St. Louis-style pizza
St. Louis-style pizza is a distinct type of pizza popular in the Midwestern American city of St. Louis and surrounding areas; the definitive characteristics of St. Louis-style pizza are a thin cracker-like crust made without yeast, the common use of Provel processed cheese, pizzas cut into squares or rectangles instead of wedges; the thin, cracker-like round crust is made without yeast, as opposed to a deep dish Chicago-style pizza or the thin but leavened New York-style pizza. The crust of a St. Louis pizza is somewhat crisp and cannot be folded so the pizza is cut into three- or four-inch squares or rectangles instead of the pie-like wedges typical of many pizza styles; this may be done. Some local restaurants make. St. Louis pizza is referred to as party or tavern cut. According to local legend, Ed Imo — founder of a prominent chain of St. Louis pizzerias — was a tile layer and cut his pizza accordingly. St. Louis-style pizza sometimes includes a white processed cheese known as Provel. Provel is a trademark for three cheeses fused to form one, used instead of the mozzarella or provolone common to other styles of pizza.
Provel cheese was developed by the St. Louis firm Costa Grocery in the 1950s and is made in Wisconsin for the St. Louis market; the cheese is not available outside the St. Louis area but can be made by combining Swiss, sharp cheddar and smoked provolone cheeses; the sauce is seasoned with more oregano than other pizza types. Despite its thin crust, St. Louis-style pizza can be layered with many different toppings because of the sturdiness of the cracker-like crust; some of the sauces have a sweetness to them, due to the influence of Sicilian immigrants upon Italian foods in St. Louis
Russells Point, Ohio
Russells Point is a village located in northwest Logan County, United States. The population was 1,391 at the 2010 census, it is situated on Indian Lake. A post office called Russells Point has been in operation since 1913; the village was named after owner of the town site. Russells Point is located at 40°28′13″N 83°53′39″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.01 square miles, of which, 0.93 square miles is land and 0.08 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,391 people, 618 households, 342 families residing in the village; the population density was 1,495.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,144 housing units at an average density of 1,230.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 97.3% White, 0.6% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 0.4% from other races, 1.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.1% of the population. There were 618 households of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.1% were married couples living together, 15.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 44.7% were non-families.
38.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.97. The median age in the village was 38 years. 25.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 48.6% male and 51.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,619 people, 727 households, 415 families residing in the village; the population density was 1,733.1 people per square mile. There were 1,081 housing units at an average density of 1,157.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 98.15% White, 0.12% African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.49% from other races, 0.62% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.42% of the population. There were 727 households out of which 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.5% were married couples living together, 13.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.8% were non-families.
37.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.91. In the village, the population was spread out with 26.7% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 24.5% from 25 to 44, 24.3% from 45 to 64, 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.6 males. The median income for a household in the village was $27,589, the median income for a family was $37,434. Males had a median income of $35,326 versus $21,667 for females; the per capita income for the village was $15,835. About 17.7% of families and 20.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.3% of those under age 18 and 13.3% of those age 65 or over. As of 2011, the incumbent mayor, Greg Iiams, was defeated by Robin Reames for the position of mayor; the village of Russells Point owns local low power WRPO, operated by Gray Fox Broadcasting as its locally originating community radio station.
Russells Point was the locale of the now defunct Sandy Beach Amusement Park, razed in 1982 after years of deterioration. It closed due to financial difficulties and declining patrons in 1972. A photo showing the arch-shaped steel footbridge, the remnant of the park, is posted to the right of this article. Due to its location on the south shore of Indian Lake, Russells Point includes several highways. U. S. Route 33 is the main street in Russells Point, State Routes 366 and 708 are important. State Route 720 begins on the northwestern side of the village. Maritime access is available at several commercial establishments, including restaurants, which have ports for docking. Detailed Logan County map
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region in the Southern United States, considered to be a part of the Middle Atlantic States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania to the north, Maryland to the east and northeast, Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest. West Virginia is the 41st largest state by area, is ranked 38th in population; the capital and largest city is Charleston. West Virginia became a state following the Wheeling Conventions of 1861, after the American Civil War had begun. Delegates from some Unionist counties of northwestern Virginia decided to break away from Virginia, although they included many secessionist counties in the new state. West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863, was a key border state during the war. West Virginia was the only state to form by separating from a Confederate state, the first to separate from any state since Maine separated from Massachusetts, was one of two states admitted to the Union during the American Civil War.
While a portion of its residents held slaves, most of the residents were yeomen farmers, the delegates provided for gradual abolition of slavery in the new state Constitution. The Census Bureau and the Association of American Geographers classify West Virginia as part of the Southern United States; however the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies West Virginia as a part of the Mid-Atlantic. The northern panhandle extends adjacent to Pennsylvania and Ohio, with the West Virginia cities of Wheeling and Weirton just across the border from the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, while Bluefield is less than 70 miles from North Carolina. Huntington in the southwest is close to the states of Ohio and Kentucky, while Martinsburg and Harpers Ferry in the Eastern Panhandle region are considered part of the Washington metropolitan area, in between the states of Maryland and Virginia; the unique position of West Virginia means that it is included in several geographical regions, including the Mid-Atlantic, the Upland South, the Southeastern United States.
It is the only state, within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The state is noted for its mountains and rolling hills, its significant logging and coal mining industries, its political and labor history, it is known for a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, including skiing, whitewater rafting, hiking, mountain biking, rock climbing, hunting. Many ancient man-made earthen mounds from various prehistoric mound builder cultures survive in the areas of present-day Moundsville, South Charleston, Romney; the artifacts uncovered in these give evidence of village societies. They had a tribal trade system culture. In the 1670s during the Beaver Wars, the powerful Iroquois, five allied nations based in present-day New York and Pennsylvania, drove out other American Indian tribes from the region in order to reserve the upper Ohio Valley as a hunting ground. Siouan language tribes, such as the Moneton, had been recorded in the area. A century the area now identified as West Virginia was contested territory among Anglo-Americans as well, with the colonies of Pennsylvania and Virginia claiming territorial rights under their colonial charters to this area before the American Revolutionary War.
Some speculative land companies, such as the Vandalia Company, the Ohio Company and Indiana Company, tried to legitimize their claims to land in parts of West Virginia and present day Kentucky, but failed. This rivalry resulted in some settlers petitioning the Continental Congress to create a new territory called Westsylvania. With the federal settlement of the Pennsylvania and Virginia border dispute, creating Kentucky County, Kentuckians "were satisfied, the inhabitants of a large part of West Virginia were grateful."The Crown considered the area of West Virginia to be part of the British Virginia Colony from 1607 to 1776. The United States considered this area to be the western part of the state of Virginia from 1776 to 1863, before the formation of West Virginia, its residents were discontented for years with their position in Virginia, as the government was dominated by the planter elite of the Tidewater and Piedmont areas. The legislature had electoral malapportionment, based on the counting of slaves toward regional populations, the western white residents were underrepresented in the state legislature.
More subsistence and yeoman farmers lived in the west and they were less supportive of slavery, although many counties were divided on their support. The residents of this area became more divided after the planter elite of eastern Virginia voted to secede from the Union during the Civil War. Residents of the western and northern counties set up a separate government under Francis Pierpont in 1861, which they called the Restored Government. Most voted to separate from Virginia, the new state was admitted to the Union in 1863. In 1864 a state constitutional convention drafted a constitution, ratified by the legislature without putting it to popular vote. West Virginia abolished slavery by a gradual process and temporarily disenfranchised men who had held Confederate office or fought for the Confederacy. West Virginia's history has been profoundly affected by its mountainous terrain and vast river valleys, rich natural resources; these were all factors driving its economy and the lifestyles of its residents, who tended to live in many small isolated communities in the mountain valleys.
A 2010 analysis of
Columbus is the state capital of and the most populous city in the U. S. state of Ohio. With a population of 879,170 as of 2017 estimates, it is the 14th-most populous city in the United States and one of the fastest growing large cities in the nation; this makes Columbus the third-most populous state capital in the US and the second-most populous city in the Midwest. It is the core city of the Columbus, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses ten counties. With a population of 2,078,725, it is Ohio's second-largest metropolitan area. Columbus is the county seat of Franklin County; the municipality has annexed portions of adjoining Delaware and Fairfield counties. Named for explorer Christopher Columbus, the city was founded in 1812 at the confluence of the Scioto and Olentangy rivers, assumed the functions of state capital in 1816; the city has a diverse economy based on education, insurance, defense, food, logistics, energy, medical research, health care, hospitality and technology.
Columbus Region is home to the Battelle Memorial Institute, the world's largest private research and development foundation. As of 2018 the city has the headquarters of four corporations in the U. S. Fortune 500: American Electric Power, Cardinal Health, L Brands and Big Lots, just out of the top 500. In 2016, Money Magazine ranked Columbus as one of "The 6 Best Big Cities", calling it the best in the Midwest, citing a educated workforce and excellent wage growth. In 2012, Columbus was ranked in BusinessWeek's 50 best cities in the United States. In 2013, Forbes gave Columbus an "A" grade as one of the top cities for business in the U. S. and that year included the city on its list of Best Places for Business and Careers. Columbus was ranked as the No. 1 up-and-coming tech city in the nation by Forbes in 2008, the city was ranked a top-ten city by Relocate America in 2010. In 2007, fDi Magazine ranked the city no. 3 in the U. S. for cities of the future, the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium was rated no. 1 in 2009 by USA Travel Guide.
The area including modern-day Columbus once comprised the Ohio Country, under the nominal control of the French colonial empire through the Viceroyalty of New France from 1663 until 1763. In the 18th century, European traders flocked to the area, attracted by the fur trade; the area found itself caught between warring factions, including American Indian and European interests. In the 1740s, Pennsylvania traders overran the territory. In the early 1750s, the Ohio Company sent George Washington to the Ohio Country to survey. Fighting for control of the territory in the French and Indian War became part of the international Seven Years' War. During this period, the region suffered turmoil and battles; the 1763 Treaty of Paris ceded the Ohio Country to the British Empire. After the American Revolution, the Virginia Military District became part of Ohio Country as a territory of Virginia. Colonists from the East Coast moved in, but rather than finding an empty frontier, they encountered people of the Miami, Wyandot and Mingo nations, as well as European traders.
The tribes resisted expansion by the fledgling United States. The decisive Battle of Fallen Timbers resulted in the Treaty of Greenville, which opened the way for new settlements. By 1797, a young surveyor from Virginia named Lucas Sullivant had founded a permanent settlement on the west bank of the forks of the Scioto River and Olentangy River. An admirer of Benjamin Franklin, Sullivant chose to name his frontier village "Franklinton"; the location was desirable for its proximity to navigable rivers—but Sullivant was foiled when, in 1798, a large flood wiped out the new settlement. He persevered, the village was rebuilt. After Ohio achieved statehood in 1803, political infighting among prominent Ohio leaders led to the state capital moving from Chillicothe to Zanesville and back again. Desiring to settle on a location, the state legislature considered Franklinton, Dublin and Delaware before compromising on a plan to build a new city in the state's center, near major transportation routes rivers.
Named in honor of Christopher Columbus, the city was founded on February 14, 1812, on the "High Banks opposite Franklinton at the Forks of the Scioto most known as Wolf's Ridge." At the time, this area was a dense forestland, used only as a hunting ground. The "Burough of Columbus" was established on February 10, 1816. Nine people were elected to fill the various positions of Mayor and several others. In 1816-1817, Jarvis W. Pike would serve as the 1st Mayor. Although the recent War of 1812 had brought prosperity to the area, the subsequent recession and conflicting claims to the land threatened the new town's success. Early conditions were abysmal with frequent bouts of fevers and an outbreak of cholera in 1833; the National Road reached Columbus from Baltimore in 1831, which complemented the city's new link to the Ohio and Erie Canal and facilitated a population boom. A wave of European immigrants led to the creation of two ethnic enclaves on the city's outskirts. A large Irish population settled in the north along Naghten Street, while the Germans took advantage of the cheap land to the south, creating a community that came to be known as t
Kettering is a city in Montgomery and Greene counties in the U. S. state of Ohio entirely in Montgomery County. It is a suburb of Dayton; as of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 56,163, making it the largest suburb in the Dayton Metropolitan Statistical Area. The area where the city of Kettering now lies was settled from the late 1700s to the mid-1800s as farmland; the population in the area started to grow, prompting the creation of Van Buren Township in 1841. In November 1952, township voters approved incorporating as the Village of Kettering.. By 1955, the village's population had grown to 38,118, which qualified it to claim city status, with the official proclamation by the state on June 24; the city is named for inventor Charles F. Kettering, who resided here in his home, Ridgeleigh Terrace, from 1914 until his death in 1958. Charles Kettering is known for his numerous contributions to the Dayton area. From the 1950s to the 1970s, Kettering's population continued to grow, adding more than 30,000 residents.
This growth was due in part to the many people who started migrating out of nearby Dayton after World War II. Since the 1980s, Kettering has seen a slow decline in population because of an aging population and loss of manufacturing jobs. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 18.72 square miles, of which 18.68 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. The city is bordered by Dayton and Oakwood to the north; as of the census of 2010, there were 56,163 people, 25,427 households, 14,979 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,006.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 27,602 housing units at an average density of 1,477.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.6% White, 3.3% African American, 0.2% Native American, 1.3% Asian, 0.5% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.1% of the population. There were 25,427 households of which 26.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.4% were married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.1% were non-families.
34.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.83. The median age in the city was 40.9 years. 21% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.7% male and 52.3% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 57,502 people, 25,657 households, 15,727 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,077.4 people per square mile. There were 26,936 housing units at an average density of 1,441.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.23% White, 1.66% African American, 0.18% Native American, 1.38% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.33% from other races, 1.19% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.11% of the population. There were 25,657 households out of which 26.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.7% were married couples living together, 9.5% have a single female householder, 38.7% were non-families.
33.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.85. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.5% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 29.4% from 25 to 44, 22.3% from 45 to 64, 18.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $45,051, the median income for a family was $55,849. Males had a median income of $41,558 versus $28,921 for females; the per capita income for the city was $27,009. About 3.2% of families and 4.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.3% of those under age 18 and 3.6% of those age 65 or over. The city utilizes a council-manager form of government. Seven council representatives are elected for four-year terms on a non-partisan basis.
They include the mayor, two at large members, one member from each of the four wards. The current Mayor is Don Patterson. Amy Schrimpf and William J Lautar are the current at-large council members; the current ward council members are: Rob Scott, Ward 1. The mayor and the at-large members' terms expire in 2017, the ward members' terms expire in 2015; the current City Manager is Mark Schwieterman. The Kettering Fire Department is responsible for fire protection in the city; the department has a total of six operational stations and is staffed by 54 career and 50 volunteer firefighters. The fire department is undergoing a transformation to reduce the number of stations to five. One station is being built on Far Hills Avenue, one will be located on the corner of East David Road and Hempstead Station Drive; the three others are in the planning stage. Police protection is provided by the Kettering Police Department; the police department is the only
Greyhound Lines, Inc. shortened to Greyhound, is an intercity bus common carrier serving over 3,800 destinations across North America. The company's first route began in Hibbing, Minnesota in 1914, the company adopted the Greyhound name in 1929. Since October 2007, Greyhound has been a subsidiary of British transportation company FirstGroup, but continues to be based in Dallas, where it has been headquartered since 1987. Greyhound and its sister companies in FirstGroup America are the largest motorcoach operators in the United States and Canada. Carl Eric Wickman was born in Sweden in 1887. In 1905, he moved to the United States where he worked as a drill operator at a mine in Alice, until he was laid off in 1914; that same year, he became a Hupmobile salesman in Minnesota. Although unsuccessful as a car salesman, Wickman used a 7-passenger car to begin a bus service with Andy "Bus Andy" Anderson and C. A. A. "Arvid" Heed in 1914. The fledgling company transported iron ore miners from Hibbing to Alice at 15 cents a ride.
In 1915, Wickman joined forces with Ralph Bogan, running a similar service from Hibbing to Duluth, Minnesota, to form the Mesaba Transportation Company. The company made $8,000 in profit in its first year. By the end of World War I in 1918, Wickman owned 18 buses and was making an annual profit of $40,000. In 1922, Wickman joined forces with the owner of Superior White Bus Lines. Four years Wickman purchased two West Coast operations, the Pioneer Yelloway System and the Pickwick Lines, creating a national intercity bus company; the Greyhound name had its origins in the inaugural run of a route from Superior, Wisconsin to Wausau, Wisconsin. While passing through a small town, Ed Stone, the route's operator, saw the reflection of his 1920s era bus in a store window; the reflection reminded him of a greyhound dog, he adopted that name for that segment of the Blue Goose Lines. The Greyhound name became popular and applied to the entire bus network. Stone became General Sales Manager of Yellow Truck and Coach, a division of General Motors, which built Greyhound buses.
As president of the company, Wickman continued to expand it so that by 1927, his buses were making transcontinental trips from California to New York. In 1928, Greyhound had a gross annual income of $6 million. In 1929, Greyhound acquired additional interests in the Gray Line and part of the Colonial Motor Coach Company to form Eastern Greyhound Lines. Greyhound acquired an interest in Northland Transportation Company and renamed it Northland Greyhound Lines. By 1930, more than 100 bus lines had been consolidated into what was called the Motor Transit Company. Recognizing the need for a more memorable name, the partners of the Motor Transit Company changed its name to The Greyhound Corporation after the Greyhound name used by earlier bus lines. Wickman's business suffered during the Great Depression, by 1931 was over $1 million in debt; as the 1930s progressed and the economy improved, Greyhound began to prosper again. In 1934, intercity bus lines carried 400,000,000 passengers—nearly as many passengers as the Class I railroads.
The film It Happened One Night — about an heiress traveling by Greyhound bus with a reporter — is credited by the company for spurring bus travel nationwide. In 1935, national intercity bus ridership climbed 50% to 651,999,000 passengers, surpassing the volume of passengers carried by the Class I railroads for the first time. In 1935 Wickman was able to announce record profits of $8 million. In 1936 the largest bus carrier in the United States, Greyhound began taking delivery of 306 new buses. To accommodate the rapid growth in bus travel, Greyhound built many new stations in the period between 1937 and 1945. To unify its brand image, it procured both buses and bus stations in the late Art Deco style known as Streamline Moderne starting in 1937. For terminals, Greyhound retained such architects as W. S. Arrasmith and George D. Brown. Notable examples of Streamline Moderne stations have been preserved in Blytheville, Cleveland, Columbia, South Carolina, Washington, D. C. Greyhound worked with the Yellow Coach Manufacturing Company for its streamlined Series 700 buses, first for Series 719 prototypes in 1934, from 1937 as the exclusive customer for Yellow's Series 743 bus.
Greyhound bought a total of 1,256 buses between 1937 and 1939. By the outbreak of World War II, the company had nearly 10,000 employees. Wickman retired as president of the Greyhound Corporation in 1946 and was replaced by his long-time partner Orville S. Caesar. Wickman died at the age of 66 in 1954. Greyhound commissioned noted industrial designer Raymond Loewy and General Motors to design several distinctive buses from the 1930s through the 1950s. Loewy's first was the GM PD-3751, the Greyhound Silversides produced in 1940 - 1941. 1954 saw the debut of the first of Greyhound's distinctive hump-backed buses. In 1944 Loewy had produced drawings for the GM GX-1, a full double-decker parlor bus with the first prototype built in 1953; the Scenicruiser was designed Loewy and built by General Motors as model PD-4501. The front of the bus was distinctly lower than its rear section. After World War II, the building of the Interstate Highway System beginning in 1956, automobile travel became a preferred mode of travel in the United States.
This, combined with the increasing affordability of air travel, spelled trouble for Greyhound and other intercity bus carriers. In October 1953, Greyhound announced the acquisition of the Tennessee Coach Company's entire operation, the negotiations fo
A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city. In most English-speaking countries, suburban areas are defined in contrast to central or inner-city areas, but in Australian English and South African English, suburb has become synonymous with what is called a "neighborhood" in other countries and the term extends to inner-city areas. In some areas, such as Australia, China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, a few U. S. states, new suburbs are annexed by adjacent cities. In others, such as Saudi Arabia, Canada and much of the United States, many suburbs remain separate municipalities or are governed as part of a larger local government area such as a county. Suburbs first emerged on a large scale in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of improved rail and road transport, which led to an increase in commuting. In general, they have lower population densities than inner city neighborhoods within a metropolitan area, most residents commute to central cities or other business districts.
Suburbs tend to proliferate around cities that have an abundance of adjacent flat land. The English word is derived from the Old French subburbe, in turn derived from the Latin suburbium, formed from sub and urbs; the first recorded usage of the term in English, was made by John Wycliffe in 1380, where the form subarbis was used, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. In Australia and New Zealand, suburbs have become formalised as geographic subdivisions of a city and are used by postal services in addressing. In rural areas in both countries, their equivalents are called localities; the terms inner suburb and outer suburb are used to differentiate between the higher-density areas in proximity to the city center, the lower-density suburbs on the outskirts of the urban area. The term'middle suburbs' is used. Inner suburbs, such as Te Aro in Wellington, Eden Terrace in Auckland, Prahran in Melbourne and Ultimo in Sydney, are characterised by higher density apartment housing and greater integration between commercial and residential areas.
In New Zealand, most suburbs are not defined which can lead to confusion as to where they may begin and end. Although there is a geospatial file defining suburbs for use by emergency services developed and maintained by Fire and Emergency New Zealand, in collaboration with other government agencies, to date this file has not been released publicly. New Zealand company Koordinates Limited requested access to the geospatial file under the Official Information Act 1982 but this request was rejected by the New Zealand Fire Service on the basis that it would prejudice the health & safety of, or cause material loss, to the public. In September 2014 a decision was made by the Ombudsman of New Zealand ruling that the New Zealand Fire Service refusal to release the geospatial file without agreeing to terms which included, among other restrictions, a prohibition on redistribution of the geospatial file, was reasonable. In the United Kingdom and in Ireland, suburb refers to a residential area outside the city centre, regardless of administrative boundaries.
Suburbs, in this sense, can range from areas that seem more like residential areas of a city proper to areas separated by open countryside from the city centre. In large cities such as London and Leeds, suburbs include separate towns and villages that have been absorbed during a city's growth and expansion, such as Ealing and Guiseley. In the United States and Canada, suburb can refer either to an outlying residential area of a city or town or to a separate municipality or unincorporated area outside a town or city; the earliest appearance of suburbs coincided with the spread of the first urban settlements. Large walled towns tended to be the focus around which smaller villages grew up in a symbiotic relationship with the market town; the word'suburbani' was first used by the Roman statesman Cicero in reference to the large villas and estates built by the wealthy patricians of Rome on the city's outskirts. Towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the capital, was occupied by the emperor and important officials.
As populations grew during the Early Modern Period in Europe, urban towns swelled with a steady influx of people from the countryside. In some places, nearby settlements were swallowed up as the main city expanded; the peripheral areas on the outskirts of the city were inhabited by the poorest. Due to the rapid migration of the rural poor to the industrialising cities of England in the late 18th century, a trend in the opposite direction began to develop; this trend accelerated through the 19th century in cities like London and Manchester that were growing and the first suburban districts sprung up around the city centres to accommodate those who wanted to escape the squalid conditions of the industrial towns. Toward the end of the century, with the development of public transit systems such as the underground railways and buses, it became possible for the majority of the city's population to reside outside the city and to commute into the