or American and 5.2% Finnish ancestry. There were 6,644 households out of which 22.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.50% were married couples living together, 6.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.90% were non-families. 28.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.76. The county population contained 20.90% under the age of 18, 5.50% from 18 to 24, 21.60% from 25 to 44, 29.10% from 45 to 64, 23.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females there were 101.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $44,139, the median income for a family was $58,290.
Males had a median income of $51,604 versus $30,633 for females. The per capita income for the county was $21,848. About 5.20% of families and 7.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.50% of those under age 18 and 11.00% of those age 65 or over. National Register of Historic Places listings in Aitkin County, Minnesota Aitkin County government’s website Minnesota Department of Transportation map of Aitkin County Records
Beltrami County, Minnesota
Beltrami County is a county in the northern part of the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 44,442, its county seat is Bemidji. The county's name comes from Italian adventurer Giacomo Beltrami, who explored the area in 1825; the county was created in 1866 and organized in 1896. Beltrami County comprises MN Micropolitan Statistical Area. Portions of the Leech Lake and Red Lake Indian reservations are in the county; the northernmost portion of the Mississippi River flows through the southern part of the county, through Bemidji. Beltrami and Renville are Minnesota's only counties. Beltrami County's southwest corner is considered part of the headwaters of the Mississippi River, which flows easterly and northeasterly from Lake Itasca through the southern part of the county. Much of the middle and upper county is taken up with the two sections of Red Lake; the county terrain consists of rolling low tree-covered hills, dotted with ponds. The terrain slopes to the east and north with its highest point near its southwest corner, at 1,457' ASL.
The county has a total area of 3,056 square miles, of which 2,505 square miles is land and 551 square miles is water. It is the fourth-largest county in Minnesota by area. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Bemidji have ranged from a low of −4 °F in January to a high of 79 °F in July, although a record low of −50 °F was recorded in January 1950 and a record high of 101 °F was recorded in July 1975. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 0.59 inches in February to 4.33 inches in July. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 39,650 people, 14,337 households, 9,749 families in the county; the population density was 15.8/sqmi. There were 16,989 housing units at an average density of 6.78/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 76.66% White, 0.36% Black or African American, 20.36% Native American, 0.57% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.21% from other races, 1.84% from two or more races. 0.99% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 21.6% were of German, 19.7% Norwegian and 5.6% Swedish ancestry.
95.1 % spoke 2.4 % Ojibwa as their first language. There were 14,337 households out of which 34.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.30% were married couples living together, 13.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.00% were non-families. 24.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.13. The county population contained 28.70% under the age of 18, 13.90% from 18 to 24, 25.20% from 25 to 44, 20.50% from 45 to 64, 11.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 97.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,392, the median income for a family was $40,345. Males had a median income of $30,434 versus $22,045 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,497. About 12.90% of families and 17.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.70% of those under age 18 and 12.20% of those age 65 or over.
Over half the children in the county are born out of wedlock. About a third are born to teenaged mothers; the county has about twice the state average in terms of high school dropouts. Between 1990 and 2005 the county had a suicide rate four times higher than the state; the county exceeds the state and national rates in both violent and property crimes. On March 21, 2005 ten people were murdered by a spree killer at the Red Lake Indian Reservation. Beltrami County voters have tended to vote Democratic for several decades. Since 1960 the county has selected the Democratic Party candidate in 79% of national elections. Gilfillan Biotic Area National Register of Historic Places listings in Beltrami County, Minnesota Red Lake, the largest lake, in Minnesota. Official website 360 Degree Virtual Tour of 2011 Beltrami County Fair
The Territory of Minnesota was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 3, 1849, until May 11, 1858, when the eastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Minnesota. The boundaries of the Minnesota Territory, as carved out of Iowa Territory, included the current Minnesota region and most of what became Dakota Territory east of the Missouri River. Minnesota Territory included portions of Wisconsin Territory that did not become part of Wisconsin, located between the Mississippi River and Wisconsin, including the Arrowhead Region. At the time of its formation, the territory contained three cities: St. Paul, St. Anthony, Stillwater; the major territorial institutions were divided among the three: St. Paul was made the capital. Charles K. Smith, 1849–1851 Alexander Wilkin, 1851–1853 Joseph Rosser, 1853–1857 Charles L. Chase, 1857–1858 Lorenzo A. Babcock, 1849–1853 Lafayette Emmett, 1853–1858 Henry Hastings Sibley, 31st Congress, 32nd Congress, 1849–1853 Henry Mower Rice, 33rd Congress, 34th Congress, 1853–1857 William W. Kingsbury, 35th Congress, 1857–1858 John Catlin Historic regions of the United States History of Minnesota Interior Plains Territorial era of Minnesota Territorial evolution of the United States Territory of France that encompassed land that would become part of the Territory of Minnesota: Louisiane, 1682–1764 and 1803 Territory of Spain that would be returned to France: Luisiana, 1764–1803 Territory of the United Kingdom that encompassed land that would become part of the Territory of Minnesota: Rupert's Land, 1670–1870 U.
S. territories that encompassed land that would become part of the Territory of Minnesota: Territory Northwest of the River Ohio, 1787–1803 Territory of Indiana, 1800–1816 Louisiana Purchase, 1803–1804 District of Louisiana, 1804–1805 Territory of Louisiana, 1805–1812 Territory of Illinois, 1809–1818 Territory of Missouri, 1812–1821 Territory of Michigan, 1805–1837 Territory of Wisconsin, 1836–1848 U. S. territories that encompassed land, part of the Territory of Minnesota: Territory of Dakota, 1861–1889 U. S. states that encompass land, once part of the Territory of Minnesota: State of Minnesota, 1858 State of North Dakota, 1889 State of South Dakota, 1889 Media related to Minnesota Territory at Wikimedia Commons Minnesota historic documents Debates and proceedings of the Constitutional convention for the territory of Minnesota, to form a state constitution preparatory to its admission into the Union as a state
Leech Lake Indian Reservation
The Leech Lake Indian Reservation is an Indian reservation located in the north-central Minnesota counties of Cass, Itasca and Hubbard. The reservation forms the land base for the federally recognized Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe, one of six bands comprising the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, organized in 1934; the Leech Lake Reservation has the highest population of any reservation in Minnesota, with a resident population of 10,660 indicated by the 2010 United States census. As of the 2010 census, the reservation had a population of 10,660, making it the largest in the state by number of residents; as the reservation covers 972.517 sq mi of land and 337.392 sq mi of water, about one-fourth of its territory is covered by lakes. The largest lakes on the reservation are Leech Lake, Lake Winnibigoshish, Cass Lake; the band uses 40 lakes for the production of wild rice, the community produces more rice than any other reservation in the state. The reservation is the second-largest in Minnesota in terms of land area, the largest in terms of total area.
The core areas of the reservation were established by the 1855 treaty of Washington, which formed three smaller reservations for the Pillager Band of Chippewa Indians, modified several times thereafter. Under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, the present "Greater" Leech Lake Indian Reservation was formed from the merger of the Leech Lake, Cass Lake, Lake Winnibigoshish reservations of the Pillager Band, the Chippewa Indian Reservation of the Lake Superior Band, the White Oak Point reservation of the Mississippi Band. A minimal percentage of reservation land is owned by citizens of the Band; the reservation consists of eleven villages. Nearly all Leech Lake communities are located near the woods of the Chippewa National Forest; the largest community is Cass Lake, situated on the southwestern shores of the eponymous lake. The next largest settlements are Ball Club, Onigum and Bena. In some communities, housing is located with each side lined with homes. Battle of Sugar Point Bryan v. Itasca County Leech Lake Tribal College List of historical Indian reservations in the United States List of largest Indian reservations Minnesota Indian Affairs Council Palace Bingo and Casino Official website Ekidong, Aaniin.
Ojibwe Vocabulary Project. St. Paul, Minnesota: Minnesota Humanities Center. ISBN 9780578034645. Treuer, Anton. Living Our Language: Ojibwe Tales & Oral Histories. Minnesota Historical Society Press. ISBN 9780873514040. Treuer, Anton. Ojibwe in Minnesota. Minnesota Historical Society Press. ISBN 9780873517683
Crow Wing County, Minnesota
Crow Wing County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 62,500, its county seat is Brainerd. The county was formed in 1857, was organized in 1870. Crow Wing County is included in MN Micropolitan Statistical Area; this area was long occupied by the Ojibwe people, known as Chippewa in the United States. In addition, numerous Dakota people lived in central and southern Minnesota before European settlement. European Americans established a trading post by 1837 in this area, on the east side of the Mississippi River opposite the mouth of the Crow Wing River; the post soon became a center of trading with the Native Americans on the region, with a general-supply store that serviced the area. By 1866, the village contained Chippewa; the territorial government enacted the county's creation on May 23, 1857, named Crow Wing as the county seat. The governmental structure of the county was not effected until March 3, 1870; the county was named for the river, itself named for an island in the river that resembles a crow's wing.
Brainerd township was founded in 1870 when the Northern Pacific Railroad selected this site for a crossing of the Mississippi River. It attracted population, soon surpassing Crow Wing, it was designated as the new county seat, drawing off more residents and businesses from what became known as a ghost town, Old Crow Wing. Crow Wing State Park encompasses much of the former village site along the river. Brainerd City was incorporated on 19 November 19, 1881, named for Lawrence Brainerd, the father-in-law of J. Gregory Smith, the first president of the Northern Pacific Railroad Company. Smith had served as governor of Vermont before moving west, he is called the founder of Brainerd. Lawrence Brainerd was the first president of the Vermont Central Railroad; the Northern Pacific Railroad ran a special train as its first service to Brainerd on March 11, 1871. Its regular passenger service began the next September; the first passenger train from the Twin Cities, by way of Sauk Rapids, did not arrive until November 1, 1877.
The Minnesota legislature on February 18, 1887 annexed a portion of Cass County to Crow Wing County, which doubled the former area of Crow Wing County. Crow Wing County has a total area of 1,157 square miles, of which 999 square miles is land and 157 square miles is water. Crow Wing County has the Crow Wing State Forest and the Emily State Forest; the Cuyuna Lakes State Trail lies in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. The topography of the region is rolling to flat wooded and dotted with waters and wetlands, it is home to an abundance of wildlife, including white-tailed deer, cottontail rabbit, snowshoe hare, red fox, gray fox, mink, squirrels, occasional American black bear, Bald eagle and many other waterfowl. The main river is the Mississippi River, there are several smaller streams in the county, it has about 417 recognized lakes. The top ten ranked according to size are: Gull Lake – 9,419 acres Pelican Lake – 8,254 acres Upper and Lower White Fish Lake – 7,372 acres North Long Lake – 5,997 acres Lake Edward – 2,576 acres Bay Lake – 2,393 acres Cross Lake – 1,752 acres Round Lake – 1,645 acres Big Trout Lake – 1,343 acres Lower South Long Lake – 1,312 acres The presence of railroads increased development in the county, but they brought environmental problems.
The Burlington Northern EPA Superfund site is here, between Baxter. Burlington Northern Railroad had a treatment plant here for railroad ties, to protect the wood from weather and insects. Wastewater generated from the wood-treating process was sent to unlined ponds; this created a sludge, which contaminated both the underlying soils and the groundwater with creosote and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 55,099 people, 22,250 households, 15,174 families in the county; the population density was 55.2/sqmi. There were 33,483 housing units at an average density of 33.5/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 97.64% White, 0.31% Black or African American, 0.78% Native American, 0.28% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.20% from other races, 0.78% from two or more races. 0.69% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 32.5% were of German, 16.4% Norwegian, 9.4% Swedish, 6.2% Irish and 5.2% American ancestry. There were 22,250 households out of which 30.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.70% were married couples living together, 8.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.80% were non-families.
26.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.93. The county population contained 24.80% under the age of 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 25.60% from 25 to 44, 24.40% from 45 to 64, 17.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 96.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,589, the median income for a family was $44,847. Males had a median income of $33,838 versus $22,896 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,174. About 6.50% of families and 9.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.40% of those under age 18 and 9.90% of those age 65 or
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate
Minnesota State Highway 371
This article is about the former routing of US 371 in Minnesota, now Minnesota State Highway 371. For the current US 371 in Arkansas and Louisiana, see U. S. Route 371. Minnesota State Highway 371 is a highway in north-central Minnesota; the route connects Minnesota's northern lakes region with the central part of the state. It runs south–north from U. S. Highway 10 in Little Falls to US 2 in Cass Lake. MN 371 has become a traveled arterial route, once a two-lane roadway over all of its length, but has been widened to four lanes across most of its southern half. Much of the traffic utilizing the route is Twin Cities-based traffic heading to their cabins on one of the many northern lakes. Highway 371 is 107 miles in length. MN 371 serves as a south–north route in central and north-central Minnesota between Little Falls, Brainerd, Pequot Lakes and Cass Lake. Highway 371 departs from US 10 at Little Falls heading to the north, paralleling the Mississippi River on the east side of the river. MN 371 is a freeway-standard route coming off of US 10 as it passes on the west side of the industrial sector of Little Falls.
The first interchange heading northbound is with Morrison County Road 46, the only interchange within the Little Falls area for the freeway portion. After Little Falls the route enters rural farmland, which will characterize the rest of the freeway portion of the route; the next interchange for Highway 371 is near the Fort Ripley military base where it meets MN 115 and CR 47 at a diamond interchange. MN 115 serves the military base to the west, it sat on the west side of Highway 371 before the interchange with Highway 115 was built in the early 2000s. This interchange with Highway 115 was the final piece to be completed in the Highway 371 freeway upgrade; the Highway 371 freeway ends a few miles north of Highway 115 at CR 48, but maintains a four-lane divided highway configuration. North of CR 48, Highway 371 crosses into Crow Wing County and enters the town of Fort Ripley, spending a short time passing through the center of the small town; the highway leaves Fort Ripley and continues north as the landscape becomes less farm-oriented and more forested.
After Fort Ripley the highway turns to the northeast for several miles and clips the southeast corner of Crow Wing State Park. A few more miles to the northeast, Highway 371 intersects Business Highway 371. In the year 2000, Highway 371 was moved onto the C. Elmer Anderson Memorial Highway, which bypasses Brainerd to the west, the old roadway into downtown Brainerd was redesignated Business Highway 371. Highway 371 itself turns back to the north and crosses the Mississippi River before entering Baxter, a smaller city just to the west of Brainerd. In Baxter, MN 371 intersects another major arterial route for northern Minnesota. Highway 371 heads north through the business district of Baxter enters the Gull Lake area, a popular tourist destination. Highway 371 crosses an intersection with CR 77 and CR 48. CR 77 is a three-quarter loop around Gull Lake to the west, while Highway 371 makes up the eastern quarter. Highway 371 passes north past several lakes along with many resorts, reaches the town of Nisswa at a junction with CR 77 and CR 13.
North of this intersection, Highway 371 reduces to a two-lane road, one lane in each direction, as the landscape becomes noticeably more forested. The next town on the route is Pequot Lakes, most famous for its fishing bobber water tower; the road leaves the otherwise small town. Several miles north of Pequot Lakes and after passing through the small town of Jenkins, MN 371 enters Cass County; the forested landscape subsides for a short while as Highway 371 comes to the town of Pine River, the largest town on the route between Brainerd and Walker, here Highway 371 intersects the southern terminus of MN 84. Highway 84 heads to the northeast to Chickamaw Beach and Longville while Highway 371 continues due north; the forests return as Highway 371 reaches the town of Backus, located on Pine Mountain Lake, where it meets MN 87 for a short concurrency. After Highway 87 splits off to the east just past Backus Airport, Highway 371 heads into rural forest for about 22 miles, broken only by the small town of Hackensack before reaching MN 200 just south of Walker, a regionally important city in northern Minnesota.
Highway 371 and Highway 200 begin an 8-mile concurrency at this intersection. The two pass the former Ah-gwah-ching facility, serviced by the unsigned MN 290. Highway 371 and Highway 200 concurrently reach downtown Walker, a town where travelers can find most amenities. In Walker is the eastern terminus of MN 34, which provides the main route between Walker, Park Rapids, Detroit Lakes to the west. Several miles northwest of Walker, Highway 200 splits off Highway 371, heading west towards Lake Itasca while Highway 371 stays heading north. Highway 371 will not intersect any more state highways on its mainline routing after this intersection. Meanwhile, the landscape now becomes less treelined and more hilly as the route progresses towards Cass Lake, the final city on Highway 371; the route enters Cass Lake from the south, passes through downtown and ends at U. S. Highway 2 just north of downtown. On August 7, 2006, the hi